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To Hermann Welcker   30 January 1880

Summary

Thanks for letter of 18th January 1880 and for present of Essays. Interested in Welcker’s investigation of the 'ligamentum teres', and his comment on the feet of the Chinese.

Will esteem it an honour if Welcker dedicates his next book to him.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hermann Welcker
Date:  30 Jan 1880
Classmark:  Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Universitätsarchiv (Rep. 29, Nr. 715)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12442G

Matches: 1 hit

  • … étranger 7: 530–41, 550–8. Welcker, Hermann. 1870. Ueber die künstliche Verkrüppelung der …

To James Paget   14 November 1880

Summary

Surprising thought that diseases of plants should illustrate human pathology.

Will recommend A. B. Frank’s article in a German encyclopedia, on diseases of plants, to Francis Darwin.

Gives JP a good case of regeneration in plants – the radicle of the common bean. That plants have little power of regeneration is not difficult to understand by anyone who believes in Pangenesis, "if such a man exists … There is reason to think that my imaginary gemmules have small power of passing from cell to cell."

Refers to early experiments in which he tried to produce galls in plants by injecting poisons.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Paget, 1st baronet
Date:  14 Nov 1880
Classmark:  Wellcome Collection (MS.5703/31)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12819

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Wilhelm Engelmann. Frank, Albert Bernhard. 1870. Die natürliche wagerechte Richtung von …

To A. R. Wallace   5 January 1880

Summary

Admiration of ARW’s ["The origin of species and genera", Nineteenth Century (Jan 1880)]. Good use of Allen’s "admirable researches".

Disappointment about the Epping Forest appointment.

Farrer’s article in Fortnightly Review.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  5 Jan 1880
Classmark:  The British Library (Add MS 46434 ff. 286–8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12401

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy 2 (1870–1): 161–450. Farrer, Thomas Henry. 1880. …

From Hermann Welcker   18 January 1880

Summary

Sends publications.

Discusses comparative anatomy and evolutionary implications of several ligaments.

Thinks effects of Chinese foot-binding are inherited.

Criticises article on Darwinism in Brockhaus’ Lexikon.

Mentions forthcoming book on mammalian vertebrae.

Author:  Hermann Welcker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Jan 1880
Classmark:  DAR 181: 88
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12432

Matches: 1 hit

  • … zu Halle 9 (1864–5): 17–72. Welcker, Hermann. 1870. Ueber die künstliche Verkrüppelung der …

From W. E. Darwin to F. E. Abbot   13 June [1880]

Summary

CD has asked him to express appreciation for the Index and regret that FEA will no longer be running it. CD wishes FEA to stop the weekly advertisement of his appreciation of the Index.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Ellingwood Abbot
Date:  13 June [1880]
Classmark:  Harvard University Archives (Papers of F. E. Abbot, 1841–1904. Named Correspondence, 1857–1903. Letter, W. E. Darwin to F. E. Abbot (13 June [1880]), in folder Darwin, Charles and W. E. Darwin (son), 1871–1883, box 44. HUG 1101)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12633

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Bibliography Abbot, Francis Ellingwood. [1870. ] Truths for the times. Mount Pleasant, …

From E. B. Tylor   21 June 1880

Summary

Learning by experience of others: birds being killed by telegraph wires when first set up; sheep in Australia eating poisonous plants.

Author:  Edward Burnett Tylor
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 June 1880
Classmark:  DAR 178: 206
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12642

Matches: 1 hit

  • … sketchers, photographers and engravers to 1870. Edited by Joan Kerr. Melbourne: Oxford …

From W. E. Darwin   10 February [1880]

Summary

"Dia" [as a prefix] means "through, across".

WED’s wife would like to meet the Huxleys.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Feb [1880]
Classmark:  DAR 209.7: 159
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11352

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Bibliography Frank, Albert Bernhard. 1870. Die natürliche wagerechte Richtung von …

To R. F. Cooke   16 July 1880

Summary

CD had intended to pay costs of publishing Movement in plants because he did not think it fair that Murray should risk publishing a purely scientific work. He would certainly prefer publishing on the usual terms if JM decided to do so. The book contains much new and curious matter, but there are very few persons in England interested in physiological botany.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Francis Cooke; John Murray
Date:  16 July 1880
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms. 42152 ff. 372–3)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12658

Matches: 1 hit

  • … through botany and the brewing industry (1870–1890). History and Philosophy of the Life …

From F. J. Cohn   26 December 1880

Summary

Response to Movement in plants. Setting out to confirm CD’s experiments. Believes plant cell motion, like that of animals, depends on protoplasm more than water.

Author:  Ferdinand Julius Cohn
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Dec 1880
Classmark:  DAR 161: 206
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12940

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen 1 (1870–5) Heft 2: 1–30. Cohn, Ferdinand Julius. 1847. …

From C.-F. Reinwald   16 June 1880

Summary

Annual report on sale of Reinwald editions of CD’s works.

Author:  Charles-Ferdinand Reinwald
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 June 1880
Classmark:  DAR 176: 110
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12636

Matches: 1 hit

  • … John Murray. 1862. Rérolle, Louis, trans. 1870. De la fécondation des orchidées par les …

To F. M. Balfour   4 September 1880

Summary

Praises FMB’s BAAS address [on embryology, Rep. BAAS 50 (1880): 636–44]. Recent progress of embryology splendid.

In work on plants, astonished at sensitivity of radicle and its power to transmit stimuli to adjoining part; such general sensitivity should be considered in genesis of nervous system.

Feels "malicious" pleasure at FMB’s criticism of Herbert Spencer.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Maitland Balfour
Date:  4 Sept 1880
Classmark:  National Records of Scotland (GD433/2/103C/2)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12706

Matches: 1 hit

  • … John Murray. 1880. Spencer, Herbert. 1870–2. The principles of psychology. 2d edition. 2 …
Document type
letter (11)
Date
1880
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02 (1)
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1870 in keywords
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Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The …
  • … machine’  ( letter to Charles Lyell, 25 December [1870] ). Finishing Descent; …
  • … some weeks’  ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on …
  • … I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had previously read proof-sheets …
  • … shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta disagreed: ‘Certainly …
  • … of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). Darwin was also encouraged …
  • … sense of mankind’ ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in …
  • … great philosophy?’ ( letter from F. P. Cobbe, 28 March [1870?] ). Humans as animals: ears …
  • … [1868] ; this volume, letter to Thomas Woolner, 10 March [1870] ). Darwin included Woolner’s …
  • … findings ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 15 March 1870 ). Indeed, Darwin noted the same …
  • … bane of existence!’ ( letter to William Ogle, 9 November 1870 ). Researching expression: …
  • … spirits were white ( letter from W. W. Reade, 9 November 1870 ). Keen for more evidence of …
  • … hurting it much?’ ( letter to A. D. Bartlett, 5 January [1870] ). Darwin made a similar request of …
  • … not succeed’ ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 8 June [1870] ). Darwin’s queries were part …
  • … of a baby’s brows ( letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [5 May 1870] ). He also wrote to a leading Dutch …
  • … on this subject’  ( letter from F. C. Donders, 17 May 1870 ). Human evolution: debates and …
  • … more fully in a collection of essays published in April 1870 (Wallace 1870a). Wallace wrote to …
  • … naturalist’ (letter to A. R.Wallace, 26 January [1870]). Despite their increasing …
  • … in one sense rivals’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 20 April [1870] ). Darwin alluded here to the …
  • … No one but yourself’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 20 May 1870 ). Darwin very rarely used the …
  • … never  write reviews’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, [22 May 1870] ). St George Jackson Mivart …
  • … to answer objectors’ ( letter to W. H. Flower, 25 March [1870] ). In his letters to Mivart, Darwin …
  • … on the Primates’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 April [1870] ). He also tried to recruit Mivart’s …
  • … lump of granite’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 22 April 1870 ). Mivart hinted that his …
  • … his “origin” ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 25 April 1870 ). In his critical essays (later revised …
  • … Charles Darwin et ses précurseurs français  (Quatrefages 1870), that gave a detailed account, as …
  • … many others’  ( letter to Armand de Quatrefages, 28 May [1870] ). Quatrefages had …
  • … discord’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 30 March 1870 ). In proposing Darwin for election, …
  • … them’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 18 July 1870 ). The assertion had been made by Emile …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … Brooke, C.A.J. 30 Nov 1870 Sarawak, Borneo …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 15 March 1870 West Riding …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 18 March 1870 Down, Kent, …
  • … Donders, F.C. 27 May 1870 Utrecht, Netherlands …
  • … Forbes, David 13 June 1870 Portman Square, London W. …
  • … Nicol, Patrick 13 May 1870 Sussex Lunatic Asylum, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. [c.8 or 9 Apr 1870] Accra, West …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 4 June 1870 Lagos, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 3 Sept 1870 Conservative Club, St …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 9 Nov 1870 11 St Mary Abbot's …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. [25 May 1870] Bedford, Cape of Good …
  • … Weir, J.J. 27 June 1870 Blackheath, London, England …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before …
  • … Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to …
  • … Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to Darwin, [29 April 1870] George Cupples tells Darwin about a …

Francis Darwin

Summary

Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … honours in the natural sciences tripos in December 1870. The small amount of surviving …
  • … I appear to you’ (letter to Francis Darwin,  18 October [1870] ). Subsequently Francis …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … behaviour of her dog (letter from J. L. Gray, 14 February 1870 ), she also passed on information …

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … on my mind’ ( letter to W. T. Preyer, 17 February [1870 ])) that without earthworms aerating the …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … more litters & no happy results”, he wrote on 26 April 1870 . In the following year, Galton …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Audio of more …

Darwin and Gender Projects by Harvard Students

Summary

Working in collaboration with Professor Sarah Richardson and Dr Myrna Perez, Darwin Correspondence Project staff developed a customised set of 'Darwin and Gender' themed resources for a course on Gender, Sex and Evolution first taught at Harvard…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … grateful I shall be.”(Letter to Darwin, H. E., [8 Feb 1870] ) Although Miranda acknowledges that …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ideas to humans.  After his election as MP for Maidstone in 1870, Lubbock tried at Darwin’s request …
  • … Lubbock’s Origin of civilisation , published in 1870 as Darwin was completing Descent, was …
  • … good of my internal viscera’ ( to John Lubbock, 21 July [1870] ). It seems what principally gave …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … you owe any more … Darwin to his son Francis, 1870. …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, …
  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … & I feel deeply for you. ( Letter to F. C. Donders, 19 May 1870 )     …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …
  • … Letter 7329 – Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7314 - Kovalevsky, S. to Darwin, [1 September 1870] Sophia Kovalevsky accepts …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7145 : Darwin to Cobbe, F. P. 23 March [1870?] Darwin met the religious writer and …
  • … Letter 7149 : Cobbe, F. P. to Darwin, 28 March [1870?] "I more than suspect you of a …

Power of movement in plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Family experiments Darwin was an active and engaged father during his children's youth, involving them in his experiments and even occasionally using them as observational subjects. When his children…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 7346 - Darwin to Francis Darwin, 18 October 1870 Darwin writes to Francis to …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … the basis for a new German edition (Bronn and Carus trans. 1870), prepared by Julius Victor Carus, …
  • … own evolutionary views and critical commentary (Royer trans. 1870). Darwin complained to Hooker, …
  • … work some hours daily’ ( letter to Anton Dohrn, 4 January 1870 ). Darwin’s health was generally …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Morning Star in 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75, 1 February 1872, p. 66). The …
  • … of a prize for a humane trap ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). The prize was still …
  • … England and Wales every night ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). Under these circumstances, …
  • … Star , 8 December 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). 5 Animal baiting, …
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