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From Hubert Airy   8 January 1874

Summary

W. J. Beal’s paper ["Phyllotaxis of cones", Am. Nat. 7 (1873): 449–53] shows incompleteness of HA’s theory, but does not invalidate his basic principles on origin of leaf arrangement or the broad applicability of the theory.

Author:  Hubert Airy
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Jan 1874
Classmark:  DAR 159: 28
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9232

Matches: 1 hit

  • … s paper ["Phyllotaxis of cones", Am. Nat. 7 (1873): 449–53] shows incompleteness of HA’s …

To J. D. Hooker   8 January 1874

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Summary

Thanks JDH for Asa Gray’s interesting letter.

Would like JDH’s copy of Coral reefs. Needs it for corrections for a new edition. Cannot buy one.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  8 Jan 1874
Classmark:  DAR 95: 310; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Asa Gray Correspondence: Letter from Gray to Hooker, folio 658)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9231

Matches: 4 hits

  • … the Royal Society of London on 27 November 1873 ( Record of the Royal Society of London ). …
  • … the letter from Asa Gray of 26 December 1873 has not been found, but Gray’s letter, which …
  • … publisher, Smith, Elder & Co, in December 1873 about producing a new edition of the work ( …
  • … letter to Smith, Elder & Co, 17 December [1873] ). Coral reefs 2d ed.  was published in …

From Robert Swinhoe   14 January 1874

Summary

Wants CD to propose him for the Royal Society.

Author:  Robert Swinhoe
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Jan 1874
Classmark:  DAR 177: 337
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9242

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Society of London in January 1874 (Swinhoe 1873; Morning Post , 23 January 1874, p. 6). …
  • … boyciana ) was described by Swinhoe in 1873; these two were presented to the Zoological …

From J. H. Martin   19 January 1874

Summary

JHM, who has not read CD’s works, must conduct a discussion on Darwinism and theology at a local literary society. He asks CD to define briefly his position on the origin of man and on descent.

Author:  James Hales Martin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 Jan 1874
Classmark:  DAR 171: 53
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9249

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Martin is listed in the Dundee directory 1873–4 as ironmonger, tinsmith, and gas-fitter at …

From J. D. Hooker   20 January 1874

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Summary

An awful row at the Linnean Society. William Carruthers and Co. packed a meeting to throw out a decision of the Council. He was beaten by one vote (more than two-thirds majority needed).

Spent two hours with Lyell talking about Thomas Belt’s book [The naturalist in Nicaragua (1874)]: "the tropical old Glaciers beat the seance I do think".

Lyell agrees that the glacial epoch is the great geological crux of the day. Lowering of the ocean level must also be investigated.

Curious about A. C. Ramsay’s paper coming at Royal Society on 29th ["On the comparative value of certain geological ages", Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 22 (1874): 145–8].

Huxley’s new book [? Critiques and addresses (1873)].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Jan 1874
Classmark:  DAR 103: 187–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9250

Matches: 7 hits

  • … R. Soc. Lond. 22 (1874): 145–8]. Huxley’s new book [? Critiques and addresses (1873)]. …
  • … Thomas Henry Huxley’s most recent book was Critiques and addresses (T.  H.  Huxley 1873). …
  • … It was published in May 1873 ( Publishers’ circular , …
  • … 16 May 1873, p.  338). …
  • … president of the Royal Society on 30 November 1873; Huxley was a secretary of the society …
  • … of the Royal Society of London ). In 1873, Huxley had suffered a breakdown from overwork …
  • … of the Linnean Society of London 86 (1873–4): xi–xiii). Two of the alterations to the …

From W. T. Goodale   11 February 1874

Summary

Asks CD if he can reconcile a passage in Mark Hopkins’ Outline study of man [1873] with the theory of development.

Author:  Walter T. Goodale
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Feb 1874
Classmark:  DAR 165: 72
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9282

Matches: 1 hit

  • … a passage in Mark Hopkins’ Outline study of man [1873] with the theory of development. …

From C. S. Tomes   [before 16 February 1874]

Summary

Inherited dental abnormalities in man. [Enclosed are proofs of pp. 113–16 from J. Tomes, A system of dental surgery, 2d ed. (1873).]

Author:  Charles Sissmore Tomes
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 16 Feb 1874]
Classmark:  DAR 178: 129
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9195

Matches: 1 hit

  • … are proofs of pp. 113–16 from J. Tomes, A system of dental surgery , 2d ed. (1873). ] …

To Ludwig Rütimeyer   20 February 1874

Summary

Thanks for LR’s essay on living and fossil turtles [Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Neuchâtel 9 (1873): 439–41].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Karl Ludwig (Ludwig) Rütimeyer
Date:  20 Feb 1874
Classmark:  Elizabeth Rütimeyer (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9306

Matches: 1 hit

  • … s essay on living and fossil turtles [ Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Neuchâtel 9 (1873): 439–41]. …

From George Cupples   21 February 1874

Summary

Answers to queries are being sent.

Enclosure 1: statistics on puppies bred by Rayner in 1873.

Enclosure 2 from W. N. Massey: number of males or females raised depends entirely on preference of greyhound breeders.

Enclosure 3 from E. L. Williams: breeders prefer to destroy bitch pups.

Enclosure 4: Thomas Morse answers CD’s three queries, transmitted by GC: (1) in deerhounds, females predominate, three to one; (2) in all but cattle, females are less worth preserving; (3) TM rears all the young.

Enclosure 5: John Wright responds to CD’s queries about proportion of sexes in births of horses, cattle, and dogs.

Enclosure 6: G. W. Hickman cannot give reliable answers to CD’s queries on proportion of sexes born [in greyhounds?].

Author:  George Cupples
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 Feb 1874
Classmark:  DAR 90: 91–2, 94–7, 102–13, 117–19; DAR 161: 301
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9309

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Enclosure 1: statistics on puppies bred by Rayner in 1873. …

From F. W. Rayner to George Cupples   21 February 1874

Summary

Statistics on puppies bred by him in 1873.

Author:  Rayner, W. F.
Addressee:  George Cupples
Date:  21 Feb 1874
Classmark:  DAR 90: 102–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9308

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Statistics on puppies bred by him in 1873. …

From J. D. Hooker   3 March 1874

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Summary

The row at the Linnean Society and other troubles.

The Agricultural Society has sent Anton De Bary £100 to investigate the potato disease – an insult to M. J. Berkeley, who had worked on it for 30 years.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Mar 1874
Classmark:  DAR 103: 189–92
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9331

Matches: 4 hits

  • … of the Linnean Society of London (1873–4): xii–xiii). This disagreement resulted in …
  • … 21, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 7 January 1873  and n.  8). John Crawfurd’s distinction …
  • … of the Linnean Society of London (1873–4): xvii–xviii. George Russell, grandson of the …
  • … 21, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 14 August 1873 ). The secretaries were Algernon Bertram …

To J. D. Hooker   4 March [1874]

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Summary

CD guessed Carruthers was stirred up by Owen. Disgraceful treatment of Bentham.

Work on Descent and Coral reefs stops his doing anything of real interest.

Asa Gray’s letter. CD has acknowledged the honour [honorary membership in the Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.].

"What a demon on earth Owen is. I do hate him."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  4 Mar [1874]
Classmark:  DAR 95: 313–16
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9333

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Henry Huxley (see Correspondence vol.  21, letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 20 December [1873] ). …
  • … second edition of Descent on 20 November 1873, and continued to work on it for the first …
  • … reefs . Andrew Clark had begun treating CD in 1873; he was renowned for prescribing strict …
  • … 21, letter from Andrew Clark, 3 September 1873 . Hooker had forwarded a letter from Asa …

From J. D. Hooker   24 March 1874

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Summary

"Half an answer" to CD’s query on visit of Sphinx to Hedychium gardnerianum.

Business affairs and family ill health keep him busy.

G. J. Allman will succeed Bentham as President of Linnean Society. Busk has refused.

Huxley is well.

JDH has indoctrinated Sir Stafford Northcote with his merits.

Lyell frail.

Old J. E. Gray goes on publishing.

"Is not [Thomas] Belt splendid!"

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Mar 1874
Classmark:  DAR 103: 195–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9371

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Francis Galton’s article on hereditary improvement (Galton 1873) was published in Frazer’ …
  • … s Magazine in January 1873. For CD’s opinion of this article, see …
  • … 21, letter to Francis Galton, 4 January [1873] . Dorothy Fanny Nevill employed thirty-four …
  • … time F.  Galtons article in Frazer (Jany 1873) on the advisability of securing a race of …
  • … of the Linnean Society of London (1873–4): xxxii), but did not give the presidential …
  • … Henry Huxley’s breakdown in health in 1873, his friends had presented him with a sum of …
  • … 21, letter to J.  D.  Hooker, [6 April 1873] ; L.  Huxley ed.  1900, 1: 390–6). Charles …
  • … lists forty-five articles by Gray in 1873. Hooker refers to Thomas Belt’s The naturalist …
  • … a metamorphic rock. Herbert Spencer’s article (Spencer 1873) was a reply to an anonymous …
  • … review by John Fletcher Moulton ([Moulton] 1873) of the second edition of Spencer’s First …
  • … proof of the laws of motion ([Moulton] 1873, pp.  448–501; see also Harman ed.  1990–2002, …

To J. D. Hooker   25 March [1874]

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Summary

Thanks for information about Hedychium. Hopes wings of Sphinx will be found covered with pollen for that will be a fine bit of prophecy from the structure of a flower to special and new means of fertilisation.

Has been at Descent so hard he has done nothing, not even H. Spencer’s answer.

Has not yet read Croll ["Ocean currents", London Edinburgh & Dublin Philos. Mag. 47 (1874): 94–122, 168–90].

Has heard nothing about Carter and Eozoon. Eozoon, he infers, is done for.

Has read Belt [The naturalist in Nicaragua (1874)]: best of all natural history travel books.

Has written to Fritz Müller about leaf-carrying ants.

Hopes to resume work on Drosera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  25 Mar [1874]
Classmark:  DAR 95: 317–19
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9372

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Emma Darwin to H.  E.  Litchfield, [24] April 1873 (DAR 219.9: 101), and the letter from …
  • … Emma Darwin to Horace Darwin, [25 April 1873] (DAR 258: 574)). CD also refers to Horace …
  • … of Descent since the end of November 1873 (see Correspondence vol.  21, Appendix II). See …
  • … priori proof of the laws of motion (Spencer 1873). John Fletcher Moulton, in an anonymous …
  • … at without experimental evidence ([Moulton] 1873). Spencer discussed ‘physical truths’ in …
  • … a waxy substance called bloom) in August 1873 (see Correspondence vol.  21, letter to J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 13 August 1873  and n.  2). He carried out experiments to compare the effects …
  • … but had come to a halt in November 1873 owing to shortage of time (see Correspondence …
  • … 21, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 25 November 1873  and n.  4). CD had spent the first three …

To W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   4 April 1874

Summary

Wants some plants for observation and for experimentation on their powers of movement.

Asks WTT-D to make observations on plants with sensitive stamens or pistil.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  4 Apr 1874
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Thiselton-Dyer, W. T., Letters from Charles Darwin 1873–81: 5–6)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9387

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Dyer, W. T. , Letters from Charles Darwin 1873–81: 5–6) Charles Robert Darwin Down 4 Apr …

To J. D. Hooker   7 [April 1874]

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Summary

C. V. Riley’s case of Pronuba moth and the fertilisation of Yucca, is the most wonderful case of fertilisation ever published [Am. Nat. 7 (1873): 619–23].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 [Apr 1874]
Classmark:  DAR 95: 321
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9395

Matches: 4 hits

  • … is the most wonderful case of fertilisation ever published [ Am. Nat. 7 (1873): 619–23]. …
  • … House, and by the reference to Riley 1873 (see nn.  2 and 3, below). Charles Valentine …
  • … of the yucca moth Pronuba yuccasella (now Tegiticula yuccasella ), in Riley 1873. …
  • … An offprint of Riley 1873 is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL, and is annotated by …

To Enrico Morselli   10 April 1874

Summary

Thanks EM for essay ["Sopra un rara anomalia dell’osso malare", Annu. Soc. Nat. Modena 7 (1873): 1–50]. CD agrees as far as he understands. Cannot see how new modifications could arise by atavism. "The more I study nature, the more I feel convinced that species generally change by extremely slight modifications."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Enrico Morselli
Date:  10 Apr 1874
Classmark:  Piero Leonardi (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9403

Matches: 1 hit

  • … osso malare", Annu. Soc. Nat. Modena 7 (1873): 1–50]. CD agrees as far as he understands. …

To W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   15 April 1874

Summary

Thanks for the seeds and plants that he requested.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  15 Apr 1874
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Thiselton-Dyer, W. T., Letters from Charles Darwin 1873–81: 7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9410

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Dyer, W. T. , Letters from Charles Darwin 1873–81: 7) Charles Robert Darwin Down 15 Apr …

From Fritz Müller   20 April [1874]

Summary

FM gives his own observations of leaf-cutting ants, which support those of Thomas Belt in his book [The naturalist in Nicaragua (1873)]. [See 9223.] These ants feed only upon the fungus that grows upon the leaves that they carry to their nests.

He has caught a moth of the Glaucopidæ that when touched emitted a cloud of snow-white wool.

Observations on the stingless bees of Brazil.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Apr [1874]
Classmark:  Nature, 11 June 1874, pp. 102–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9422A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … in his book [ The naturalist in Nicaragua (1873)]. [See 9223 . ] These ants feed only upon …

From J. F. McLennan   5 May 1874

Summary

Would like to see C. S. Wake’s paper ["Marriage among primitive peoples", Anthropologia 1 (1873–5): 197–207].

Will return L. H. Morgan’s work [? Systems of consanguinity (1871)].

Murray suggests Macmillan’s are more likely to reprint JFMcL’s Primitive marriage.

Author:  John Ferguson McLennan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 May 1874
Classmark:  DAR 171: 20
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9442

Matches: 1 hit

  • … among primitive peoples", Anthropologia 1 (1873–5): 197–207]. Will return L. H. Morgan’s …
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Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 31 hits

  • … and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved …
  • … A large portion of the letters Darwin received in 1873 were in response to  The expression of the …
  • … to have observed” ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 January [1873] ).  Drosera  was the main focus of …
  • … leaf & branch!” ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 12 January 1873 ). Darwin found that the …
  • … copy of the  Handbook for the physiological laboratory  (1873), a detailed guide to animal …
  • … Darwin’s other main focus of botanical investigation in 1873 was cross- and self-fertilisation, work …
  • … & correlated” ( letter to T. H. Farrer, 14 August 1873 ). Darwin worried, however, that …
  • … when it will be ready” ( letter to John Murray, 4 May [1873] ). Keeping it in the family …
  • … their burrows” ( letter from Francis Darwin, 14 August [1873] ). In September, Darwin …
  • … will be created” ( letter to E. A. Darwin, 20 September 1873 ). Erasmus, who had studied medicine …
  • … work” ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 25 September [1873] ).  Shortly afterwards, it was arranged for …
  • … 1872 and sold quickly. He wrote to Hooker on 12 January [1873] , “Did I ever boast to you on the …
  • … anonymously in the  Edinburgh Review  in April ([Baynes] 1873). Darwin asked one of his Scottish …
  • … before hand” ( letter to George Cupples, 28 April [1873] ). Readers' lives …
  • … letter from L. M. Forster to H. E. Litchfield, 20 February 1873 ). The surgeon Francis Stephen …
  • … ( letter to F. S. B. F. de Chaumont, 3 February [1873] ). Some readers proposed alternative …
  • … that accompanied sexual intercourse? (letter from ?, [1873?]). The Scottish physician William Main …
  • … with the reverse—” ( letter from William Main, 2 April 1873 ). The zoologist Henry Reeks suspected …
  • … and good breeding ( letter from Henry Reeks, 3 March 1873 ). Robert Swinhoe wrote from Ning …
  • … a second dose” ( letter from Robert Swinhoe, 26 March 1873 ). One of the leading …
  • … the jaws” ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 16 April 1873 ). Crichton-Browne was trying …
  • … the disease ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 30 December 1873 ). Instinct  In …
  • … to its offspring ( letter from J. T. Moggridge, 1 February 1873 ). Darwin soon became …
  • … shops ( letter to  Nature , [before 13 February 1873] ). Huggins’s letter prompted replies from …
  • … to  Nature  ( letter to  Nature , [before 13 March 1873] ) about a horse who had pulled a mail …
  • … with his finger ( letter to  Nature , [before 3 April 1873] ). Moggridge suggested the …
  • … fellow species” ( letter to  Nature , [before 24 July 1873] ). Character and genius …
  • … as “utopian” ( letter to Francis Galton, 4 January [1873] ). Continuing the line of research he …
  • … money very well” ( letter to Francis Galton, 28 May 1873 ). Among character traits, he listed …
  • … honest & industrious” ( letter to Francis Galton, 28 May 1873 ). Supporting science, …
  • … father ( enclosure to letter from T. H. Huxley, 3 December 1873 ).  In April, Darwin also …

All Darwin's letters from 1873 go online for the anniversary of Origin

Summary

To celebrate the 158th anniversary of the publication of Origin of species on 24 November, the full transcripts and footnotes of over 500 letters from and to Charles Darwin in 1873 are now available online. Read about Darwin's life in 1873 through his…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … of over 500 letters from and to Charles Darwin in 1873 are now available online. We have also …
  • … Here are some highlights from Darwin's correspondence in 1873: I do not think any …
  • … in Drosera.  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 23 October [1873] ) In 1873, Darwin continued …
  • … work to do  ( Letter to E. A. Darwin, 20 September 1873 ) As well as working on …
  • … of them sold!  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 January [1873] ) Expression of the …
  • … brother.  ( Letter to T. H. Huxley, 23 April 1873 ) Darwin wrote this to Thomas …
  • … and marvellous  ( Letter to Francis Galton, 28 May 1873 ) Darwin was invited to …

Charles Harrison Blackley

Summary

You may not have heard of Charles Harrison Blackley (1820–1900), but if you are one of the 15 million people in the UK who suffer from hay fever, you are indebted to him. For it was he who identified pollen as the cause of the allergy. Darwin was…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Darwin was very interested in hay fever. On 14 June [1873] he wrote to Blackley to thank him for …
  • … Aestivus (hay-fever or hay-asthma). And on   5 July 1873 Darwin wrote again, saying:  ‘The …
  • … in every direction. (Letter to C. H. Blackley, 5 July [1873] ) Blackley wrote back …
  • … regions of the atmosphere.  Blackley wrote on 7 July 1873 that his high altitude experiments had …
  • … remained elusive.   He wrote to Darwin on 11 July 1873 : The problem of cure has still …

Frank Chance

Summary

The Darwin archive not only contains letters, manuscript material, photographs, books and articles but also all sorts of small, dry specimens, mostly enclosed with letters. Many of these enclosures have become separated from the letters or lost altogether,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … However, while footnoting a second letter from Chance in 1873, a discovery was made.  This letter …
  • … (Letter from Frank Chance, 31 July–7 August 1873 ) The pony hair turned up in the …
  • … son William’s house near Southampton on 10 August [1873] . William had followed up on a similar …

Darwin and religion: a definitive web resource

Summary

I am aware that if we admit a first cause, the mind still craves to know whence it came and how it arose.  Charles Darwin to N. D. Doedes, 2 April 1873 Darwin is more famous, and more notorious than ever. Nowhere is this more evident than in the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …   Charles Darwin to N. D. Doedes, 2 April 1873 Darwin is more famous, and more …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … including photography, anthropometry, and fingerprinting. In 1873, he proposed founding a society to …
  • … difficult to judge on these latter heads” ( 4 January [1873] ). Like most of his contemporaries, …
  • … particular inherited talents, except for business ( 28 May 1873 ). Galton grew increasingly …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that …
  • … had suggested a new edition of the coral book in December 1873, when he realised the difficulty a …
  • …  vol. 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble …
  • … of human evolution and inheritance himself.  In August 1873, he had published in the  Contemporary …
  • … the use of the Down schoolroom as a winter reading room in 1873 (see  Correspondence , vol. 21, …
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 20 July [1874] ). In 1873, Hooker had begun a series of …
  • …  vol. 21, letter from Francis Darwin,  [11 October 1873] ). Darwin wasted several weeks in …
  • … Moulinié, who had died after a period of ill health in 1873.  Edmond Barbier corrected defects in …
  • … was a copy of Joseph Simms’s book on physiognomy (Simms 1873), which contained Darwin’s portrait to …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen Lubbock, wife of naturalist …
  • … Letter 8989 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [28 July 1873] Mary Treat reports in detail on her …
  • … Letter 8989 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [28 July 1873] Mary Treat provides a detailed …
  • … 9156  - Wallace, A. R . to Darwin, [19 November 1873] Wallace reassures Darwin that …
  • … 9157  - Darwin to Da rwin, G. H., [20 November 1873] Darwin offers the work of …
  • … Letter 8719  - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 January 1873] Darwin gives Mary Treat close …
  • … 9157  - Darwin to Da rwin, G. H., [20 November 1873] Darwin offers the work of …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 8962: Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 July 1873 In the 1870s, Darwin corresponded …

Francis Darwin

Summary

Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work” (letter from E. A. Darwin, 25 September [1873] ).  Shortly afterwards, it was arranged for …

Exercise: Caricatures of Science

Summary

Caricatures provide intriguing insights into both ideals and transgressions of gender. The following six images show caricatured representations of nineteenth-century men and women of science. They provide insight into the boundaries of what was deemed …

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  • … width="191"] Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1873)[/caption]   …
  • … and biographical sketches of men of the day , (1873).   …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

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  • … Weale, J.P.M. [Jan 1873] Bedford, Cape of Good Hope, …

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

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  • … Letter 9005b - Darwin to Treat, M., [12 August 1873] Darwin thanks Treat for sending over …

Joseph Simms

Summary

The American doctor and author of works on physiognomy Joseph Simms wrote to Darwin on 14 September 1874, while he was staying in London. He enclosed a copy of his book Nature’s revelations of character (Simms 1873). He hoped it might 'prove…

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  • … of his book Nature’s revelations of character (Simms 1873). He hoped it might 'prove …
  • … flat feet were indicative of small secretiveness (Simms 1873, p. 154). A ‘broad foot’ indicated …
  • … destroy: the propensity to mar, deface, or destroy' (Simms 1873, p. 166). Unfortunately, …
  • … and animals. London: John Murray. Simms, Joseph. 1873. Nature’s revelations of character, …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

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  • … Letter 8837 — Darwin, C. R. to Doedes, N. D., 2 Apr 1873 Darwin explains the impossibility of …
  • … 9122 — Darwin, C. R. to Down School Board, [Nov–Dec 1873] Darwin, Sir John Lubbock, Ellen …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

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  • … (letter to Down School Board, [after 29 November 1873] ). Ffinden fiercely resented Darwin for …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

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  • … Letter 8719 - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 January 1873] Darwin asks naturalist Mary Treat …

Dining at Down House

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

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  • … Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [4 December 1873] Here Emma describes Darwin’s difficulties …

Insectivorous Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Plants that consume insects Darwin began his work with insectivorous plants in the mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin reflected on the delay that…

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  • … Letter 9005 - Charles Darwin to Mary Treat, 12 August 1873 Darwin writes to Treat to …

Science, Work and Manliness

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters In 1859, popular didactic writer William Landels published the first edition of what proved to be one of his best-selling works, How Men Are Made. "It is by work, work, work" he told his middle class audience, …

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  • … Letter 9157 - Darwin to Darwin, G. H., [20 November 1873] Darwin offers the work of …
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