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From J. W. Spengel   10 May 1871

Summary

Thanks CD for his letter referring to JWS’s bibliographical paper ["Darwinian bibliography", Z. Ethnol. 3 (1871): 56–67]. Will be glad to inform CD of any additions to the list and would be grateful for information on future publications.

Author:  Johann Wilhelm Spengel
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 May 1871
Classmark:  DAR 177: 235
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7751

Matches: 17 hits

  • … Berlin: F. Dümmler. Hartmann, Eduard von. 1870. Philosophie des Unbewussten. 2nd ed. …
  • … L. Hachette et cie. Veltmann, W. von. 1870. Die Descendenztheorie aus einigen besonderen …
  • … Naturwissenschaften. Mit wissenschaftlichen Anmerkungen. Braunschweig 1870. D r G.  Jäger. …
  • … Zoologische Briefe. Lieferung II Wien 1870 Archiv …
  • … für Naturgeschichte: 1870.  p.  235. W.   …
  • … Gesichtspunkten betrachtet. Ausland.  1870. No.  13. Neue Beiträge zu den Streitfragen des …
  • … und Die Geologie. No 14 und 15 do. Gaea.  1870. Heft 6 H.  J.  Klein. Die Abänderung der …
  • … der bayerischen Akademie. München 1870. Bd II, p 154 Moriz Wagner. Ueber den Einfluss der …
  • … Munich: J. J. Lentner. Jäger, Gustav. 1870. Zoologische Briefe. Vol. 2. Vienna: Wilhelm …
  • … 1868. Metz: F. Blanc. Sachs, Julius. 1870. Lehrbuch der Botanik nach dem gegenwärtigen …
  • … Wilhelm Engelmann. Schmidt, Eduard Oscar. 1870. Das Alter der Menschheit nach den neueren …
  • … Sachs’s Lehrbuch der Botanik ( Sachs 1870 ). CD’s annotated copy is in the Darwin Library– …
  • … are to J.  Huber 1871 , Du Bois-Reymond 1871 , Hartmann 1870  and 1871, Hofmeister  …
  • … 1868, Klein 1870a, Jäger 1870 , …
  • … Veltmann 1870 , Wagner 1871 (a copy of parts 1 and 2 is in the Darwin …
  • … Pamphlet Collection–CUL), Klein 1870b, Anon.  1871, Wagner 1870, Reuschle 1869 , E.   …
  • … O.  Schmidt 1870 (a copy of an earlier version, E.  O.  Schmidt and Unger 1866, is in the …

From F. E. Abbot   20 August 1871

Summary

Thanks CD for interest in FEA’s work and for money for Index. Sends 1870 volume of Index.

Praises CD’s services to free-thought.

Asks for CD’s view of the influence of his theory on religion, to use in lecture.

Author:  Francis Ellingwood Abbot
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 159: 2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7912

Matches: 12 hits

  • … FEA’s work and for money for Index . Sends 1870 volume of Index . Praises CD’s services to …
  • … Bibliography Abbot, Francis Ellingwood. [1870. ] Truths for the times. Mount Pleasant, …
  • … subscription was $2. Abbot refers to Abbot [1870] and Abbot 1871 (see letter from F.  E.   …
  • … no bound copy of issues of the Index from 1870 has been found in the Darwin Library– CUL. …
  • … accompanying bound volume of my paper for 1870 (the first volume). If I may be so bold, I …
  • … Index : ‘The giants of Christianity and free religion’ (1 January 1870, pp.  2–4); ‘What …
  • … is Christianity? ’ (8 January 1870, pp.  2–4); ‘What …
  • … is free religion? ’ (15 January 1870, pp.  2–3); ‘Christianity …
  • … contrasted as to corner-stones’ (22 January 1870, pp.  2–3); ‘Christianity and free …
  • … social ideal, moral ideal, and essential spirit’ (29 January 1870, pp.  2–3); ‘ …
  • … The practical work of free religion’ (5 February 1870, pp.   …
  • … Unitarianism versus freedom’ (12 February 1870, pp.  1–3). CD wrote in Origin : ‘When I …

To James Crichton-Browne   8 February 1871

Summary

Will send copy of Descent.

Comments on JC-B’s MS on expression among insane. Asks about weeping in insane men. Do idiots laugh when pleased?

Thanks for photographs of insane. Asks for additional photographs.

Comments on Henry Maudsley [Body and mind (1870)].

Pointed ears in the insane.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Crichton-Browne
Date:  8 Feb 1871
Classmark:  DAR 143: 333
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7478

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Comments on Henry Maudsley [ Body and mind (1870)]. Pointed ears in the insane. …
  • … 205. CD refers to Henry Maudsley and his Body and mind ( Maudsley 1870 ); CD’s annotated …
  • … copy of Maudsley 1870  is in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia 1: 571–3). See Descent …
  • … the external ear’ as possible marks of an insane temperament ( Maudsley 1870 , pp.  62–3). …
  • … Garland Publishing. 1990. Maudsley, Henry. 1870. Body and mind. London: Macmillan & Co. …
  • … and 19. See Expression , p.  155; CD cited Lubbock 1870 for information on this point. See …
  • … letter from James Crichton-Browne, 6 June 1870  and n.  3. On photographs in relation to …
  • … memorandum from James Crichton-Browne, [6 June 1870] and n.  12. CD cited this passage in …

From Frederic Bateman   31 March [1871]

Summary

Sends his work discussing the anatomical seat of the faculty of language [On aphasia (1870)]. Concludes that it may be impossible to find any cerebral centre for speech and that this fact opposes the idea of the descent of man from some lower form.

Author:  Frederic Bateman
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 Mar [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 160: 58
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7155

Matches: 7 hits

  • … of the faculty of language [ On aphasia (1870)]. Concludes that it may be impossible to …
  • … Bibliography Bateman, Frederic. 1870. On aphasia, or loss of speech: and the localisation …
  • … Bateman evidently wrote ‘1870’ in error. The year is established by the reference to a …
  • … the faculty of articulate language ( Bateman 1870 ). CD’s annotated copy is in the Darwin …
  • … Library–CUL (see Marginalia 1: 35). In Bateman 1870 , pp.  167–9, Bateman discussed Vogt’s …
  • … brain was the centre of speech. In Bateman 1870 , p.  5, Bateman noted that Jean-Baptiste …
  • … Norwich March 31 st . 1870 Dear Sir, Knowing the interest you take in every thing …

To Pieter Harting   21 March 1871

Summary

Thanks PH for his memoir on Poterion [Natuurkd. Verh. Utrecht 2 (1870)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Pieter Harting
Date:  21 Mar 1871
Classmark:  Utrecht University Museum (inv. nr. 635/202.06.1451)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7606

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Thanks PH for his memoir on Poterion [ Natuurkd. Verh. Utrecht 2 (1870)]. …
  • … Bibliography Harting, Pieter. 1870. Mémoire sur le genre Potérion. Utrecht: C. van der …
  • … CD refers to P.  Harting 1870 ; CD’s copy has not been found. Poterion is a synonym of …

From J. W. Strutt   [after 20 May 1871?]

Summary

Criticises a book [W. M. Williams, The fuel of the sun (1870)] whose author does not understand thermodynamics, spectrum analysis, and W. Thomson’s papers.

Author:  John William Strutt, 3d Baron Rayleigh
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 20 May 1871?]
Classmark:  DAR 176: 26
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7787

Matches: 7 hits

  • … M. Williams, The fuel of the sun (1870)] whose author does not understand thermodynamics, …
  • … 20 (1853): 261–88. Williams, William Mattieu. 1870. The fuel of the sun. London: Simpkin, …
  • … sun by William Mattieu Williams ( Williams 1870 ) in his letter of 14 May 1871 . CD’s copy …
  • … state pervaded all of space ( Williams 1870 , pp.  25–9). Developments in spectroscopy, …
  • … analyse the chemical composition of stars. William Thomson. See Williams 1870 , pp.  78– …
  • … 9. In Williams 1870 , pp.  58–9, Williams argued that heat radiated into space was …
  • … asked for his opinion on it. In Williams 1870 , pp.  77–8, Williams argued that the theory …

To P. L. Sclater   [24 February 1871]

Summary

Will send F. Du Cane Godman’s book [Natural history of the Azores (1870)] as soon as he returns home.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  [24 Feb 1871]
Classmark:  Zoological Society of London (GB 0814 BADD (Darwin))
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7511

Matches: 4 hits

  • … There is an annotated copy of Godman 1870 in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia 1: …
  • … Du Cane Godman’s book [ Natural history of the Azores (1870)] as soon as he returns home. …
  • … Bibliography Godman, Frederick Du Cane. 1870. Natural history of the Azores or Western …
  • … Natural history of the Azores or Western Islands ( Godman 1870 ; see letter to F.  Du C.   …

To William Ogle   13 April [1871]

Summary

Reports further observations on contraction of platysma. Has been assisted by J. Wood. [See Expression, pp. 302, 303.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Ogle
Date:  13 Apr [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 261.5: 11 (EH 88205909)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7679

Matches: 4 hits

  • … myoides, see Correspondence vol.  18, letters to William Ogle, 9 November 1870 , 17  …
  • … November [1870] , and …
  • … 17 December [1870] , and letter from William …
  • … Ogle, [10–17 November 1870] , and this volume, letter to William Ogle, 25 March [1871] . …

From Julius Sachs   24 February 1871

Summary

Thanks for copy of Descent.

Admires natural selection.

Climbing plants has attracted attention in Germany, but most botanists are interested in cell development and similar questions.

Author:  Julius Sachs
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Feb 1871
Classmark:  DAR 177: 3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7512

Matches: 7 hits

  • … 18, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 10 July 1870 . Sachs also refers to Climbing plants. Sachs …
  • … IV). CD’s letter to Sachs of 9 July 1870 has not been found, but probably contained his …
  • … thanks for a copy of Sach’s Lehrbuch der Botanik ( Sachs 1870 ). There …
  • … is an annotated presentation copy of Sachs 1870  in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia …
  • … Garland Publishing. 1990. Sachs, Julius. 1870. Lehrbuch der Botanik nach dem gegenwärtigen …
  • … Ihres werthen Schreibens vom 9 ten Juli 1870 erlaube ich mir noch zu erwähnen, dass Ihre …
  • … Regarding a remark in your letter of 9 July 1870, I permit myself to mention further that …

From James Croll   17 August 1871

Summary

Refused to write a treatise on geological time.

His paper on W. B. Carpenter’s theory of ocean currents is appearing soon.

Author:  James Croll
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 161: 266
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7908

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Royal Geographical Society 15: 54–91. Croll, James. 1870–4. On ocean-currents. – Part I. …
  • … Philosophical Magazine 4th ser. 39 (February 1870): 81–106; Part II. Philosophical …
  • … Magazine 4th ser. 39 (March 1870): 180–94; Part III. Philosophical …
  • … Magazine 4th ser. 40 (October 1870): 233–59; 42 (October 1871): 241–80; 47 (February …
  • … physical causes of ocean currents ( Croll 1870–4 , pp.  241–80); it was published in the …

From Hermann Hoffmann   17 April 1871

Summary

Comments on Descent.

Reports a case of protective coloration of bugs on Tilia

and observations on frogs fighting [see Descent, 2d ed., pp. 281, 350].

Encloses drawings of chicken feet.

Author:  Karl Heinrich Hermann (Hermann) Hoffmann
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Apr 1871
Classmark:  DAR 166: 229
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7695

Matches: 7 hits

  • … On 8 October 1870 the same cock, now fully grown, was brought to me again, and I made the …
  • … of a fowl with webbed toes with his letter of 23 June 1870 ( Correspondence vol.  18). …
  • … The sketches of 8 October 1870 were published in Correspondence vol.  18, where they were …
  • … letter from Hermann Hoffmann of that date. No letter from 13 July 1870 has been found. …
  • … ist, von dessen Füssen ich am 13. Juni 1870 eine Zeichnung machte und Ihnen mittheilte. …
  • … wurde mir vollkommen erwachsen am 8. October 1870 wieder zugebracht, und die beiliegende …
  • … with webbing, of whose feet I made a drawing on 13 July 1870 and whom I told you about. …

To Louis Bertillon   18 December 1871

Summary

Thanks for his article Valeur philosophique de l’hypothèse du transformisme (Bertillon 1870), which is very clear.

Would not himself trust so much in Agassiz’s conclusions.

Glad the essay has been published, as he believes ‘there are but few in France who admit the doctrine of evolution’.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Louis-Adolf Louis (Louis) Bertillon
Date:  18 Dec 1871
Classmark:  Librairie la 42ème Ligne, Paris (dealers) (2018)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6508F

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Bibliography Bertillon, Louis. 1870. Valeur de l’hypothèse …
  • … du transformisme. [Read 2 June 1870. ] Bulletins de la Société d’anthropologie de Paris 2d …
  • … de l’hypothèse du transformisme (Bertillon 1870), which is very clear. Would not himself …

To J. D. Hooker   1 February [1871]

Summary

Returns pamphlets.

B. T. Lowne’s observation [Mon. Microsc. J. 4 (1870): 326–30] that boiling does not kill certain moulds is curious, but then how account for absence of all living things in Pasteur’s experiment?

Always delighted to see a word in favour of Pangenesis.

Thiselton-Dyer’s paper ["On spontaneous generation and evolution", Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 10 (1870): 333–54] is Spencerian.

The chemical conditions for first production of life are said to exist at present, but in some warm little pond today such matter would be absorbed or devoured, which would not have been the case before living creatures were formed.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Feb [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 188–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7471

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Norgate. Thiselton-Dyer, William Turner. 1870. On spontaneous generation and evolution. …
  • … s observation [ Mon. Microsc. J. 4 (1870): 326–30] that boiling does not kill certain …
  • … and evolution", Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 10 (1870): 333–54] is Spencerian. The chemical …
  • … generation and evolution’, appeared in the October 1870 issue of the Quarterly Journal …
  • … of Microscopical Science ( Thiselton-Dyer 1870 ). Thiselton-Dyer cited Herbert Spencer’s …

From Herbert Spencer   3 March 1871

Summary

Thanks CD for copy of Descent; wishes it had appeared earlier so that he could have made use of the facts in his Principles of psychology [2d ed. (1870–2)].

Author:  Herbert Spencer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Mar 1871
Classmark:  DAR 177: 228
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7540

Matches: 3 hits

  • … he could have made use of the facts in his Principles of psychology [2d ed. (1870–2)]. …
  • … were subject to natural and sexual selection. The reference is to Spencer 1870–2 . …
  • … John Murray. 1871. Spencer, Herbert. 1870–2. The principles of psychology. 2d edition. 2 …

To F. du C. Godman   4 March [1871]

Summary

Has forwarded FDuCG’s book [Natural history of the Azores (1870)] to Dr Hartlaub.

Asks about eyes of camel when the animal is uttering a loud sound.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Frederick Du Cane Godman
Date:  4 Mar [1871]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.363)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7543

Matches: 4 hits

  • … s book [ Natural history of the Azores (1870)] to Dr Hartlaub. Asks about eyes of camel …
  • … Murray. 1872. Godman, Frederick Du Cane. 1870. Natural history of the Azores or Western …
  • … to London and by the reference to Godman 1870 (see nn.  2 and 3, below). CD was in London …
  • … Natural history of the Azores ( Godman 1870 ), one of which he had sent to Philip Lutley …

From A. R. Wallace   14 May 1871

Summary

Recommends [W. M. Williams] The fuel of the sun [1870] as remarkably illuminating about physical astronomy. Williams solves the problem of duration of sun’s heat in "a most satisfactory manner".

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 May 1871
Classmark:  DAR 106: B100–1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7758

Matches: 4 hits

  • … W. M. Williams] The fuel of the sun [1870] as remarkably illuminating about physical …
  • … The reference is to Williams 1870 . Wallace refers to Charles Lyell and William Robert …
  • … Atlas Iron Works in Sheffield from 1868 to 1870 ( ODNB ). On his theory, see the letter …
  • … London: Longmans. Williams, William Mattieu. 1870. The fuel of the sun. London: Simpkin, …

From L. H. Morgan   1 August 1871

Summary

John Lubbock’s paper [? "Remarks on stone implements from western Africa", Rep. BAAS 40 (1870): 154–5] opposes some of his best sustained conclusions.

Author:  Lewis Henry Morgan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 171: 240
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7891

Matches: 4 hits

  • … from western Africa", Rep. BAAS 40 (1870): 154–5] opposes some of his best sustained …
  • … Ian Allan Publishing. Morgan, Lewis Henry. 1870. Systems of consanguinity and affinity of …
  • … and affinity of the human family ( Morgan 1870 ) in the Darwin Library–Down. Morgan had …
  • … vol.  18, letter from L.  H.  Morgan, 9 August 1870). In his paper ‘On the development of …

From V. O. Kovalevsky   15 January [1871]

Summary

Has received (from CD) the sheets of the second volume [of Descent].

He fears he has offended CD or someone in England and he begs to know his offence.

His brother is working at the Red Sea and wishes CD to know that he has evidence for the affinity of ascidians and vertebrates in their nervous systems.

Plans to go to Paris upon its imminent capitulation to help his sister-in-law.

Author:  Vladimir Onufrievich Kovalevsky (Владимир Онуфриевич Ковалевский)
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 Jan [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 169: 79
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7442

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Kovalevsky, 29 January 1871 . Kovalevsky wrote ‘1870’ in error. Kovalevsky was translating …
  • … letter from V.  O.  Kovalevsky, 12 December [1870] , and this volume, letter from V.  O.   …
  • … Berlin Anatom. Museum. 15 Jan.  1870. — Sir I received yesterday the sheets of the second …
  • … from V.  O.  Kovalevsky, 12 December [1870] . For CD’s interest in Alexander Onufrievich …
  • … from A.  O.  Kovalevsky, 25 September 1870. Kovalevsky refers to his brother’s latest …

From A. G. Butler   26 May 1871

thumbnail

Summary

Several observations on protective coloration and sexual selection.

Author:  Arthur Gardiner Butler
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 May 1871
Classmark:  DAR 89: 104–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7770

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Bibliography Butler, Arthur Gardiner. 1870. Note on abnormalities in the neuration of the …
  • … hind wings in Acræa andromacha. [Read 15 November 1870. ] Proceedings …
  • … of the Zoological Society of London (1870): 777–78. Descent : The descent of man, and …
  • … the Nymphalidae. The reference is to Butler 1870 , published in the Proceedings of the …

From Henry Holland   19 February [1871]

Summary

Thanks for copy of Descent.

Author:  Henry Holland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 Feb [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 166: 253
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7490

Matches: 2 hits

  • … had visited Jamaica and the West Indies in the autumn of 1870 (see Correspondence vol.   …
  • … 18, letter from Henry Holland, 4 November [1870] ). …
Document type
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Date
1871
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02 (24)
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Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The …
  • … machine’  ( letter to Charles Lyell, 25 December [1870] ). Finishing Descent; …
  • … some weeks’  ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on …
  • … I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had previously read proof-sheets …
  • … shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta disagreed: ‘Certainly …
  • … of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). Darwin was also encouraged …
  • … sense of mankind’ ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in …
  • … great philosophy?’ ( letter from F. P. Cobbe, 28 March [1870?] ). Humans as animals: ears …
  • … [1868] ; this volume, letter to Thomas Woolner, 10 March [1870] ). Darwin included Woolner’s …
  • … findings ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 15 March 1870 ). Indeed, Darwin noted the same …
  • … bane of existence!’ ( letter to William Ogle, 9 November 1870 ). Researching expression: …
  • … spirits were white ( letter from W. W. Reade, 9 November 1870 ). Keen for more evidence of …
  • … hurting it much?’ ( letter to A. D. Bartlett, 5 January [1870] ). Darwin made a similar request of …
  • … not succeed’ ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 8 June [1870] ). Darwin’s queries were part …
  • … of a baby’s brows ( letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [5 May 1870] ). He also wrote to a leading Dutch …
  • … on this subject’  ( letter from F. C. Donders, 17 May 1870 ). Human evolution: debates and …
  • … more fully in a collection of essays published in April 1870 (Wallace 1870a). Wallace wrote to …
  • … naturalist’ (letter to A. R.Wallace, 26 January [1870]). Despite their increasing …
  • … in one sense rivals’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 20 April [1870] ). Darwin alluded here to the …
  • … No one but yourself’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 20 May 1870 ). Darwin very rarely used the …
  • … never  write reviews’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, [22 May 1870] ). St George Jackson Mivart …
  • … to answer objectors’ ( letter to W. H. Flower, 25 March [1870] ). In his letters to Mivart, Darwin …
  • … on the Primates’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 April [1870] ). He also tried to recruit Mivart’s …
  • … lump of granite’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 22 April 1870 ). Mivart hinted that his …
  • … his “origin” ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 25 April 1870 ). In his critical essays (later revised …
  • … Charles Darwin et ses précurseurs français  (Quatrefages 1870), that gave a detailed account, as …
  • … many others’  ( letter to Armand de Quatrefages, 28 May [1870] ). Quatrefages had …
  • … discord’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 30 March 1870 ). In proposing Darwin for election, …
  • … them’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 18 July 1870 ). The assertion had been made by Emile …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … Brooke, C.A.J. 30 Nov 1870 Sarawak, Borneo …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 15 March 1870 West Riding …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 18 March 1870 Down, Kent, …
  • … Donders, F.C. 27 May 1870 Utrecht, Netherlands …
  • … Forbes, David 13 June 1870 Portman Square, London W. …
  • … Nicol, Patrick 13 May 1870 Sussex Lunatic Asylum, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. [c.8 or 9 Apr 1870] Accra, West …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 4 June 1870 Lagos, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 3 Sept 1870 Conservative Club, St …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 9 Nov 1870 11 St Mary Abbot's …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. [25 May 1870] Bedford, Cape of Good …
  • … Weir, J.J. 27 June 1870 Blackheath, London, England …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before …
  • … Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to …
  • … Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to Darwin, [29 April 1870] George Cupples tells Darwin about a …

Francis Darwin

Summary

Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … honours in the natural sciences tripos in December 1870. The small amount of surviving …
  • … I appear to you’ (letter to Francis Darwin,  18 October [1870] ). Subsequently Francis …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … behaviour of her dog (letter from J. L. Gray, 14 February 1870 ), she also passed on information …

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … on my mind’ ( letter to W. T. Preyer, 17 February [1870 ])) that without earthworms aerating the …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … more litters & no happy results”, he wrote on 26 April 1870 . In the following year, Galton …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Audio of more …

Darwin and Gender Projects by Harvard Students

Summary

Working in collaboration with Professor Sarah Richardson and Dr Myrna Perez, Darwin Correspondence Project staff developed a customised set of 'Darwin and Gender' themed resources for a course on Gender, Sex and Evolution first taught at Harvard…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … grateful I shall be.”(Letter to Darwin, H. E., [8 Feb 1870] ) Although Miranda acknowledges that …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ideas to humans.  After his election as MP for Maidstone in 1870, Lubbock tried at Darwin’s request …
  • … Lubbock’s Origin of civilisation , published in 1870 as Darwin was completing Descent, was …
  • … good of my internal viscera’ ( to John Lubbock, 21 July [1870] ). It seems what principally gave …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

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  • … you owe any more … Darwin to his son Francis, 1870. …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, …
  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … & I feel deeply for you. ( Letter to F. C. Donders, 19 May 1870 )     …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …
  • … Letter 7329 – Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7314 - Kovalevsky, S. to Darwin, [1 September 1870] Sophia Kovalevsky accepts …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7145 : Darwin to Cobbe, F. P. 23 March [1870?] Darwin met the religious writer and …
  • … Letter 7149 : Cobbe, F. P. to Darwin, 28 March [1870?] "I more than suspect you of a …

Power of movement in plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Family experiments Darwin was an active and engaged father during his children's youth, involving them in his experiments and even occasionally using them as observational subjects. When his children…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 7346 - Darwin to Francis Darwin, 18 October 1870 Darwin writes to Francis to …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … the basis for a new German edition (Bronn and Carus trans. 1870), prepared by Julius Victor Carus, …
  • … own evolutionary views and critical commentary (Royer trans. 1870). Darwin complained to Hooker, …
  • … work some hours daily’ ( letter to Anton Dohrn, 4 January 1870 ). Darwin’s health was generally …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Morning Star in 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75, 1 February 1872, p. 66). The …
  • … of a prize for a humane trap ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). The prize was still …
  • … England and Wales every night ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). Under these circumstances, …
  • … Star , 8 December 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). 5 Animal baiting, …
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