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Darwin Correspondence Project

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To Asa Gray   24 November [1856]

Summary

Variability of naturalised plants.

Distribution of Arctic/alpine plant species.

Limits to the northern range of plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  24 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (5)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1999

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   24 November [1856] …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …
  • … refers to the first part of A.  Gray 1856–7 . See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] . …
  • … See letter from Asa Gray, 23 September 1856 . …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (5) Charles Robert Darwin Down 24 Nov [1856] Asa Gray
  • … Dated by the reference to the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . …
  • … Letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . …
  • … See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] and n.  5. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18  …

To Asa Gray   14 July [1856]

Summary

Asks whether Allegheny Mountains are sufficiently continuous so that plants could travel from north to south along them.

Hopes AG’s work on geographical distribution is progressing, as he has questions on plants common to Europe which do not range up to Arctic.

Are intermediate varieties less numerous in individuals than the varieties they connect?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  14 July [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1926

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   14 July [1856] …
  • … s comments in letter to J.   D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . Letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . …
  • … Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1842. Notes of a botanical excursion to the …
  • … Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 14 July [1856] Asa Gray
  • … 37; 2 (1843): 113-25; 3 (1844): 230–42. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . …
  • … See letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] , and the letters exchanged between Gray and CD in …

From Asa Gray   4 November 1856

Summary

Outlines the ranges of northern U. S. species common to Europe. Hopes to investigate the resemblances between the floras of the north-eastern U. S. and western Europe. Discusses routes by which alpine plants appear to have reached U. S.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1982

Matches: 11 hits

  • Gray, Asa Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From Asa Gray   4 November 1856 …
  • … DAR 165: 95 Asa Gray Cambridge Mass. 4 Nov 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Paris: Victor Mason. Geneva: J. Kessmann. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of …
  • … In his letter to Asa Gray, 24 August [1856] , CD had indicated that he considered the …
  • … found to range northwards (see letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] ). When he received …
  • … plants, he added the comment: ‘( No . give Asa Gray’s facts, far more accurate)’ and wrote …
  • … in the margin, ‘dele’. Letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , in which CD referred to the …
  • … which the introduced species belonged (see letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] ). A.   …
  • … Gray 1856a. See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , n.  6. Gray refers to [J.  D. …
  • … I am much pressed for time. — Yours ever | Asa Gray Kindly post enclosures—putting that to …

To Asa Gray   24 August [1856]

Summary

Rarity of intermediate varieties.

Variability of introduced plants.

Ranges of plants common to Europe and U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  24 Aug [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (36)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1944

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   24 August [1856] …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (36) Charles Robert Darwin Down 24 Aug [1856] Asa Gray
  • … Letter from Asa Gray, [early August 1856] , which CD had marked ‘Received Aug 20 th . / …
  • … Thomas Vernon Wollaston. See letter to Asa Gray, 14 July [1856] . CD discussed the point …
  • … supplied by Gray (see letter from Asa Gray, 4 November [1856] ). The number 321 refers to …
  • … forwarded to CD enclosed in the letter from Asa Gray, [early August 1856] . Gray addressed …

To Asa Gray   12 October [1856]

Summary

Thanks AG for the first part of his "Statistics [of the flora of the northern U. S.", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369–403]

and for information on social and varying plants.

Would like to know number of genera of introduced plants in U. S.

Is surprised at some affinities of northern U. S. flora and asks for any climatic explanations.

Asks what proportion of genera common to U. S. and Europe are mundane.

Is glad AG will work out the northern ranges of the European species and the ranges of species with regard to size of genera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  12 Oct [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (6)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1973

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   12 October [1856] …
  • … Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (6) Charles Robert Darwin Down 12 Oct [1856] Asa Gray
  • … by the reference to A.  Gray 1856–7  and to the letter from Asa Gray, 23 September 1856 . …
  • … Letter from Asa Gray, 23 September 1856 . A.  Gray 1856–7 . CD’s annotated copy is in DAR …
  • … p.  539). Later he added the note: ‘Asa Gray thinks there are not a few plants common to …
  • … selection , p.  232. See letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . See Correspondence vol.   …
  • … Certainly J.D.H. ’. See also letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . Gray did not give the …

From Asa Gray   23 September 1856

Summary

Plants that are social in the U. S. but are not so in the Old World.

Distribution of U. S. species common to Europe.

Gives Theodor Engelmann’s opinion on the relative variability of indigenous and introduced plants and notes the effects of man’s settlement on the numbers and distribution of indigenous plants.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 94
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1959

Matches: 7 hits

  • Gray, Asa Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From Asa Gray   23 September 1856 …
  • … DAR 165: 94 Asa Gray Cambridge, Mass. 23 Sept 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … University Press; Humphrey Milford. 1928–95. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of …
  • … andmeteorologist ( DAB ). See letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . ‘Maruta=Anthemis’ was …
  • … copy is in DAR 135 (3). See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , for CD’s response to …
  • … plant there. Yours most faithfully Asa Gray I suppose the sea is not harmful to you. As to …

From Asa Gray   [early August 1856]

Summary

Believes intermediate varieties are generally less numerous in individuals than the two states that they connect.

Discusses the difficulties of deciding what is the typical form of a species

and gives some opinions on the variability of introduced species compared with indigenous species.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [early Aug 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 93
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1934

Matches: 5 hits

  • Gray, Asa Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From Asa Gray   [early August 1856] …
  • … DAR 165: 93 Asa Gray unstated [early Aug 1856] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the …
  • … expect from Yours most | sincerely | Asa Gray crossed pencil scored brown crayon ; ‘Q’ …

To Asa Gray   2 May [1856]

Summary

Suggests affinities of the U. S. flora that he considers would be worth investigating. Wants to know the ranges of species in large and small genera.

Questions AG on naturalised plants; whether any are social in U. S. which are not so elsewhere and how variable they are compared with indigenous species. Would like to know of any differences in the variability of species at different points of their ranges and also the physical states of plants at the extremes of their ranges.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  2 May [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1863

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   2 May [1856] …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (4) Charles Robert Darwin Down 2 May [1856] Asa Gray
  • … Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the …
  • … see Correspondence vol.  5, letter to Asa Gray, 24 August [1855] ). Gray was preparing the …

To J. D. Hooker   18 November [1856]

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Summary

CD encloses letter from Asa Gray, although it is critical of JDH.

Role of struggle in forming species in retreat from advancing glaciers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  18 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 183
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1991

Matches: 5 hits

  • … CD encloses letter from Asa Gray, although it is critical of JDH. Role of struggle in …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 (see n.  2, …
  • … below). A letter to Hooker from Asa Gray, sent by Gray to CD …
  • … enclosed in the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . …
  • … Letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [16 November …

From J. D. Hooker   [26 June or 3 July 1856]

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Summary

Can no longer make out story of NW. American plants; consulting Asa Gray.

Questionable validity of seed-salting experiments.

Aristolochia and Viscum seem to shed pollen before flower opens.

Ray Society should only do translations.

Thomas Thomson in India has rediscovered Aldrovanda, a rare relative of Drosera.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 June or 3 July] 1856
Classmark:  DAR 104: 197
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1911

Matches: 4 hits

  • … story of NW. American plants; consulting Asa Gray. Questionable validity of seed-salting …
  • … to Siberian Asia. I am however writing to Asa Gray & will ask him if he can give any …
  • … after receiving this letter, CD wrote on his own account to Asa Gray asking the same …
  • … question (see letter to Asa Gray, 14 July [1856] ). Hooker was mistaken in his observation …

To James Dwight Dana   21 December [1856]

Summary

Thanks for sending paper on geological development (Dana 1856). Discusses infertility of species. Discusses first part of Asa Gray’s paper (A. Gray 1856–7). Thanks for note on the Cave Rat. Discusses a new species of fossil cirripede, in the genus Chthamalus. Explains his interest in pigeon breeding.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Dwight Dana
Date:  21 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  Catherine Barnes (dealer) (2003)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2020F

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of species. Discusses first part of Asa Gray’s paper (A.  Gray 1856–7). Thanks for note on …
  • … utterly (Latin). Coral reefs. CD refers to Asa Gray and the first part of A.  Gray 1856– …
  • … see Correspondence vol.  6, letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] . CD’s annotated copy of …

From H. C. Watson   20 June 1856

Summary

Conveys [? J. T. I. Boswell-]Syme’s opinion of variability of agrarian weeds and ranges of species common to U. S. and W. Europe. The Hispano-Hibernian connection.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 181: 34
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1907

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1848. A manual of the botany of the northern …
  • … of Natural selection concerning this point: ‘Asa Gray thinks there are not a few plants …

From Hewett Cottrell Watson   5 June 1856

Summary

Answers CD’s questions about plants common to U. S. and Britain and their distribution in Europe.

Variability of agrarian weeds.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 181: 32
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1891

Matches: 2 hits

  • … discussion, adding in the margin: ‘No give Asa Gray’s facts, far more accurate’ ( ibid. , …
  • … p.  539 n.  2). See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] . See the second part of the …

From J. D. Hooker   22 November 1856

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Summary

Continued debate on formation of species as a result of retreat from glaciers.

JDH suggests internal powers of species modification, which he knows CD abhors.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 111–12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1995

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 23 November [1856] ). See letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 , which CD had sent to …

From J. D. Dana   8 December 1856

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Summary

Agassiz has informed him that the mice and rats of Mammoth Cave are American in type.

Alludes to CD’s doubt of the principle that "progress of life on the globe is parallel with the development in different tribes". Outlines his own ideas on the "unfolding of the type-idea" and its "parallelism with the law of development in the embryo".

Author:  James Dwight Dana
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Dec 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 378
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2016

Matches: 1 hit

  • … fauna in Agassiz 1851. Agassiz and Asa Gray were both professors at Harvard University. …

To J. D. Hooker   30 July [1856]

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Summary

CD’s predicament with continental extensions: they would remove argument for multiple creations, yet he opposes the doctrine. Lyell will not express an opinion on this.

Lyell fears mutability would lead to more specific names.

Encloses copy of letters to Lyell [1910 and 1917].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  30 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 172, 165, and 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1933

Matches: 1 hit

  • … to leave for a holiday in Switzerland (see letter from Asa Gray, [early August 1856] ). …
Document type
letter (16)
Date
1856
05 (1)
06 (3)
07 (2)
08 (2)
09 (1)
10 (1)
11 (4)
12 (2)