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Darwin Correspondence Project

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To W. E. Darwin   22 February [1870–9?]

Summary

Seeks investment advice.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  22 Feb [1870-9]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 131
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13799

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 22 Feb 1872 22 Feb 1873 22 Feb 1874 22 Feb 1875 22 Feb 1876 22 Feb 1877 22 Feb 1878 22 Feb …

To ?   23 August [1870–80]

Summary

Discusses evolution of species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  23 Aug [1870-80]
Classmark:  Charles Hamilton (dealer) (3 November 1966)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13884

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 23 Aug 1872 23 Aug 1873 23 Aug 1874 23 Aug 1875 23 Aug 1876 23 Aug 1877 23 Aug 1878 23 Aug …

From Edouard van Beneden   17 December 1870

Summary

CD has been nominated as a Membre Associé of the Belgian Royal Academy.

Discusses crustacean embryology; EvB is at variance with Dohrn.

Author:  Édouard Joseph Louis Marie (Édouard) van Beneden
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Dec 1870
Classmark:  DAR 160: 132
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7396

Matches: 2 hits

  • … squalicola and Peltogaster , see Dohrn 1875 , p.  72. See Living Cirripedia (1851): 380–1  …
  • … 2 parts. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. Dohrn, Anton. 1875. Der Ursprung der Wirbelthiere und das …

To ?   12 February [1870–82]

Summary

Send information about the bust of himself by Thomas Woolner and suggests applying to the sculptor himself about a cast.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  12 Feb [1870-82]
Classmark:  Erbengemeinschaft Alberts (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6611F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 12 Feb 1872 12 Feb 1873 12 Feb 1874 12 Feb 1875 12 Feb 1876 12 Feb 1877 12 Feb 1878 12 Feb …

From John Jenner Weir   17 March 1870

Summary

Describes the unusual appearance of a horse whose mother had previously borne a foal by a quagga. The effect of one mating on the subsequent pregnancy of another mating is explained by JJW using Pangenesis.

Author:  John Jenner Weir
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Mar 1870
Classmark:  DAR 181: 81
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7137

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1875. Variation : The variation of animals and …

To W. T. Preyer   17 February [1870]

Summary

Comments on effects of prussic acid on different individuals of the same species and other physiological research by WP.

Provides information about his studies in Edinburgh and Cambridge and qualifications he had for Beagle voyage. Describes influence of R. E. Grant and J. S. Henslow.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Thierry (William) Preyer
Date:  17 Feb [1870]
Classmark:  Ralph Colp Jr (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7112

Matches: 1 hit

  • … plants. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Preyer, William. 1868. Ueber einige …

To Asa Gray   7 December 1870

Summary

Believes AG’s cases of incipient dimorphism are due to mere variability. Has found examples in Nolana and Amsinckia; believes such variation is the basis for the development of dimorphism. Was unaware of variations in Phlox.

Sensitivity of Drosera and Dionaea.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  7 Dec 1870
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (90)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7388

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Press. 1985–. Insectivorous plants. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. …

From J. D. Hooker   10 July 1870

thumbnail

Summary

Sends seeds from R. L. Playfair in Algiers.

F. Delpino writes asking where M. A. Curtis has published physiological observations on Dionaea ["Enumeration of plants growing spontaneously around Wilmington, North Carolina", Boston J. Nat. Hist. 1 (1834–7): 82–140; see Insectivorous plants, p. 301 n.].

Talk with Duke of Argyll on CD’s and Wallace’s views on man.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 July 1870
Classmark:  DAR 103: 53–4; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Directors’ Correspondence 17a: 117)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7272

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Marginalia : Charles Darwin’s marginalia. …

From Hermann Hoffmann   23 June 1870

Summary

Sends drawings of the foot of chicken showing swimming membrane.

Author:  Karl Heinrich Hermann (Hermann) Hoffmann
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 June 1870
Classmark:  DAR 193: 113–14
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7242

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1875. Variation : The variation of animals and …

From William Ogle   [after 17 December 1870]

Summary

Would be pleased to be visited by CD.

J. Wyman will make observations on black pigs and white pigs in Florida.

Author:  William Ogle
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 17 Dec 1870]
Classmark:  DAR 173: 5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7397

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1875. Variation : The variation of animals and …

To Hermann Settegast   29 September 1870

Summary

Thanks HS for a copy of his book [? Die Thierzucht (1868)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hermann Gustav (Hermann) Settegast
Date:  29 Sept 1870
Classmark:  Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Autogr. I/101, Bl. 1–2)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7330

Matches: 1 hit

  • … under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2d edition. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1875. …

To J. J. Weir   17 March [1870]

Summary

CD thinks JJW’s account [in 7137] is significant for a theory of generation and should go to some scientific society; suggests additional data is needed. Quotes cases of subsequent progeny apparently affected by a previous impregnation. Perhaps not prudent to allude to "despised" Pangenesis, which CD fully believes will have its day.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Jenner Weir
Date:  17 Mar [1870]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7138

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1875. Variation : The variation of animals and …

From W. W. Reade   4 June 1870

Summary

The Negro’s idea of beauty is the same as white man’s.

Believes the Jollops select for blackness.

Native immunity from coast fever is not complete.

Has found stone instruments.

Author:  William Winwood Reade
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 June 1870
Classmark:  DAR 176: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7216

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1875. Wells, William Charles. 1818. Two essays: …
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Origin is 160; Darwin's 1875 letters now online

Summary

To mark the 160th anniversary of the publication of Origin of species, the full transcripts and footnotes of nearly 650 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1875 are published online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1875…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … of nearly 650 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1875 are published online for the first …
  • … it behaved in similar ways to the Drosera secretion. In 1875, Klein was a very controversial …
  • … I liked the man .’   Other highlights from the 1875 letters include: I am very …
  • … of my books.  ( Letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 June [1875] ) Darwin wrote this to his …
  • … new Editions .  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 August [1875] ) Darwin also completed …
  • … this possible  ( Letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ) Agitation for a law …
  • … made false statements  ( Letter to John Lubbock, 8 April 1875 ) Relations between the …
  • … always succeeds  ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 October [1875] ) Darwin wrote …
  • … help his father and brothers with scientific instruments: in 1875, he designed a hygrometer. …
  • … his great works ( Letter to A. B. Buckley, 23 February 1875 ) The year was saddened …
  • … in my time  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, [12 December 1875] ) In December, Darwin was …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … during his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close …
  • … mouthpiece of ‘Jesuitical Rome’ ( Academy , 2 January 1875, pp. 16–17). ‘How grandly you have …
  • … again & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered …
  • … learned of Klein’s testimony from Huxley on 30 October 1875 : ‘I declare to you I did not believe …
  • … carried out on live animals in laboratories. In January 1875, he received details of experiments by …
  • … printing an additional 250 ( letter to John Murray, 3 May 1875 ). In the event, the book …
  • … in a review of the book in the Academy , 24 July 1875, by Ellen Frances Lubbock: ‘in Utricularia …
  • … born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   Back over old ground …
  • … which I had long wished to see,’ he wrote on 21 April 1875 , ‘and now that I have seen it, I am …
  • … do a good deal of “hammering”,’ he wrote on 14 July 1875 . ‘I shall not let Pangenesis alone …
  • … his own theory of heredity in a series of articles in 1875 and 1876, based partly on his studies of …
  • … & more’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [ c . February 1875?] ). By May, having finished …
  • … proofmaniac’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, 1 and 2 May [1875] ). But Francis also found …
  • … on astronomy, or the Duke of Wellington on art (Max Müller 1875, pp. 305–7). The debate between Max …
  • … researches (Carus trans. 1875b; the series is Carus trans. 1875–87). More controversial was the …
  • … Darwin wrote: ‘An anonymous compliment | received Feb 16th 1875’.   The great and the good …
  • … Insectivorous plants ( letter to D. F. Nevill, 15 July [1875] ). Such visitors from the upper …
  • … I can talk to anyone’ ( letter to John Lubbock, 3 May [1875] ). Finally it was arranged for the …
  • … of twining plants (letters from Lawson Tait, 16 March [1875] and 27 March [1875] ). ‘As I am …
  • … Nepenthes & will soon publish’, Darwin warned on 17 July 1875 . But Tait was undaunted. He …
  • … Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It was Thiselton-Dyer who …
  • … was appropriate for so distinguished a nominee. Already in 1875, Lankester had been elected a fellow …
  • … of Lyell’s failing health from Hooker in 1874 and January 1875. On 22 February, he was notified of …
  • … ‘high type’ ( letter from Woodward Emery, 17 September 1875 ).  …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … the Trichinae’ (letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ). Darwin also worried that any bill …
  • … their own petition (letter to T. H. Huxley, 14 January 1875 ). In the event, Darwin became …
  • … within Darwin’s family. In his letter of 14 January 1875 to Huxley, Darwin mentioned the effect …
  • … (letter from Emma Darwin to F. P. Cobbe, 14 January [1875] ). In the course of the public …
  • … to Huxley (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 12 February 1875 ). Darwin was in London from 31 …
  • … sketch for a petition (letter from T. H. Huxley, [4 April 1875] ). This was evidently passed back …
  • … on 7 April (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 7 April [1875] ), and circulating it to others in …
  • … were made (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 10 April 1875 ), and another version was prepared …
  • … of Lords (see letter to J. S. Burdon Sanderson, [11 April 1875] ). He was still unsure whether …
  • … Royal Society of London (letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 April [1875] ). The next day he wrote to …
  • … else you think best’ (letter to E. H. Stanley, 15 April 1875 ). After further consultations, a …
  • … are evident in Darwin’s correspondence in April and May 1875. The initial petition (DAR …
  • … order of the clauses. In the revised sketch, dated 24 April 1875, the penalty for unlawful …
  • … at this alteration (letter from T. H. Huxley, 19 May 1875 , letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, …
  • … corrections had been made (letter to Lyon Playfair, 26 May 1875 , and letter from Lyon Playfair, …
  • … ( Hansard Parliamentary Debates , 3d ser., vol. 224 (1875), col. 794). A Royal Commission was a …
  • … the RSPCA. The commission met between 5 June and 15 December 1875, examining fifty-three witnesses, …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 10194: Max Müller, Friedrich to Darwin, C. R., 13 Oct [1875] For Müller, human and animal …
  • … Letter 9887: Dawkins, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 14 Mar 1875 The relationship between language …

Thomas Burgess

Summary

As well as its complement of sailors, the Beagle also carried a Royal Marine sergeant and seven marines, one of whom was Thomas Burgess. When the Beagle set sail he was twenty one, having been born in October 1810 to Israel and Hannah Burgess of Lancashire…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … about him again until he opened a letter from him in March 1875 . It was written from Rainow, a …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … vol. 23, letter from Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg, 20 September 1875 ). He began to compile an account …
  • … end of the previous year. He had been incensed in December 1875 when the zoologist Edwin Ray …
  • … The controversial issue had occupied Darwin for much of 1875. In January 1876, a Royal Commission …
  • … to Insectivorous plants , which was published in July 1875, with a US edition published later …
  • … in February 1876 (despite bearing a publication date of 1875), Darwin must have been gratified by …
  • … Darwin, who had communicated the paper to the society in 1875 at Tait’s request, with the ‘awful job …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … not retract his criticism in his own second edition (Dana 1875, p. 274). Descent …
  • … (Correspondence vol. 23, from J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1875] ), preferring to attack Mivart in …
  • … Anthropogenie  in the  Academy   (2 January 1875; see Appendix V, pp. 644–5) . The affair …
  • … wrote a polite, very formal letter to Mivart on 12 January 1875 , refusing to hold any future …
  • … and a second French edition was published in January 1875 ( letter from C.-F. Reinwald , 4 February …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Climbing Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment A monograph by which to work After the publication of On the Origin of Species, Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, The Descent of Man, and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … expressed. The paper was little noticed, but when in 1875 it was corrected and published as a …
  • … Letter 10214 - Darwin to T. H. Huxley, 23 October 1875 Darwin writes to his good …

Vivisection: Darwin's testimony to the Royal Commission

Summary

Wednesday, 3rd November 1875. Mr. Charles Darwin called in and examined. 4661. (Chairman.) We are very sensible of your kindness in coming at some sacrifice to yourself to express your opinions to the Commission. We attribute it to the great…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wednesday, 3rd November 1875. Mr. Charles Darwin called in and examined. …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 4 hits

  • … cited for all purposes as “The Experiments on Animals Act, 1875.” SCHEDULE. …
  • … under the provisions of “The Experiments on Animals Act, 1875,” empowering me to make experiments on …
  • … under the provisions of the Experiments on Animals Act, 1875, that the above-named M.N. is enaged in …
  • … under the provisions of the Experiments on Animals Act, 1875, accompanied by Certificate, such as is …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … to an end. The dispute was not resolved until early 1875, and, even then, not to Darwin’s complete …
  • … from J. D. Hooker, 29 December 1874 ). By January 1875, Mivart had still not made any …
  • … book Anthropogenie , in the Academy , 2 January 1875. ‘Possessed by a blind animosity against …
  • … (Mivart was a Catholic convert.) On 12 January 1875 , Darwin finally wrote to Mivart, …
  • … article in a letter published in the Academy , 16 January 1875, p. 66, signed, ‘The Quarterly …

Insectivorous Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Plants that consume insects Darwin began his work with insectivorous plants in the mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin reflected on the delay that…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin …
  • … 1 The resulting volume, Insectivorous Plants (1875), was one in a series of works in which …
  • … SOURCES Books Darwin, Charles. 1875. Insectivorous Plants. London: John …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … to reconcile them (letter from John Lubbock, 5 April [1875] ). The tensions between the …

Dipsacus and Drosera: Frank’s favourite carnivores

Summary

In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching aggregation in the tentacles of Drosera rotundifolia (F. Darwin 1876). This phenomenon occurs when coloured particles within either protoplasm or the fluid in the cell vacuole (the cell sap) cluster…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … with these enigmatic killer vegetables culminated in 1875 with the publication of  Insectivorous …
  • … after the first edition was published. In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching …
  • … in the most extraordinary way.’ As early as August 1875, Cohn had argued that aggregation in  …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] Charlotte Pape responds to …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to relish the opportunity to come to Darwin’s defense. In 1875, he intervened in a bitter and …
  • … grandly you have defended me”, Darwin wrote on 6 January 1875, “you have indeed been a true friend.” …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … would culminate in two books,  Insectivorous plants  (1875) and  Cross and self fertilisation  …

Plant or animal? (Or: Don’t try this at home!)

Summary

Darwin is famous for showing that humans are just another animal, but, in his later years in particular, his real passion was something even more ambitious: to show that there are no hard-and-fast boundaries between animals and plants.   In 1875 Darwin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … boundaries between animals and plants.   In 1875 Darwin brought out an unassuming little book …

Inheritance

Summary

It was crucial to Darwin’s theories of species change that naturally occurring variations could be inherited.  But at the time when he wrote Origin, he had no explanation for how inheritance worked – it was just obvious that it did.  Darwin’s attempt to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … under domestication, and revised for the second edition in 1875 (2d ed. 2: 349–99). ‘The whole …
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