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Darwin Correspondence Project

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To Charles Lyell   1 [June 1860]

Summary

Comments on review of Origin by Andrew Murray [Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 4 (1860): 274–91] and views of William Hopkins on Origin ["Physical theories and the phenomena of life" Fraser’s Mag. 61 (1860): 739–52; 62 (1860): 74–90]. The attacks will tell heavily.

Mentions Blyth’s failure to receive appointment as naturalist to China expedition of 1860.

Encloses letter from Asa Gray.

Discusses gestation period in domesticated dogs.

Comments on hybrid fertility.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  1 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.214)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2820

Matches: 3 hits

  • … British Review 32: 455–86. Grote, Arthur. 1875. Introduction, being a memoir of the late …
  • … of Bengal 43, pt 2 (extra number, August 1875): iii–xxiv. Hopkins, William. 1860. Physical …
  • … danger’, no naturalist was appointed ( Grote 1875 ). Lyell also provided a testimonial for …

To Daniel Oliver   20 October [1860]

Summary

Will take Natural History Review, but cannot write for it.

Has mass of notes on irritability in orchids,

but he ought to work on Variation.

Drosera was an interlude while away from home. Expectations for effect of carbonate of ammonia on Dionaea. The important phenomenon in Drosera is the segregation of the red fluid within the leaf, not action of carbonate of ammonia on the red fluid.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  20 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 20 (EH 88206004)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2956

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Insectivorous plants , which appeared in 1875. See letter to Daniel Oliver, 14 October [ …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

To Daniel Oliver   16 November [1860]

Summary

One thirty-thousandth of a grain of human hair inflects a single Drosera hair. Astonished by his results so he is not publishing until next summer. [Not published until 1875, Insectivorous plants. See ch. 2 for observations on inflection.]

Wants to study effects of acids on live Dionaea. Oliver should do their anatomy. Corresponding with chemical physiologists about carbonate of ammonia on roots.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  16 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 26 (EH 88206010)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2985

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Press. 1985–. Insectivorous plants. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. …
  • … until next summer. [Not published until 1875, Insectivorous plants . See ch. 2 for …

To Edward Cresy   14 October [1860]

Summary

Discusses letter from A. W. v. Hofmann concerning solution of iodine in water.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Cresy, Jr
Date:  14 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 314
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2950

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Bibliography Insectivorous plants. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. …

To J. D. Hooker   31 [August 1860]

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Summary

Observations on Drosera: plants can distinguish minute quantities of nitrogenous substances.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  31 [Aug 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 71
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2886

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Bibliography Insectivorous plants. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. …

To Daniel Oliver   21 [September 1860]

Summary

Lists of nitrogenous organic fluids that produce contraction in Drosera, and details of how to reproduce results.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  21 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 11 and part of 17 (EH 88205995, 88206001)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2923

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Bibliography Insectivorous plants. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. …

To P. L. Sclater   22 May [1860–81]

Summary

CD has signed the enclosed with great pleasure.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  22 May [1860-81]
Classmark:  John Wilson (dealer) (1987)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13839A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 22 May 1872 22 May 1873 22 May 1874 22 May 1875 22 May 1876 22 May 1877 22 May 1878 22 May …

To Daniel Oliver   17 October [1860]

Summary

Thanks for information and extracts.

M. A. Curtis, quoted in ["Dionaea"] Penny encyclopedia [(1837) 8: 508], gives the only full account of Dionaea.

Concurs in DO’s explanation of Dionaea footstalk cells, which CD took for stomata.

Is using carbonate of ammonia as a substitute for flies and colour change in glands as index of action on Drosera. Suspects other nitrogenous compounds do not act till decomposed into carbonate of ammonia. Beginning to write Drosera paper. Action of nitrogenous compounds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  17 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 18 (EH 88206002)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2951

Matches: 2 hits

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Journal of researches (1860): Journal of …
  • … the results of his study of Drosera until 1875 ( Insectivorous plants ), he delivered a …

To Daniel Oliver   11 September [1860]

Summary

Requests observations on Drosera and Dionaea,

and asks DO to look up Buchanan and Wight on insectivorous plants ["Conspectus of Indian Utricularia", Hooker’s J. Bot. 1 (1849): 372–4].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  11 Sept [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 9 (EH 88205993)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2913

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Lindley, John. 1846b. The vegetable kingdom. …

From Alfred Swaine Taylor to Edward Cresy   10 December 1860

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Summary

CD may be interested in a reference to a method of detecting 1/195000 of a grain of sodium chloride.

Also, on Drosera, suggests it would be interesting to try substances such as gun-cotton, in which nitrogen is in very different states from a salt of ammonia.

Author:  Alfred Swaine Taylor
Addressee:  Edward Cresy, Jr
Date:  10 Dec 1860
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 14–15
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3015

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Taylor, Alfred Swaine. 1848. On poisons in …

To J. S. Henslow   28 [September 1860]

Summary

Has been observing Drosera. Asks JSH whether a curious motion in the red fluid poured out from the viscid hairs is a known or common phenomenon. It surprised him, but he is "so ignorant of vegetable physiology".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  28 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A76–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2932

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

To J. D. Hooker   29 July [1860]

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Summary

Casual observations on Drosera.

Wants to know author of good review of Origin in London Review [& Wkly J. Polit. 1 (1860): 11–12, 32–3, 58–9].

Athenæum will reprint Gray’s discussion.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  29 July [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 70
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2880

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

To Baden Powell   18 January [1860]

Summary

CD is pleased by BP’s appreciative opinion of Origin. He never intended to claim that he originated the doctrine that species have not been independently created. The only novelty in his work is the attempt to explain how species became modified and how the theory of descent explains large classes of facts. If he has taken anything from BP, he has done so unconsciously. Gives names of those he would have mentioned in any account of authors who maintained that species have not been separately created.

CD greatly admires BP’s Philosophy of creation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Baden Powell
Date:  18 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  Linnean Society of London (Quentin Keynes collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2654

Matches: 1 hit

  • … palaeontology in Victorian London, 1850–1875. London: Blond & Briggs. Origin : On the …

To Daniel Oliver   15 [September 1860]

Summary

Thanks for reference to Annales des Sciences Naturelles.

Requests DO observe rate at which Australian Drosera closes.

On detection of nitrogen in organic fluids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  15 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 10 (EH 88205994)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2917

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Trécul, Auguste. 1855. Organisation des …

To Daniel Oliver   3 November [1860]

Summary

DO’s candidacy for Professorship of Botany [at University College, London].

Henrietta’s health is better.

Paper in Botanische Zeitung [T. Nitschke, "Über die Reizbarkeit der Blätter von Drosera rotundifolia", 18: 229–34, 237–45, 245–50] missed leading point that plants close longer over animal substances. Carbonate of ammonia works on Lemna and Euphorbia roots.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  3 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 24 (EH 88206008)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2975

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Milde, Karl August Julius. 1852. Ueber die …

To Daniel Oliver   27 [September 1860]

Summary

Thinks he has worked out simple mechanism of movement in Drosera. Believes he is correct that gum has no effect.

Thanks for Trécul paper ["Organisation des glandes pédicellées de la feuille du Drosera rotundifolia", C. R. Hebd. Acad. Sci. 40: 1355–8; Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.) 3d ser. 3: 303–11].

Chloroform paralyses plants in 30 seconds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  27 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 23 (EH 88206007)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2965

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Trécul, Auguste. 1855. Organisation des …

To Charles Lyell   24 November [1860]

Summary

Comments on CL’s advice not to reply directly to reviews.

Describes work on his Drosera manuscript.

Work delayed on his "larger book" [Variation].

Comments at length on the evolutionary significance of Robert McDonnell’s investigations ["On an organ in the skate", Nat. Hist. Rev. (1861): 57–60].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  24 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.234)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2996

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 1860]. In fact, CD delayed publication until 1875, when Insectivorous plants appeared. He …

To Asa Gray   26 September [1860]

Summary

Has read sheets of AG’s third Atlantic Monthly article [Oct 1860] and praises it and AG’s other reviews and articles highly.

Is surprised at the inability of others to grasp the meaning of natural selection.

Has been testing the sensitivity of Drosera, which he finds remarkable.

Asks if AG will be able to make some observations on orchids for him.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  26 Sept [1860]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (28)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2930

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

To J. D. Hooker   4 December [1860]

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Summary

Third edition of Origin will answer reviewers.

Drosera experiments detailed.

Hopes for W. H. Harvey’s conversion.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  4 Dec [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 78
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3008

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. Meyen, Franz Julius Ferdinand. 1837. Ueber …

To J. D. Hooker   14 February [1860]

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Summary

Huxley’s Royal Institution lecture on Origin [10 Feb 1860, Not. Proc. R. Inst. G. B. 3 (1858–62): 195–200] an "entire failure" as an exposition of CD’s doctrine.

R. I. Murchison very civil.

CD counts Lyell among the converted.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  14 Feb [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 40
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2696

Matches: 1 hit

  • … i.e. are distinct creations. ’ See Geikie ed.  1875, 2: 322. An opening note in Asa Gray’s …
Document type
letter (22)
Date
1860
01 (1)
02 (1)
05 (1)
06 (1)
07 (1)
08 (1)
09 (6)
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Origin is 160; Darwin's 1875 letters now online

Summary

To mark the 160th anniversary of the publication of Origin of species, the full transcripts and footnotes of nearly 650 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1875 are published online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1875…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … of nearly 650 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1875 are published online for the first …
  • … it behaved in similar ways to the Drosera secretion. In 1875, Klein was a very controversial …
  • … I liked the man .’   Other highlights from the 1875 letters include: I am very …
  • … of my books.  ( Letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 June [1875] ) Darwin wrote this to his …
  • … new Editions .  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 August [1875] ) Darwin also completed …
  • … this possible  ( Letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ) Agitation for a law …
  • … made false statements  ( Letter to John Lubbock, 8 April 1875 ) Relations between the …
  • … always succeeds  ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 October [1875] ) Darwin wrote …
  • … help his father and brothers with scientific instruments: in 1875, he designed a hygrometer. …
  • … his great works ( Letter to A. B. Buckley, 23 February 1875 ) The year was saddened …
  • … in my time  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, [12 December 1875] ) In December, Darwin was …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … during his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close …
  • … mouthpiece of ‘Jesuitical Rome’ ( Academy , 2 January 1875, pp. 16–17). ‘How grandly you have …
  • … again & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered …
  • … learned of Klein’s testimony from Huxley on 30 October 1875 : ‘I declare to you I did not believe …
  • … carried out on live animals in laboratories. In January 1875, he received details of experiments by …
  • … printing an additional 250 ( letter to John Murray, 3 May 1875 ). In the event, the book …
  • … in a review of the book in the Academy , 24 July 1875, by Ellen Frances Lubbock: ‘in Utricularia …
  • … born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   Back over old ground …
  • … which I had long wished to see,’ he wrote on 21 April 1875 , ‘and now that I have seen it, I am …
  • … do a good deal of “hammering”,’ he wrote on 14 July 1875 . ‘I shall not let Pangenesis alone …
  • … his own theory of heredity in a series of articles in 1875 and 1876, based partly on his studies of …
  • … & more’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [ c . February 1875?] ). By May, having finished …
  • … proofmaniac’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, 1 and 2 May [1875] ). But Francis also found …
  • … on astronomy, or the Duke of Wellington on art (Max Müller 1875, pp. 305–7). The debate between Max …
  • … researches (Carus trans. 1875b; the series is Carus trans. 1875–87). More controversial was the …
  • … Darwin wrote: ‘An anonymous compliment | received Feb 16th 1875’.   The great and the good …
  • … Insectivorous plants ( letter to D. F. Nevill, 15 July [1875] ). Such visitors from the upper …
  • … I can talk to anyone’ ( letter to John Lubbock, 3 May [1875] ). Finally it was arranged for the …
  • … of twining plants (letters from Lawson Tait, 16 March [1875] and 27 March [1875] ). ‘As I am …
  • … Nepenthes & will soon publish’, Darwin warned on 17 July 1875 . But Tait was undaunted. He …
  • … Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It was Thiselton-Dyer who …
  • … was appropriate for so distinguished a nominee. Already in 1875, Lankester had been elected a fellow …
  • … of Lyell’s failing health from Hooker in 1874 and January 1875. On 22 February, he was notified of …
  • … ‘high type’ ( letter from Woodward Emery, 17 September 1875 ).  …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … the Trichinae’ (letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ). Darwin also worried that any bill …
  • … their own petition (letter to T. H. Huxley, 14 January 1875 ). In the event, Darwin became …
  • … within Darwin’s family. In his letter of 14 January 1875 to Huxley, Darwin mentioned the effect …
  • … (letter from Emma Darwin to F. P. Cobbe, 14 January [1875] ). In the course of the public …
  • … to Huxley (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 12 February 1875 ). Darwin was in London from 31 …
  • … sketch for a petition (letter from T. H. Huxley, [4 April 1875] ). This was evidently passed back …
  • … on 7 April (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 7 April [1875] ), and circulating it to others in …
  • … were made (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 10 April 1875 ), and another version was prepared …
  • … of Lords (see letter to J. S. Burdon Sanderson, [11 April 1875] ). He was still unsure whether …
  • … Royal Society of London (letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 April [1875] ). The next day he wrote to …
  • … else you think best’ (letter to E. H. Stanley, 15 April 1875 ). After further consultations, a …
  • … are evident in Darwin’s correspondence in April and May 1875. The initial petition (DAR …
  • … order of the clauses. In the revised sketch, dated 24 April 1875, the penalty for unlawful …
  • … at this alteration (letter from T. H. Huxley, 19 May 1875 , letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, …
  • … corrections had been made (letter to Lyon Playfair, 26 May 1875 , and letter from Lyon Playfair, …
  • … ( Hansard Parliamentary Debates , 3d ser., vol. 224 (1875), col. 794). A Royal Commission was a …
  • … the RSPCA. The commission met between 5 June and 15 December 1875, examining fifty-three witnesses, …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 10194: Max Müller, Friedrich to Darwin, C. R., 13 Oct [1875] For Müller, human and animal …
  • … Letter 9887: Dawkins, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 14 Mar 1875 The relationship between language …

Thomas Burgess

Summary

As well as its complement of sailors, the Beagle also carried a Royal Marine sergeant and seven marines, one of whom was Thomas Burgess. When the Beagle set sail he was twenty one, having been born in October 1810 to Israel and Hannah Burgess of Lancashire…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … about him again until he opened a letter from him in March 1875 . It was written from Rainow, a …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … vol. 23, letter from Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg, 20 September 1875 ). He began to compile an account …
  • … end of the previous year. He had been incensed in December 1875 when the zoologist Edwin Ray …
  • … The controversial issue had occupied Darwin for much of 1875. In January 1876, a Royal Commission …
  • … to Insectivorous plants , which was published in July 1875, with a US edition published later …
  • … in February 1876 (despite bearing a publication date of 1875), Darwin must have been gratified by …
  • … Darwin, who had communicated the paper to the society in 1875 at Tait’s request, with the ‘awful job …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … not retract his criticism in his own second edition (Dana 1875, p. 274). Descent …
  • … (Correspondence vol. 23, from J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1875] ), preferring to attack Mivart in …
  • … Anthropogenie  in the  Academy   (2 January 1875; see Appendix V, pp. 644–5) . The affair …
  • … wrote a polite, very formal letter to Mivart on 12 January 1875 , refusing to hold any future …
  • … and a second French edition was published in January 1875 ( letter from C.-F. Reinwald , 4 February …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Climbing Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment A monograph by which to work After the publication of On the Origin of Species, Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, The Descent of Man, and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … expressed. The paper was little noticed, but when in 1875 it was corrected and published as a …
  • … Letter 10214 - Darwin to T. H. Huxley, 23 October 1875 Darwin writes to his good …

Vivisection: Darwin's testimony to the Royal Commission

Summary

Wednesday, 3rd November 1875. Mr. Charles Darwin called in and examined. 4661. (Chairman.) We are very sensible of your kindness in coming at some sacrifice to yourself to express your opinions to the Commission. We attribute it to the great…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wednesday, 3rd November 1875. Mr. Charles Darwin called in and examined. …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 4 hits

  • … cited for all purposes as “The Experiments on Animals Act, 1875.” SCHEDULE. …
  • … under the provisions of “The Experiments on Animals Act, 1875,” empowering me to make experiments on …
  • … under the provisions of the Experiments on Animals Act, 1875, that the above-named M.N. is enaged in …
  • … under the provisions of the Experiments on Animals Act, 1875, accompanied by Certificate, such as is …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … to an end. The dispute was not resolved until early 1875, and, even then, not to Darwin’s complete …
  • … from J. D. Hooker, 29 December 1874 ). By January 1875, Mivart had still not made any …
  • … book Anthropogenie , in the Academy , 2 January 1875. ‘Possessed by a blind animosity against …
  • … (Mivart was a Catholic convert.) On 12 January 1875 , Darwin finally wrote to Mivart, …
  • … article in a letter published in the Academy , 16 January 1875, p. 66, signed, ‘The Quarterly …

Insectivorous Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Plants that consume insects Darwin began his work with insectivorous plants in the mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin reflected on the delay that…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin …
  • … 1 The resulting volume, Insectivorous Plants (1875), was one in a series of works in which …
  • … SOURCES Books Darwin, Charles. 1875. Insectivorous Plants. London: John …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … to reconcile them (letter from John Lubbock, 5 April [1875] ). The tensions between the …

Dipsacus and Drosera: Frank’s favourite carnivores

Summary

In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching aggregation in the tentacles of Drosera rotundifolia (F. Darwin 1876). This phenomenon occurs when coloured particles within either protoplasm or the fluid in the cell vacuole (the cell sap) cluster…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … with these enigmatic killer vegetables culminated in 1875 with the publication of  Insectivorous …
  • … after the first edition was published. In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching …
  • … in the most extraordinary way.’ As early as August 1875, Cohn had argued that aggregation in  …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] Charlotte Pape responds to …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to relish the opportunity to come to Darwin’s defense. In 1875, he intervened in a bitter and …
  • … grandly you have defended me”, Darwin wrote on 6 January 1875, “you have indeed been a true friend.” …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

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  • … would culminate in two books,  Insectivorous plants  (1875) and  Cross and self fertilisation  …

Plant or animal? (Or: Don’t try this at home!)

Summary

Darwin is famous for showing that humans are just another animal, but, in his later years in particular, his real passion was something even more ambitious: to show that there are no hard-and-fast boundaries between animals and plants.   In 1875 Darwin…

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  • … boundaries between animals and plants.   In 1875 Darwin brought out an unassuming little book …

Inheritance

Summary

It was crucial to Darwin’s theories of species change that naturally occurring variations could be inherited.  But at the time when he wrote Origin, he had no explanation for how inheritance worked – it was just obvious that it did.  Darwin’s attempt to…

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  • … under domestication, and revised for the second edition in 1875 (2d ed. 2: 349–99). ‘The whole …
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