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Darwin Correspondence Project

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From George M’Ilvaine Ramsey   5 April 1869

Summary

Describes the work he is writing, Cosmology (Ramsay 1870).

Author:  George M’Ilvaine Ramsey
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  05 Apr 1869
Classmark:  DAR 271.6: 3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6692F

Matches: 4 hits

  • … in Crumrine 1882 , p.  959). See also Ramsey 1877 . Ramsey wrote: ‘Atmospheric motion is …
  • … Earth, [is] the result of atmospheric pressure and motion’ ( Ramsey 1877 , pp.  3, 10). …
  • … White and Co. Ramsey, George M’Ilvaine. 1877. Overturning the world; or, cause and effects …
  • … 15 June 1876; this was published as Ramsey 1877 . See also Ramsey 1897 . Diurnal motion is …

From A. R. Wallace   23 June [1869]

Summary

Asks whether sexual selection could produce the changing plumules or "battledore" scales on the wings of certain butterflies.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 June [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B81–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6797

Matches: 2 hits

  • … be scent-producing scales (see letter from Fritz Müller, 19 October 1877 ( Calendar no.   …
  • … 11191), which was published in Nature 17 (1877): 78). Frederick F.  Geach had sent CD …

From Camille Dareste   13 December [1869]

Summary

CD’s letter on his behalf made a great impression, but his candidacy nevertheless failed, largely owing to the hostility of Claude Bernard. CD’s opinion sustains his belief that his work will be a service to science.

Author:  Gabriel-Madeleine-Camille (Camille) Dareste
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 Dec [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 162: 46
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7028

Matches: 2 hits

  • … artificielle des monstruosités, ou essai de tératogénie expérimentale ( Dareste 1877 ). …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Dareste, Camille. 1877. Recherches sur la production artificielle …

To William Bowman   16 May [1869–81]

Summary

"I shall not be in London on Monday, but I have written to my Brother to ask him to aid you"

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bowman, 1st baronet
Date:  16 May [1869-81]
Classmark:  George Houle Autographs (dealer) (Catalogue 61 or 81, March 1992)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13781

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 16 May 1874 16 May 1875 16 May 1876 16 May 1877 16 May 1878 16 May 1879 16 May 1880 16 May …

To ?   2 May [1869 or later]

Summary

"When a man has laboured hard in science & has proved that he is capable of original research, he may [some]times indulge in speculation [&] the public will indulge him. But even in this case it is a common error to speculate too largely, for speculation is far easier than observation or experiments . . ."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  2 May [1869-82]
Classmark:  Sotheby’s (dealers) (28 March 1983)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13866A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2 May 1874 2 May 1875 2 May 1876 2 May 1877 2 May 1878 2 May 1879 2 May 1880 2 May 1881 2 …

From R. F. Cooke   29 April 1869

Summary

Confirms a request by CD that Murray’s supply electrotypes of Orchids at most reasonable possible price.

Author:  Robert Francis Cooke; John Murray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Apr 1869
Classmark:  DAR 171: 369
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6719

Matches: 1 hit

  • … language edition was published until 1877. The letter probably concerns the projected …

To Alexander Goodman More   24 June [1869]

Summary

Asks AGM to observe fertilisation of Epipactis palustris. Has found that E. latifolia is fertilised by wasps.

Making revisions for French edition of Orchids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  24 June 1869
Classmark:  DAR 146: 408
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6801

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

To W. E. Darwin   7 [July 1869]

Summary

Thanks him for his excellent observations [on Epipactis?]; would like WED to watch for some large insect visiting the plant.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  7 [July 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 130
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6819

Matches: 1 hit

  • … fertilised by insects. By Charles Darwin. 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. …

From W. E. Darwin   12 July 1869

Summary

Bees visiting Epipactis.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 July 1869
Classmark:  DAR 162: 101
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6826

Matches: 1 hit

  • … fertilised by insects. By Charles Darwin. 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. …

To Louis Rérolle   2 August [1869]

Summary

Gives the definition of ‘distal’ and explains what ‘thrips’ are. Suggests that LR uses his descretion in his translation of Orchids about certain descriptive phrases such as ‘saddle-formed’, but suggests he use them each at least once.

Declines offer to look over LR’s translation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Louis Rérolle
Date:  2 Aug [1869]
Classmark:  Aguttes (dealers) (20 February 2020, lot 240)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6848F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

To Asa Gray   1 June [1869]

Summary

Thanks for answers about expression.

Is going to N. Wales to recover after his riding accident.

New edition of Origin.

French edition of Orchids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  1 June [1869]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (86a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6767

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

From J. D. Hooker   18 January 1869

thumbnail

Summary

Replies to CD’s questions. Advice on use of term "morphology". Is much struck by CD’s idea that uniformity of an organ throughout a group implies functional inutility; the paradox of this position for classification.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Jan 1869
Classmark:  DAR 103: 4–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6560

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

To Fritz Müller   14 March 1869

Summary

Translation of Für Darwin has been published [Facts and arguments for Darwin (1869)].

Discusses dimorphic plants, commenting on FM’s observations on Oxalis.

Is greatly interested in Eschscholzia, which seems somewhat more self-sterile in Brazil than in England.

Thinks FM’s grass is "most wonderful".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  14 Mar 1869
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 27)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6662

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. Journal of researches 2d ed. : Journal of …

From Alfred Russel Wallace   20 January 1869

Summary

Dedication of Malay Archipelago to CD.

Comments on scientific papers.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Jan 1869
Classmark:  DAR 106: B73–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6561

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. [Geikie, Archibald. ] 1868a. Sir Roderick …

From Fritz Müller   15 June 1869

Summary

FM much gratified by the appearance of Für Darwin translation.

Discusses dimorphism in Rubiaceae.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 June 1869
Classmark:  DAR 110: B115; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Directors’ Correspondence 215/175)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6783

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. [Leifchild, John R. ] 1869. [Review of Facts …

From Fritz Müller   18 December 1869

Summary

Discusses dimorphic and trimorphic plants; mentions especially Rubiaceae and a dimorphic monocotyledon.

Notes observations on the monstrous male flowers of Begonia,

and on self-sterile plants.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Dec 1869
Classmark:  DAR 109: B125–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7029

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. Gärtner, Karl Friedrich von. 1844. Versuche …

From Federico Delpino   1 November 1869

Summary

Comments on Hermann Crüger’s paper, sent by CD, on fertilisation of orchids [J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 8 (1865): 127–35].

Observations on dichogamy in grasses (wheat, rye, barley).

Has not yet read CD’s reply to his article on Pangenesis [Collected papers 2: 158–60].

Author:  Federico Delpino
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Nov 1869
Classmark:  DAR 162: 145
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6965

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

From J. T. Moggridge   12 December 1869

Summary

Sends seeds of Lathyrus and suggests an advantage of climbing plants is to shed their seeds in places secure from animals.

Contrary to F. Delpino, in JTM’s experience Ophrys aranifera is not sterile. However, seed germination is poor.

In a densely overgrown plot Convolvulus sabatius, not normally a twiner, becomes one.

Continues his extensive study on variability in Arbutus, and speculates on selection in fruit shape.

Author:  John Traherne Moggridge
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Dec 1869
Classmark:  DAR 171: 214
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7027

Matches: 1 hit

  • … fertilised by insects. By Charles Darwin. 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. …
Document type
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Date
1869
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Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … , Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and …
  • … from a family that the Darwins had befriended. The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. …
  • … of a very heavy shower’, William wrote on 24 August 1877 . ‘The leaves were not at all depressed; …
  • … gardeners ( letter from W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 25 August 1877 ). At Down House, Darwin and …
  • … a delicate twig’ ( letter to R. I. Lynch, 14 September 1877 ). Research on movement would continue …
  • … of some Infusoria’ ( letter from F. J. Cohn, 5 August 1877 ). Francis’s paper eventually appeared …
  • … wrote to the editor, George Croom Robertson, on 27 April 1877 , ‘I hope that you will be so good …
  • … had written to the editor Ernst Ludwig Krause on 30 June 1877 , ‘I have been much interested by …
  • … the German debate (letters to W. E. Gladstone, 2 October 1877 and 25 October [1877] ). …
  • … and lively’ ( letter from W. E. Gladstone, 23 October 1877 ). Gifts of German and Dutch …
  • … Darwin and Ernst Haeckel). Writing to Darwin on 11 March 1877 , Krause declared the journal ‘an …
  • … the director, Adriaan Anthoni van Bemmelen, on 12 February 1877 : ‘I suppose that every worker at …
  • … of his 70th year. Darwin was in fact 68 on 12 February 1877. Distinguished guests and …
  • … & smooth as butter’ ( letter to C. E. Norton, 16 March 1877 ). Hooker was asked repeatedly by …
  • … & me to dejeuner!!!’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 14 June 1877 ). Darwin was staying in …
  • … centuries to come’ ( letter from C. C. Graham, 30 January 1877 ). Graham then gave a lengthy …
  • … man and of societies’ ( letter from Marcellin de Bonnal, [1877] ). A similar complaint came from …
  • … by a duke!’ ( letter to J. M. Rodwell, 3 June 1877 ). Back home, he learned from his brother that …
  • … order of the day’ ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 27 January [1877] ).  Carlyle’s remarks were …
  • … . In a letter from an unknown correspondent on 13 June 1877 , he was criticised for having quoted …
  • … monstrosity ( letter from C. T. E. Siebold, 10 October 1877 ). An American banker, William Burrows …
  • … back our civilization’ ( letter from W. B. Bowles, 17 May 1877 ). Bowles proposed that such …
  • … of humanity beneath’ ( letter from W. B. Bowles, 18 May 1877 ). More transitional human …
  • … inflexible tails ( letter from Arthur Mellersh, 1 January 1877 ). The American physician Jesse …
  • … (Trollope 1867; letter to G. J. Romanes, [1 and 2 December 1877] ). Dispute and …
  • … George and Francis. He wrote to Francis on 24 September 1877 about his forthcoming work, Life …
  • … value’, he confessed in a letter of 25 November 1877 that the book had ‘resolved itself into a …
  • … physical’ ( letter from W. M. Moorsom, 10 September 1877 ). Darwin was doubtful of the elephant …

Photograph album of German and Austrian scientists

Summary

The album was sent to Darwin to mark his birthday on 12 February 1877 by the civil servant Emil Rade, and contained 165 portraits of German and Austrian scientists. The work was lavishly produced and bound in blue velvet with metal embossing. Its ornate…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … album was sent to Darwin to mark his birthday on 12 February 1877 by the civil servant Emil Rade …
  • … have ever received ( Letter to Ernst Haeckel, 16 February 1877 )     …
  • … the start of his 70th year, but Darwin was only 68 in 1877. Despite this oversight, the album …
  • … world.— ( Letter from Leonard Blomefield, 12 March 1877 ) Familiar faces Ernst …
  • … with the final album. He wrote to Darwin on 9 February 1877 : ‘what will perhaps astonish you is …
  • … worth to give you ( Letter from J. V. Carus, 22 March 1877 )  The professor of …
  • … scientific work. ( Letter from C. G. Semper, 26 April 1877 ) Carl Kraus, an …

1877 letters now online

Summary

Flowers, bloom, a son married . . . and a suspended monkey in Cambridge at Darwin's honorary LLD ceremony. The transcripts and footnotes of over 600 letters written to and from Darwin in 1877 are now online. Read more about Darwin's life in 1877…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of  over 600 letters written to and from Darwin in 1877  are now online. Read more about  Darwin& …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the …
  • … lasting pleasure. ( Letter to Pieter Harting, 19 March 1877 ) Harting had also written …
  • … it states his ‘69th Birthday’, when in fact he was 68 in 1877. It was arranged in alphabetical order …
  • … from A. A. van Bemmelen and H. J.  Veth, 6 February 1877 ) Dutch correspondents …
  • … ( Letter from C. W. Thomson, 30 June 1877 ) Much earlier, in 1861, Tiberius Cornelis …

German and Dutch photograph albums

Summary

Darwin Day 2018: To celebrate Darwin's 209th birthday, we present two lavishly produced albums of portrait photographs which Darwin received from continental admirers 141 years ago. These unusual gifts from Germany and the Netherlands are made…

Matches: 3 hits

  • …   In 1877, Charles Darwin was sent some unusual birthday presents: two lavishly …
  • … conferred on me ( Letter to Otto Zacharias, [24 February 1877] ) The two albums …
  • … sympathy. ( Letter to A. A. van Bemmelen, 12 February 1877 )  View the Dutch album …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … tiredness of the later years (e.g. letter to E.M. Dicey, [1877] ). Working …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 11074: Sayce, A. H. to Darwin, C. R., 27 July 1877 Darwin’s study of human nature …

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Charles Harrison Blackley

Summary

You may not have heard of Charles Harrison Blackley (1820–1900), but if you are one of the 15 million people in the UK who suffer from hay fever, you are indebted to him. For it was he who identified pollen as the cause of the allergy. Darwin was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … grains by a dilution method.  In his letter of 9 March 1877 , Darwin wrote: ‘Your calculation of …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to …
  • … and forenames Occupation Age in 1877 Residence Date …
  • … Leiden 13 June 1823 Rotterdam 2 June 1877 Zoeterwoude …
  • … 5 October 1808 Wildenborch 4 June 1877 Klein Dochteren …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 10746 – Darwin to Dicey, E. M., [1877] Darwin gives his opinion on the …
  • … Letter 11267f – Darwin, S. to Darwin, [3 December 1877] Darwin’s daughter-in-law …

Exercise: Caricatures of Science

Summary

Caricatures provide intriguing insights into both ideals and transgressions of gender. The following six images show caricatured representations of nineteenth-century men and women of science. They provide insight into the boundaries of what was deemed …

Matches: 1 hits

  • …   Lydia Becker (1877) Caricature of Lydia Becker from …

Floral Dimorphism

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Floral studies In 1877 Darwin published a book that included a series of smaller studies on botanical subjects. Titled The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, it consisted primarily of…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … | Experiment Floral studies In 1877 Darwin published a book that included a …
  • … findings on floral dimorphism were eventually published in 1877, but these experiments and …
  • … SOURCES Book Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the …
  • … experiment, the class read chapter 1 of Charles Darwin’s 1877 T he Different Forms of …
  • … Flowers on Plants of the Same Species (London: John Murray, 1877), 16. [2] Ibid., 30. …

German poems presented to Darwin

Summary

Experiments in deepest reverence The following poems were enclosed with a photograph album sent as a birthday gift to Charles Darwin by his German and Austrian admirers (see letter from From Emil Rade, [before 16] February 1877). The poems were…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … (see letter from From Emil Rade , [before 16] February 1877). The poems were composed by …
  • … in Rade’s account of the making of the album (Rade 1877, pp. 39–40), but the others were published …
  • … Letter from Emil Rade 1    [before 16] February 1877 2 Münster i./Westf. …
  • … From Emil Rade   [before 16] February 1877 2 Münster i./Westf. February 1877. …
  • … this letter and the letter to Emil Rade, 16 February 1877. 3. The gift was a photograph …
  • … Appendix VI. A number of other poems were included in Rade 1877.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 4 hits

  • … album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the …
  • … Title and forenames Occupation Age in 1877 Residence Date of birth …
  • … Leiden 13 june 1823 Rotterdam 2 june 1877 Zoeterwoude …
  • … 5 october 1808 Wildenborch 4 june 1877 Klein Dochteren …

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 11096 - Darwin to Romanes, G. J., [9 August 1877] Darwin points out a mistake made …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … published his findings both in Expression and in an 1877 article titled, ‘ A Biographical …
  • … Letter 10821 - Graham C. C. to Darwin, [30 January 1877] Psychologist Christopher Graham …

Dipsacus and Drosera: Frank’s favourite carnivores

Summary

In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching aggregation in the tentacles of Drosera rotundifolia (F. Darwin 1876). This phenomenon occurs when coloured particles within either protoplasm or the fluid in the cell vacuole (the cell sap) cluster…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … and proofreading Darwin’s second edition of  Orchids  (1877). By January of the following …
  • … ( Dipsacus sylvestris )’ at the Royal Society on 1 March 1877 (F. Darwin 1877a). His address was …
  • … and a plate of sixteen figures, was published in July 1877 in the  Quarterly Journal of …
  • … the journal by the end of the month ( Nature , 23 August 1877, p. 339). Although, as Darwin …
  • … to his father’s beloved  Drosera rotundifolia  in June 1877, finding sundews that had been ‘fed’ …
  • … Grant.   References Darwin, C. 1877. The Contractile Filaments of the …
  • … teasel ( Dipsacus sylvestris ). (Abstract.) [Read 1 March 1877.]  Proceedings of the Royal …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 11221 - Darwin to Darwin, H., [1 November 1877] Darwin asks his sons, …

People featured in the German and Austrian photograph album

Summary

Biographical details of people from the Habsburg Empire that appeared in the album of German and Austrian scientists sent to Darwin on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Johannes Mattes for providing these details and for permission to make his…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … and Austrian scientists sent to Darwin on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Johannes …
  • …  in Linz (1871), Vienna (1873) and Prostějov (1877). M. Pichler: Notice of death. In: …
  • … of Vienna (Dr., 1873). Habilitation in palaeontology (1877) and geology (1880) at the Technical …
  • … (1859), geologist (1873) and finally chief geologist (1877) and  Bergrat  of the Imperial …
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