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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To Francis Darwin   [after 12 October 1866]

Summary

Instructions on paying a bill.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  [after 12 Oct 1866]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13793

Matches: 2 hits

  • … from 29 September 1866 until April 1870, when he received his BA ( Admissions to …
  • … 5: 329, Cambridge University calendar 1870, p.  xxiv; see also Correspondence vol.  13, …

From Julius von Haast   8 September 1866

Summary

Thanks CD for his efforts on behalf of JvH’s Royal Society candidacy.

Is at work on a large-scale map of the Southern Alps [of New Zealand].

The ever-growing goldfields and their effect on the country.

Author:  John Francis Julius (Julius) von Haast
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Sept 1866
Classmark:  DAR 166: 10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5207

Matches: 2 hits

  • … province. Haast, John Francis Julius von. 1870. Notes to accompany the topographical map …
  • … Society of London ( J.  F.  J.  von Haast 1870 ; see H.  F.  von Haast 1948 , p.  1095). …

From Asa Gray   7 May 1866

Summary

Thinks a new U. S. edition of Origin is needed.

Gives observations on the climbing habits of Bignonia capreolata.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 May 1866
Classmark:  DAR 165: 150
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5081

Matches: 2 hits

  • … last invasion of Canada: the Fenian raids, 1866–1870. Toronto and Oxford: Dundurn Press. …
  • … not publish a new edition of Origin until 1870 ( Freeman 1977 ). Gray’s name appears on …

To Charles Lyell   7 February [1866]

Summary

Discussion of Mrs Agassiz’s letter [to Mary Lyell, forwarded to CD] regarding S. American glacial action,

with comments on Bunbury’s letter on temperate plants.

Refers to opinions of Agassiz, David Forbes, Hooker, and CD on glacial period and glaciers.

Wishes he had published a long chapter on glacial period [Natural selection, pp. 535–66] written ten years ago.

Tells of death of his sister, Catherine, and other family matters.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  7 Feb [1866]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.312)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4999

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Geological Society. Hartt, Charles Frederick. 1870. Thayer Expedition: scientific results …
  • … of the valley at Tijuca, near Rio ( Hartt 1870 , pp.  27–30; see also J.  L.  R.  Agassiz …
  • … and Agassiz 1868, pp.  492–3, and Hartt 1870 , pp.  15–18. CD referred to these mountains …

To a local landowner   [1866?]

Summary

Requests that correspondent take some action regarding the state of horses on his farm. Robert Ainslie of Tromer Lodge, Down, was fined in 1852 following CD’s complaints.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Landowner, local
Date:  [1866?]
Classmark:  DAR 96: 27r
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4963

Matches: 1 hit

  • … on ‘humane’ objectives between 1837 and 1870, see Fairholm and Pain 1924, pp.  162–4. The …

From J. D. Hooker   21 February 1866

thumbnail

Summary

Had Busks and Lyells to dinner.

Examines and criticises evidence for CD’s hypothesis that the glacial period was not one of universal cold. Physicists deny its possibility.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 Feb 1866
Classmark:  DAR 102: 59, 62–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5013

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Geological Society. Hartt, Charles Frederick. 1870. Thayer Expedition: scientific results …
  • … and palaeontology (see, for example, Hartt 1870 , pp.  28–31, 467–72). CD explained the …

From George Warde Norman   20 September 1866

Summary

Sends a paper, by the wife of the local curate, on the habits of animals.

Author:  George Warde Norman
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Sept 1866
Classmark:  DAR 172: 74
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5215

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Office directory of the six home counties 1870). Richard George Holland became curate of …

To ?   10 May [1866?]

Summary

The apparent difference in arm lengths of compositors is due to a drooping shoulder. File-makers stand in a peculiar position and call one of their legs the hind leg.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  10 May [1866?]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5083

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of Descent ( letter to Mr Dorrell, 9 August 1870 , Calendar no.  7298). CD discussed …

To Asa Gray   16 April [1866]

Summary

AG’s second article on Climbing plants [Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 41 (1866): 125–30].

Fritz Müller’s observations on Rubiaceae.

New edition [4th] of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  16 Apr [1866]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (96)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5057

Matches: 2 hits

  • … last invasion of Canada: the Fenian raids, 1866–1870. Toronto and Oxford: Dundurn Press. …
  • … by D.  Appleton and Co.  between 1861 and 1870, when a new edition was issued ( Freeman  …

From John Edward Gray   28 February 1866

Summary

Has received the larva of the batrachian. Outlines its affinities. Problems of batrachian systematics.

Author:  John Edward Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 Feb 1866
Classmark:  DAR 165: 209
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5021

Matches: 1 hit

  • … in the British Museum (J.  E.  Gray ed.  1870). Gray apparently refers to palm civets, …

From John Traherne Moggridge   15 February [1866]

Summary

Is sending Ophrys plants marked as CD requested as wild or under cultivation. Discusses arrangements for a scheme planned for 1867 and his method for marking his Ophrys specimens.

Author:  John Traherne Moggridge
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 Feb [1866]
Classmark:  DAR Pamphlet collection G368 (bound in part of Moggridge 1865–8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5008A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher 35 (1870): (3d paper) 1–16. ] Monkswell, Lord. 1911. …

From Asa Gray   18 July 1866

Summary

Appleton’s cannot alter their plates so as to reproduce revised work [Origin, 4th ed.]. Has made it clear that CD could not do otherwise than object strenuously to course they intend to pursue, and has asked them to return the sheets. Wishes CD’s publisher would supply U. S. market with large numbers of copies, as the English edition could well compete with any American one. Encloses [statement of sales of U. S. edition of Origin to 1 February 1866].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 July 1866
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff. 149–150); DAR 159: 80
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5160

Matches: 1 hit

  • … to Gray’s or CD’s account, for 1867 to 1870, 1872, and 1874 to 1881, are in DAR 159; no …

To William Ewart Gladstone   14 May 1866

Summary

Memorial to the Chancellor of the Exchequer from the fellows of the Royal, Linnean, Geological, and Zoological Societies of London, stating the importance of separating the administration of the national natural history collections of the British Museum from that of the library and art collections, and placing it in the hands of one officer, immediately responsible to one of the Queen’s ministers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Ewart Gladstone
Date:  14 May 1866
Classmark:  Gunther 1975, p. 238 (facsimile of printed copy of memorial)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5090F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … the museum continued to be considered until 1870. Construction of the British Museum of …

From Asa Gray   3 July 1866

Summary

Is trying to arrange a new American edition of Origin.

Gives notes on Passiflora acerifolia [on cover].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 July 1866
Classmark:  DAR 165: 151
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5141

Matches: 1 hit

  • … firm did not publish a revised edition until 1870 ( Freeman 1977 ). Dog in the manger: ‘a …

From Asa Gray   7 August 1866

Summary

Appleton’s will not print a new edition of Origin.

AG has read sheets of new English edition [4th] and is much pleased by the passage on Richard Owen in the historical sketch.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Aug 1866
Classmark:  DAR 165: 153
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5184

Matches: 1 hit

  • … was published by D.  Appleton & Co.  in 1870. CD had considerably revised his account of …

To Fritz Müller   11 January 1866

Summary

Has read FM’s paper on sponges ["Über Darwinella aurea", Arch. Miskrosk. Anat. 1 (1865): 344–53] with interest.

Has also read FM’s work on the metamorphoses of Peneus [Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. 14 (1864): 104–15], an interesting and important embryological discovery.

CD regards Louis Agassiz’s opinions as valueless.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  11 Jan 1866
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 5)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4972

Matches: 1 hit

  • … island, Brazil; he had written to CD that, in 1870 or 1871, he intended to return to his ‘ …

From Fritz Müller   2 August 1866

Summary

Gives some observations on orchids and on some plants which seem to be dichogamous.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Aug 1866
Classmark:  DAR 76: B33, 33a; DAR 157a: 81, 102; DAR 142: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5173

Matches: 1 hit

  • … anthers (see F.  Müller 1868a, 1869, and 1870) and CD added a reference to Müller’s work …
Document type
letter (17)
Date
1866
01 (2)
02 (4)
04 (1)
05 (3)
07 (2)
08 (2)
09 (2)
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Search:
1870 in keywords
51 Items
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Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The …
  • … machine’  ( letter to Charles Lyell, 25 December [1870] ). Finishing Descent; …
  • … some weeks’  ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on …
  • … I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had previously read proof-sheets …
  • … shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta disagreed: ‘Certainly …
  • … of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). Darwin was also encouraged …
  • … sense of mankind’ ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in …
  • … great philosophy?’ ( letter from F. P. Cobbe, 28 March [1870?] ). Humans as animals: ears …
  • … [1868] ; this volume, letter to Thomas Woolner, 10 March [1870] ). Darwin included Woolner’s …
  • … findings ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 15 March 1870 ). Indeed, Darwin noted the same …
  • … bane of existence!’ ( letter to William Ogle, 9 November 1870 ). Researching expression: …
  • … spirits were white ( letter from W. W. Reade, 9 November 1870 ). Keen for more evidence of …
  • … hurting it much?’ ( letter to A. D. Bartlett, 5 January [1870] ). Darwin made a similar request of …
  • … not succeed’ ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 8 June [1870] ). Darwin’s queries were part …
  • … of a baby’s brows ( letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [5 May 1870] ). He also wrote to a leading Dutch …
  • … on this subject’  ( letter from F. C. Donders, 17 May 1870 ). Human evolution: debates and …
  • … more fully in a collection of essays published in April 1870 (Wallace 1870a). Wallace wrote to …
  • … naturalist’ (letter to A. R.Wallace, 26 January [1870]). Despite their increasing …
  • … in one sense rivals’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 20 April [1870] ). Darwin alluded here to the …
  • … No one but yourself’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 20 May 1870 ). Darwin very rarely used the …
  • … never  write reviews’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, [22 May 1870] ). St George Jackson Mivart …
  • … to answer objectors’ ( letter to W. H. Flower, 25 March [1870] ). In his letters to Mivart, Darwin …
  • … on the Primates’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 April [1870] ). He also tried to recruit Mivart’s …
  • … lump of granite’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 22 April 1870 ). Mivart hinted that his …
  • … his “origin” ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 25 April 1870 ). In his critical essays (later revised …
  • … Charles Darwin et ses précurseurs français  (Quatrefages 1870), that gave a detailed account, as …
  • … many others’  ( letter to Armand de Quatrefages, 28 May [1870] ). Quatrefages had …
  • … discord’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 30 March 1870 ). In proposing Darwin for election, …
  • … them’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 18 July 1870 ). The assertion had been made by Emile …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … Brooke, C.A.J. 30 Nov 1870 Sarawak, Borneo …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 15 March 1870 West Riding …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 18 March 1870 Down, Kent, …
  • … Donders, F.C. 27 May 1870 Utrecht, Netherlands …
  • … Forbes, David 13 June 1870 Portman Square, London W. …
  • … Nicol, Patrick 13 May 1870 Sussex Lunatic Asylum, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. [c.8 or 9 Apr 1870] Accra, West …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 4 June 1870 Lagos, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 3 Sept 1870 Conservative Club, St …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 9 Nov 1870 11 St Mary Abbot's …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. [25 May 1870] Bedford, Cape of Good …
  • … Weir, J.J. 27 June 1870 Blackheath, London, England …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before …
  • … Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to …
  • … Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to Darwin, [29 April 1870] George Cupples tells Darwin about a …

Francis Darwin

Summary

Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … honours in the natural sciences tripos in December 1870. The small amount of surviving …
  • … I appear to you’ (letter to Francis Darwin,  18 October [1870] ). Subsequently Francis …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … behaviour of her dog (letter from J. L. Gray, 14 February 1870 ), she also passed on information …

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … on my mind’ ( letter to W. T. Preyer, 17 February [1870 ])) that without earthworms aerating the …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … more litters & no happy results”, he wrote on 26 April 1870 . In the following year, Galton …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Audio of more …

Darwin and Gender Projects by Harvard Students

Summary

Working in collaboration with Professor Sarah Richardson and Dr Myrna Perez, Darwin Correspondence Project staff developed a customised set of 'Darwin and Gender' themed resources for a course on Gender, Sex and Evolution first taught at Harvard…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … grateful I shall be.”(Letter to Darwin, H. E., [8 Feb 1870] ) Although Miranda acknowledges that …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ideas to humans.  After his election as MP for Maidstone in 1870, Lubbock tried at Darwin’s request …
  • … Lubbock’s Origin of civilisation , published in 1870 as Darwin was completing Descent, was …
  • … good of my internal viscera’ ( to John Lubbock, 21 July [1870] ). It seems what principally gave …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … you owe any more … Darwin to his son Francis, 1870. …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, …
  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … & I feel deeply for you. ( Letter to F. C. Donders, 19 May 1870 )     …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …
  • … Letter 7329 – Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7314 - Kovalevsky, S. to Darwin, [1 September 1870] Sophia Kovalevsky accepts …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7145 : Darwin to Cobbe, F. P. 23 March [1870?] Darwin met the religious writer and …
  • … Letter 7149 : Cobbe, F. P. to Darwin, 28 March [1870?] "I more than suspect you of a …

Power of movement in plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Family experiments Darwin was an active and engaged father during his children's youth, involving them in his experiments and even occasionally using them as observational subjects. When his children…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 7346 - Darwin to Francis Darwin, 18 October 1870 Darwin writes to Francis to …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … the basis for a new German edition (Bronn and Carus trans. 1870), prepared by Julius Victor Carus, …
  • … own evolutionary views and critical commentary (Royer trans. 1870). Darwin complained to Hooker, …
  • … work some hours daily’ ( letter to Anton Dohrn, 4 January 1870 ). Darwin’s health was generally …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Morning Star in 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75, 1 February 1872, p. 66). The …
  • … of a prize for a humane trap ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). The prize was still …
  • … England and Wales every night ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). Under these circumstances, …
  • … Star , 8 December 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). 5 Animal baiting, …
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