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To Karl von Scherzer   22 September 1876

Summary

Thanks for sending Moritz Wagner’s letter and his essays [on "Der Naturprocess der Artbildung" in Das Ausland (1875)]. Will read them and write to Wagner when his health is better.

Declines to receive Scherzer at Down.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Karl von Scherzer
Date:  22 Sept 1876
Classmark:  Smithsonian Libraries (Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology MSS 405 A. Gift of the Burndy Library)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10613

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Naturprocess der Artbildung" in Das Ausland (1875)]. Will read them and write to Wagner …
  • … Bibliography Wagner, Moritz. 1875. Der Naturproceß der Artbildung. …
  • … Das Ausland , 31 May 1875, pp. …
  • … 425–8; 7 June 1875, pp. …
  • … 449–52; 14 June 1875, pp. …
  • … 473–5; 21 June 1875, pp. …
  • … 490–3; 28 June 1875, pp. …
  • … 513–16; 19 July 1875, pp. …
  • … 570–5; 26 July 1875, pp. 589–93. Wagner, Moritz. 1889. Die Entstehung der Arten durch …
  • … der Artbildung’ (The natural process of species formation; Wagner 1875 ) appeared between …
  • … May and July 1875 in Das Ausland . It was later reprinted in a posthumous collection of …

To Moritz Wagner   13 October 1876

Summary

Comments on essays by MW [Das Ausland, May 1875]. Criticises his theory of isolation as source of species change: "But my strongest objection to your theory is that it does not explain the manifold adaptations in structure in every organic being". Believes MW has misunderstood his views: "I believe that all the individuals of a species can be slowly modified within the same district … I do not believe that one species will give birth to two or more new species, as long as they are mingled together within the same district."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Moritz Friedrich (Moritz) Wagner
Date:  13 Oct 1876
Classmark:  DAR 148: 198; LL 3: 159
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10643

Matches: 12 hits

  • … it the name Saturnia bolli (see Wagner 1875 , pp. 491–2). The text of this letter down …
  • … Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Wagner, Moritz. 1875. Der Naturproceß der Artbildung. …
  • … Das Ausland , 31 May 1875, pp. …
  • … 425–8; 7 June 1875, pp. …
  • … 449–52; 14 June 1875, pp. …
  • … 473–5; 21 June 1875, pp. …
  • … 490–3; 28 June 1875, pp. …
  • … 513–16; 19 July 1875, pp. …
  • … 570–5; 26 July 1875, pp. 589–93. …
  • … Comments on essays by MW [ Das Ausland , May 1875]. Criticises his theory of isolation as …
  • … formation in September 1876 ( Wagner 1875 ; see letter to Karl von Scherzer, 22 September …
  • … passive, were increased (see Wagner 1875 , pp. 451–2). Picus is a genus of woodpeckers; …

To G. H. Darwin   [after 4 September 1876]

Summary

Has received a baffling article on God, immortality, and socialism under a Darwinian point of view.

Clerk Maxwell has disagreed with CD on molecular calculations in relation to Pangenesis in Encyclopaedia Britannica article ["Atom", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed. (1875) 3: 36–49].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Howard Darwin
Date:  [after 4 Sept 1876]
Classmark:  DAR 210.1: 66
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10338

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Britannica article ["Atom", Encyclopaedia Britannica , 9th ed. (1875) 3: 36–49]. …
  • … CD’s theory of heredity (see Maxwell 1875 , p. 42). Erasmus Alvey Darwin was CD’s brother. …
  • … www.britannica.com/ Maxwell, James Clerk. 1875. Atom. Encyclopaedia Britannica 9th ed. …
  • … 3: 36–49. Müller, Hermann. 1875–6. Die Bedeutung der Honigbiene für unsere Blumen. …
  • … des Vereins der deutschen Bienenwirthe 31 (1875): 81–2, 102–4, 109–11, 122–5, 138–41, 165– …
  • … s paper on cousin marriages (G. H. Darwin 1875; G. H. Darwin 1876a, pp. iii–vi). CD’s copy …
  • … was the last two instalments of H. Müller 1875–6 . Wilhelm Parow sent CD a copy of his …
  • … written the article on the atom ( Maxwell 1875 ; see also Harman ed. 1990–2002, 2: 445– …

To Henry Edwards   1 March [1876]

Summary

Comments on paper by HE [see 10328].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Edwards
Date:  1 Mar 1876
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.486)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10411

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Weismann 1875a) in W. H. Edwards 1875 . A copy is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. …
  • … Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Edwards, Henry. 1875. Darlingtonia californica . [ …
  • … Read 6 September 1875. ] Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 6: 161– …
  • … 6. Edwards, William Henry. 1875. An abstract of Dr. Aug. Weismann’s paper on ‘The …
  • … vol. 23, letter from Henry Edwards, 26 December 1875 . Edwards sent his paper on the …
  • … Darlingtonia californica ( H. Edwards 1875 ) accompanied by dried specimens and a coloured …
  • … to Henry Edwards, [after 26 December 1875] ( Correspondence vol. 23), CD acknowledged …

From Hermann Müller   4 October 1876

Summary

He has never observed the straight line flight routes in male humble-bees that CD reports.

His last letter was in error: alpine Bombus terrestris does break into some flowers.

Author:  Heinrich Ludwig Hermann (Hermann) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Oct 1876
Classmark:  DAR 171: 307
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10631

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Bibliography Comes, Orazio. 1875. Continuazione degli studii sulla impollinazione. …
  • … 23, letter from Hermann Müller, 23 October 1875 and n. 1). On CD’s research on the routes …
  • … Series 3 (1962–9): 177–89. Meehan, Thomas. 1875. Are insects any material aid to plants in …
  • … 24: 243–51. Pedicino, Nicola Antonio. 1875. Della impollinazione nella Thalia dealbata , …
  • … work on self- and cross-fertilization by Nicola Antonio Pedicino ( Pedicino 1875 ), Orazio …
  • … Comes ( Comes 1875 ), and Thomas …
  • … Meehan ( Meehan 1875 ). See Correspondence vol. …
  • … 23, letter from Hermann Müller, 23 October 1875 ; see also ibid. , …
  • … letter to Thomas Meehan, 3 October 1875 . In Cross and self fertilisation , p. 361, CD …

From J. D. Hooker   28 January 1876

thumbnail

Summary

Asks CD to come up to vote for Lankester.

Severely critical of R. L. Tait’s paper on Nepenthes communicated to the Royal Society.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 Jan 1876
Classmark:  DAR 104: 51–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10371

Matches: 9 hits

  • … blackballed at a meeting on 2 December 1875 because of opposition to a council proposal to …
  • … CD seconded a new proposal on 16 December 1875 and Lankester was elected on 3 February …
  • … Correspondence vol. 23, letter to J. J. Weir, 18 December [1875] , and Proceedings of the …
  • … Linnean Society of London (1875–6): iii). Among those believed to have blackballed the …
  • … Murie ( Correspondence vol. 23, letters to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 16 December [1875] and [ …
  • … 19 December 1875] ). CD had asked Hooker for his opinion of a paper by Lawson Tait on the …
  • … of London (see Correspondence vol. 23, letters to J. D. Hooker, 15 October [1875] and …
  • … 1 December [1875] , and letter to …
  • … Lawson Tait, 27 November [1875] ). In his own study of digestion in Nepenthes (Hooker …

From D. Appleton & Co.   18 February 1876

Summary

Encloses statement of sales of Origin, Expression, Descent, and Insectivorous plants to 1 Feb 1876.

Has charged against CD’s account half the cost of old plates from Judd for Variation. When will plates for new edition be sent?

Insectivorous plants not selling well because of general depression in business.

Author:  D. Appleton & Co
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Feb 1876
Classmark:  DAR 159: 98
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10401

Matches: 8 hits

  • … 1977 ). Descent 2d US ed. was published in 1875 from stereotypes of the English edition ( …
  • … Darwin. 2d edition. New York: D. Appleton. 1875. Expression US ed. : The expression of the …
  • … letter from D.  Appleton & Co. , 11 October 1875 ). Variation 2d ed. was published in the …
  • … By Charles Darwin. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1875. Variation 2d ed. : The variation of …
  • … 2d edition. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1875. Variation : The variation of animals and …
  • … of $2 9.80 $144.85 Insectivorous Plants 1875 July Printed 2000 Feby 1/76 On hand 682 given …
  • … 1 March 1876, p. 168); however, it carried an 1875 publication date. Insectivorous plants …
  • … US ed. was published in 1875 from stereotypes of the English edition ( Freeman 1977 ). …

From James Torbitt   24 January 1876

Summary

Are plants that arise from vegetative propagation individuals or merely parts of the original parent plant?

Author:  James Torbitt
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Jan 1876
Classmark:  DAR 178: 130
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10365

Matches: 6 hits

  • … the same questions in his published account of the experiment ( Torbitt 1875 , p. 122). …
  • … No copy of Torbitt 1875 has been found in the Darwin Archive–CUL. …
  • … New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 1970–90. Torbitt, James. 1875. Potato cultivation. [ …
  • … Read 14 April 1875. ] Proceedings of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical …
  • … s paper ‘Potato cultivation’ ( Torbitt 1875 , p. 121). Torbitt believed that propagation …
  • … raising it instead from seed. Torbitt 1875 was published in the Proceedings of the Belfast …

From Louis Grenier   20 May 1876

Summary

Thanks CD for his authorisation for the résumé which LG will read to the Société Botanique de Lyon.

Insectivorous plants has made a sensation in France. Some are for, some against. Some doubt that a plant could absorb and assimilate the matter dissolved by the secretions. Asks CD if N. B. Ward’s method of culture might be used to answer the question definitively.

Author:  Louis Grenier
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 May 1876
Classmark:  DAR 165: 226
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10511

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Bibliography Bellynck, Auguste. 1875. Les plantes carnivores. Brussels: Alfred Vromant. …
  • … 1876. ] Annales de la Société botanique de Lyon 4 (1875–6): 96–114. Insectivorous plants. …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Newman, Edward. 1840. A history of British …
  • … a reply to Grenier’s letter of 22 December 1875 , in which Grenier requested permission to …
  • … letter from Louis Grenier, 22 December 1875 ). Grenier’s analysis of Insectivorous plants …
  • … and Annales de la Société botanique de Lyon (1875–6): 185). A complimentary discussion of …
  • … 1 February 1876 ( Planchon 1876 ). In 1875, Auguste Bellynck had published Les plantes …
  • … five-page discussion of CD’s work ( Bellynck 1875 ). In Insectivorous plants , p. 129, CD …

To S. B. Herrick   6 March 1876

Summary

CD came to believe Drosera drew its nourishment from insects because it grows where no other plants survive. Doubts glands are modified stomata.

Suggests works by Grönland and Trécul.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Sophie McIlvaine Bledsoe (Sophie) (Bledsoe) Herrick
Date:  6 Mar 1876
Classmark:  University of Virginia Library, Special Collections (3314 1: 61 MSS 3361-a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10415

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Monthly Microscopical Journal ( Bennett 1875 ). See letter from S. B. Herrick, 12 February …
  • … Bibliography Bennett, Alfred William. 1875. The absorptive glands of …
  • … carnivorous plants. [Read 1 December 1875. ] Monthly Microscopical Journal 15 (1876): 1–5. …
  • … absorptive glands of carnivorous plants’ was read on 1 December 1875 and appeared in the …

From Charles and Francis Darwin to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   14 February [1876]

Summary

Asks for identification of a Cineraria which is self-sterile.

Fritz Müller’s letter on Cecropia [see 10384].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin; Francis Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  14 Feb [1876]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Thiselton-Dyer, W.T., Letters from Charles Darwin 1873–81: 22a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10391

Matches: 7 hits

  • … for membership in the Linnean Society in 1875, Lankester was blackballed by several …
  • … Correspondence vol. 23, letter from J. D. Hooker, 2 December 1875 . See also n. 7, above. …
  • … Darwin, the amanuensis, evidently wrote 1875 in error. Florist’s cineraria ( Pericallis x …
  • … Down | Beckenham | Kent Feb 14. 1875 Dear Dyer Will you be so kind as to tell me the name …
  • … 1876. Müller’s letter to CD of 25 December 1875 ( Correspondence vol. 23) was printed in …
  • … of the Linnean Society of London (1875–6), p. iii; see letter to W.  T.  Thiselton-Dyer, [ …
  • … letter from J. D. Hooker, 23 October 1875 ). There is an annotated copy of Ernst Gottlieb …

From C. F. Martins   5 July 1876

Summary

Richard Gordon’s French translation of Climbing plants [1877] is half printed.

In Martins’ Introduction to [Éd. Barbier’s translation of] Insectivorous plants [1877] he wants to include a complete bibliography of CD’s works: their extent is not generally known in France.

Author:  Charles Frédéric Martins
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 July 1876
Classmark:  DAR 171: 62
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10557

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Bibliography Balfour, Thomas Alexander Goldie. 1875. Account of some experiments on Dionæa …
  • … muscipula (Venus’ fly-trap). [Read 10 June 1875. ] Transactions of the Botanical Society [ …
  • … n.s. 55: 400–31. Clark, Joseph Warner. 1875. On the absorption of nutrient material by the …
  • … see Correspondence vol. 23, letter from Asa Gray, 28 December 1875 and nn. 6 and 7). …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Morren, Édouard. 1876. Note sur le rôle des …
  • … some insectivorous plants ( J. W. Clark 1875 ). Martins discussed some of Thomas Alexander …
  • … pp. 353–6; see also T. A. G. Balfour 1875 ). He also referred to Casimir de Candolle’s …

From George Rolleston   29 December 1876

Summary

Studying anatomy of the Irish pig.

Emil Bessels’ paper is in Archiv für Anthropologie 8 (1875): 107. He connects a band of poor Eskimos encountered at Smith’s Sound with glacial man.

Author:  George Rolleston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Dec 1876
Classmark:  DAR 176: 213
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10737

Matches: 6 hits

  • … paper is in Archiv für Anthropologie 8 (1875): 107. He connects a band of poor Eskimos …
  • … Bibliography Bessels, Emil. 1875. Einige Worte über die Inuit (Eskimo) des Smith-Sundes: …
  • … Society of London ( Zoology ) 2d ser. 1 (1875–9): 251–86. Thalbitzer, William. 1941. The …
  • … in the Archiv für Anthropologie Bd viii.  1875.  p 107. He was one of a crew of an Arctic …
  • … Paper in the Archiv für Anthropologie viii.  1875 Einige Wörte über die Inuit (Eskimo) des …
  • … 439–64). The extracts are from Bessels 1875 . The first passage reads: ‘A few words about …

To Otto Zacharias   10 May 1876

Summary

Promises to send sheets of his new book [Cross and self-fertilisation].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Otto Zacharias
Date:  10 May 1876
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.492)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10502

Matches: 4 hits

  • … first written to CD about his plans for a journal to be called Darwinia in June 1875; in …
  • … August 1875 he stated that he needed twenty-four collaborators in order for the periodical …
  • … to be successful ( Correspondence vol. 23, letters from Otto Zacharias, 3 June 1875 and …
  • … 19 August 1875 and n. 3). …

To W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   [4 February 1876]

Summary

Congratulates WTT-D on [election of E. Ray Lankester to] Linnean Society.

Mentions visit to Royal Society.

Pleased to see George Bentham looking well.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  [4 Feb 1876]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Thiselton-Dyer, W.T., Letters from Charles Darwin 1873–81: 56–7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10380

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Linnean Society (see n. 2, below). In December 1875, Thiselton-Dyer had proposed Edwin Ray …
  • … Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London (1875–6): ii; see Correspondence vol. 23, …
  • … letter from J. D. Hooker, 2 December 1875 ). CD had seconded Thomas Henry Huxley’s renewed …
  • … Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London (1875–6): iii; see Correspondence vol. 23, …
  • … letter to J. J. Weir, 18 December [1875] , and this volume, letter to J. D. Hooker, 29 …
  • … Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 24 (1875–6): 250). George Bentham. CD stayed in …

To C. S. Wedgwood   20 April 1876

Summary

Grieves over poor account of her health. Emma and Henrietta are also ill.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Caroline Sarah (Caroline) Darwin; Caroline Sarah (Caroline) Wedgwood
Date:  20 Apr [1876]
Classmark:  DAR 153: 3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10461

Matches: 5 hits

  • … vol. 23, letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 24 December [1875] and n. 8). Leonard …
  • … had been stationed in Malta since September 1875 (see Correspondence vol. 23, letter to C. …
  • … E. Norton, 7 October 1875 and n. 6). He came to Down on 8 May 1876 (Emma Darwin’s diary ( …
  • … II, visited the Darwins from 29 June to 1 July 1875 at Abinger, Surrey; the Darwins were …
  • … where she had been taken ill in August 1875, in a special train and bed carriage; see …

From G. J. Romanes   1 June 1876

Summary

Anticipates reading Haeckel’s Perigenesis der Plastidule [1876].

Physiologists will think vivisection bill stringent.

Honorary memberships of Physiological Society created expressly to honour CD.

Working hard at jellyfish just now. Needs snake poison.

Author:  George John Romanes
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 June 1876
Classmark:  E. D. Romanes 1896, pp. 52–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10524

Matches: 6 hits

  • … the Royal Institution of Great Britain 8 (1875–8): 166–77. Sharpey-Schafer, Edward Albert. …
  • … the locomotor system of medusae’ (G. J. Romanes 1875) was published in the Philosophical …
  • … of the Royal Society of London . It was read on 16 December 1875, and published in 1877. …
  • … vol. 23, letter from G. J. Romanes, 14 January 1875 and nn. 2 and 4). Romanes had …
  • … also worked on medusae (see G. J. Romanes 1875, G. J. Romanes 1876 , and G. J. Romanes …
  • … had drafted a vivisection bill in 1875, but it had not become law (see Correspondence vol. …

From Auguste Forel   23 June 1876

Summary

Coleoptera inhabiting ants’ nests. Means of colonisation of new nests.

Author:  Auguste-Henri (Auguste) Forel
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 June 1876
Classmark:  DAR 164: 156
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10545

Matches: 8 hits

  • … refers to Lubbock 1874–7 , Vitus Graber and Graber 1875 (The tympanic sense organs of the …
  • … Otto Immanuel Bernhard Wolff and Wolff 1875 (The olfactory organ of bees). Insectivorous …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Lubbock, John. 1874–7. Observations on …
  • … March and 17 December 1874, 4 November 1875, and 1 February 1877. ] Journal of the Linnean …
  • … de Graber (Die tympanalen Linnesapparate der Othopteren Wien 1875 bei Gerold’s Sohn) et …
  • … de Wolff (Das Riechorgan der Biene 1875 Jena bei Frommann). Enfin permettez moi, cher …
  • … Die tympanalen Sinnesapparate der Othopteren Wien 1875 published by Gerold’s Sohn) and …
  • … of Wolff (Das Riechorgan der Biene 1875 Jena published by Frommann). Finally permit me, …

From J. V. Carus   19 March 1876

Summary

Insectivorous plants is out

and Climbing plants is at the printer’s.

He is now at work on the geological writings.

Thinks all of CD’s papers extremely interesting "for the spirit and the method".

Cites some misprints in Climbing plants.

Author:  Julius Victor Carus
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 Mar 1876
Classmark:  DAR 161: 103
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10419

Matches: 6 hits

  • … and 1877d). In his letter of 14 October [1875] ( Correspondence vol. 23), CD suggested …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Coral reefs 2d ed. : The structure and …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Orchids 2d ed. : The various contrivances by …
  • … 2d edition. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1875. Variation : The variation of animals and …
  • … with his letter to Carus of 25 December 1875 ( Correspondence vol. 23). Carus probably …
  • … 23, letter to J. V. Carus, 14 October [1875] . Carus’s name appears on the presentation …

From Giovanni Canestrini   6 May 1876

Summary

Two parts of the second edition of the Italian translation of Variation are already out.

Expression will soon follow [published in 1878].

The publisher [Unione] asks CD to give him the right of Italian translations of his works.

Author:  Giovanni Canestrini
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 May 1876
Classmark:  DAR 161: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10499

Matches: 5 hits

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Variation 2d ed. : The variation of animals …
  • … under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2d edition. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1875. …
  • … he had requested a copy of the second edition in October 1875 (see Correspondence vol. …
  • … letter from Giovanni Canestrini, 22 October 1875 ). Expression was translated into Italian …
  • … identified (see Correspondence vol. 23, letter from R. F. Cooke, 8 October 1875 and n. 4). …
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Origin is 160; Darwin's 1875 letters now online

Summary

To mark the 160th anniversary of the publication of Origin of species, the full transcripts and footnotes of nearly 650 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1875 are published online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1875…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … of nearly 650 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1875 are published online for the first …
  • … it behaved in similar ways to the Drosera secretion. In 1875, Klein was a very controversial …
  • … I liked the man .’   Other highlights from the 1875 letters include: I am very …
  • … of my books.  ( Letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 June [1875] ) Darwin wrote this to his …
  • … new Editions .  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 August [1875] ) Darwin also completed …
  • … this possible  ( Letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ) Agitation for a law …
  • … made false statements  ( Letter to John Lubbock, 8 April 1875 ) Relations between the …
  • … always succeeds  ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 October [1875] ) Darwin wrote …
  • … help his father and brothers with scientific instruments: in 1875, he designed a hygrometer. …
  • … his great works ( Letter to A. B. Buckley, 23 February 1875 ) The year was saddened …
  • … in my time  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, [12 December 1875] ) In December, Darwin was …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … during his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close …
  • … mouthpiece of ‘Jesuitical Rome’ ( Academy , 2 January 1875, pp. 16–17). ‘How grandly you have …
  • … again & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered …
  • … learned of Klein’s testimony from Huxley on 30 October 1875 : ‘I declare to you I did not believe …
  • … carried out on live animals in laboratories. In January 1875, he received details of experiments by …
  • … printing an additional 250 ( letter to John Murray, 3 May 1875 ). In the event, the book …
  • … in a review of the book in the Academy , 24 July 1875, by Ellen Frances Lubbock: ‘in Utricularia …
  • … born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   Back over old ground …
  • … which I had long wished to see,’ he wrote on 21 April 1875 , ‘and now that I have seen it, I am …
  • … do a good deal of “hammering”,’ he wrote on 14 July 1875 . ‘I shall not let Pangenesis alone …
  • … his own theory of heredity in a series of articles in 1875 and 1876, based partly on his studies of …
  • … & more’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [ c . February 1875?] ). By May, having finished …
  • … proofmaniac’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, 1 and 2 May [1875] ). But Francis also found …
  • … on astronomy, or the Duke of Wellington on art (Max Müller 1875, pp. 305–7). The debate between Max …
  • … researches (Carus trans. 1875b; the series is Carus trans. 1875–87). More controversial was the …
  • … Darwin wrote: ‘An anonymous compliment | received Feb 16th 1875’.   The great and the good …
  • … Insectivorous plants ( letter to D. F. Nevill, 15 July [1875] ). Such visitors from the upper …
  • … I can talk to anyone’ ( letter to John Lubbock, 3 May [1875] ). Finally it was arranged for the …
  • … of twining plants (letters from Lawson Tait, 16 March [1875] and 27 March [1875] ). ‘As I am …
  • … Nepenthes & will soon publish’, Darwin warned on 17 July 1875 . But Tait was undaunted. He …
  • … Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It was Thiselton-Dyer who …
  • … was appropriate for so distinguished a nominee. Already in 1875, Lankester had been elected a fellow …
  • … of Lyell’s failing health from Hooker in 1874 and January 1875. On 22 February, he was notified of …
  • … ‘high type’ ( letter from Woodward Emery, 17 September 1875 ).  …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … the Trichinae’ (letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ). Darwin also worried that any bill …
  • … their own petition (letter to T. H. Huxley, 14 January 1875 ). In the event, Darwin became …
  • … within Darwin’s family. In his letter of 14 January 1875 to Huxley, Darwin mentioned the effect …
  • … (letter from Emma Darwin to F. P. Cobbe, 14 January [1875] ). In the course of the public …
  • … to Huxley (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 12 February 1875 ). Darwin was in London from 31 …
  • … sketch for a petition (letter from T. H. Huxley, [4 April 1875] ). This was evidently passed back …
  • … on 7 April (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 7 April [1875] ), and circulating it to others in …
  • … were made (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 10 April 1875 ), and another version was prepared …
  • … of Lords (see letter to J. S. Burdon Sanderson, [11 April 1875] ). He was still unsure whether …
  • … Royal Society of London (letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 April [1875] ). The next day he wrote to …
  • … else you think best’ (letter to E. H. Stanley, 15 April 1875 ). After further consultations, a …
  • … are evident in Darwin’s correspondence in April and May 1875. The initial petition (DAR …
  • … order of the clauses. In the revised sketch, dated 24 April 1875, the penalty for unlawful …
  • … at this alteration (letter from T. H. Huxley, 19 May 1875 , letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, …
  • … corrections had been made (letter to Lyon Playfair, 26 May 1875 , and letter from Lyon Playfair, …
  • … ( Hansard Parliamentary Debates , 3d ser., vol. 224 (1875), col. 794). A Royal Commission was a …
  • … the RSPCA. The commission met between 5 June and 15 December 1875, examining fifty-three witnesses, …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 10194: Max Müller, Friedrich to Darwin, C. R., 13 Oct [1875] For Müller, human and animal …
  • … Letter 9887: Dawkins, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 14 Mar 1875 The relationship between language …

Thomas Burgess

Summary

As well as its complement of sailors, the Beagle also carried a Royal Marine sergeant and seven marines, one of whom was Thomas Burgess. When the Beagle set sail he was twenty one, having been born in October 1810 to Israel and Hannah Burgess of Lancashire…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … about him again until he opened a letter from him in March 1875 . It was written from Rainow, a …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … vol. 23, letter from Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg, 20 September 1875 ). He began to compile an account …
  • … end of the previous year. He had been incensed in December 1875 when the zoologist Edwin Ray …
  • … The controversial issue had occupied Darwin for much of 1875. In January 1876, a Royal Commission …
  • … to Insectivorous plants , which was published in July 1875, with a US edition published later …
  • … in February 1876 (despite bearing a publication date of 1875), Darwin must have been gratified by …
  • … Darwin, who had communicated the paper to the society in 1875 at Tait’s request, with the ‘awful job …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … not retract his criticism in his own second edition (Dana 1875, p. 274). Descent …
  • … (Correspondence vol. 23, from J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1875] ), preferring to attack Mivart in …
  • … Anthropogenie  in the  Academy   (2 January 1875; see Appendix V, pp. 644–5) . The affair …
  • … wrote a polite, very formal letter to Mivart on 12 January 1875 , refusing to hold any future …
  • … and a second French edition was published in January 1875 ( letter from C.-F. Reinwald , 4 February …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Climbing Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment A monograph by which to work After the publication of On the Origin of Species, Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, The Descent of Man, and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … expressed. The paper was little noticed, but when in 1875 it was corrected and published as a …
  • … Letter 10214 - Darwin to T. H. Huxley, 23 October 1875 Darwin writes to his good …

Vivisection: Darwin's testimony to the Royal Commission

Summary

Wednesday, 3rd November 1875. Mr. Charles Darwin called in and examined. 4661. (Chairman.) We are very sensible of your kindness in coming at some sacrifice to yourself to express your opinions to the Commission. We attribute it to the great…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wednesday, 3rd November 1875. Mr. Charles Darwin called in and examined. …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 4 hits

  • … cited for all purposes as “The Experiments on Animals Act, 1875.” SCHEDULE. …
  • … under the provisions of “The Experiments on Animals Act, 1875,” empowering me to make experiments on …
  • … under the provisions of the Experiments on Animals Act, 1875, that the above-named M.N. is enaged in …
  • … under the provisions of the Experiments on Animals Act, 1875, accompanied by Certificate, such as is …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … to an end. The dispute was not resolved until early 1875, and, even then, not to Darwin’s complete …
  • … from J. D. Hooker, 29 December 1874 ). By January 1875, Mivart had still not made any …
  • … book Anthropogenie , in the Academy , 2 January 1875. ‘Possessed by a blind animosity against …
  • … (Mivart was a Catholic convert.) On 12 January 1875 , Darwin finally wrote to Mivart, …
  • … article in a letter published in the Academy , 16 January 1875, p. 66, signed, ‘The Quarterly …

Insectivorous Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Plants that consume insects Darwin began his work with insectivorous plants in the mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin reflected on the delay that…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin …
  • … 1 The resulting volume, Insectivorous Plants (1875), was one in a series of works in which …
  • … SOURCES Books Darwin, Charles. 1875. Insectivorous Plants. London: John …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … to reconcile them (letter from John Lubbock, 5 April [1875] ). The tensions between the …

Dipsacus and Drosera: Frank’s favourite carnivores

Summary

In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching aggregation in the tentacles of Drosera rotundifolia (F. Darwin 1876). This phenomenon occurs when coloured particles within either protoplasm or the fluid in the cell vacuole (the cell sap) cluster…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … with these enigmatic killer vegetables culminated in 1875 with the publication of  Insectivorous …
  • … after the first edition was published. In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching …
  • … in the most extraordinary way.’ As early as August 1875, Cohn had argued that aggregation in  …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] Charlotte Pape responds to …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to relish the opportunity to come to Darwin’s defense. In 1875, he intervened in a bitter and …
  • … grandly you have defended me”, Darwin wrote on 6 January 1875, “you have indeed been a true friend.” …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … would culminate in two books,  Insectivorous plants  (1875) and  Cross and self fertilisation  …

Plant or animal? (Or: Don’t try this at home!)

Summary

Darwin is famous for showing that humans are just another animal, but, in his later years in particular, his real passion was something even more ambitious: to show that there are no hard-and-fast boundaries between animals and plants.   In 1875 Darwin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … boundaries between animals and plants.   In 1875 Darwin brought out an unassuming little book …

Inheritance

Summary

It was crucial to Darwin’s theories of species change that naturally occurring variations could be inherited.  But at the time when he wrote Origin, he had no explanation for how inheritance worked – it was just obvious that it did.  Darwin’s attempt to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … under domestication, and revised for the second edition in 1875 (2d ed. 2: 349–99). ‘The whole …
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