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To J. D. Hooker   9 May [1856]

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Summary

Lyell urges CD to publish a sketch of species theory; CD asks JDH’s opinion on best course.

Concerned about opposition, particularly by Owen, to Huxley’s admission to Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  9 May [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 161
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1870

Matches: 1 hit

  • … DCP-LETT-1870

To J. D. Hooker   27 September [1870]

Summary

Comments on JDH’s report of Liverpool meeting.

Huxley’s address.

Sir Roderick [Murchison]’s "apotheosis".

Tyndall’s lecture is "grand" except for egotistical beginning. Some Frenchmen have pitched into CD for using the "as if" reasoning, which Tyndall shows is justified.

Has just read George Rolleston’s address in Nature.

Anton Dohrn says German public have high opinion of Lyell.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  27 Sept [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 181–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7328

Matches: 20 hits

  • … To J.  D.  Hooker   27 September [1870] …
  • … DAR 94: 181–3 Charles Robert Darwin Down 27 Sept [1870] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … and George Howard Darwin to visit Kew. See letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 24 September 1870 . …
  • … New York: Springer Verlag. Tyndall, John. 1870. On the scientific use of the imagination: …
  • … this letter and the letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 24 September 1870 . See letter from J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 24 September 1870  and n.  3. The annual meeting of the British Association …
  • … See letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 24 September 1870 . CD refers to Anton Dohrn. Dohrn’s …
  • … at Liverpool, on Friday evening, 16th September 1870. London: Longmans, Green & Co. …
  • … generation, was published in Nature 2 (1870): 400–6. CD refers to Roderick Impey …
  • … Murchison. See letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 24 September 1870  and n.  7. The …
  • … address, ‘On the scientific use of the imagination’ ( Tyndall 1870 ). See letter from J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 24 September 1870  and n.  5. George Howard Darwin. In a debate over his …
  • … that were not demonstrable. See Revue des Cours Scientifiques , 23 July 1870, p.  529, and …
  • … the summary of the French debate in Nature 2 (1870): 298 and 309. …
  • … See also letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 18 July 1870 and n.   …
  • … 6, and letter to John Tyndall, 8 September 1870  and n.  3. …
  • … CD refers to George Rolleston and to Rolleston 1870. The first portion …
  • … of Rolleston’s address was published in Nature 2 (1870): 423–8. See letter from J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 24 September 1870  and n.  6. Hooker had tried to discover whether seed from a …
  • … in Rolleston’s address (see Rolleston 1870, p.  98). The enclosure has not been found. CD …

To R. A. von Kölliker   14 June 1870

Summary

Thanks for RAvK’s work [Anatomisch-systematische Beschreibung der Alcyonarien, pt 1, Die Pennatuliden (1870)].

Asks whether muscles to quills of porcupine are striped. Are they homologous to muscles of ordinary hairs? Could unstriped muscles develop into striped?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Rudolf Albert von Kölliker
Date:  14 June 1870
Classmark:  DAR 146: 22
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7230

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To R.  A.  von Kölliker   14 June 1870
  • … DAR 146: 22 Charles Robert Darwin Down 14 June 1870 Rudolf Albert von Kölliker …
  • … pp.  102–3. Kölliker visited Down on 15 April 1870 (see letters from Albert Günther, [ c. …
  • … 9 April 1870] and …
  • … 12 April 1870). …
  • … Alcyonarien , pt 1, Die Pennatuliden (1870)]. Asks whether muscles to quills of porcupine …
  • … 1: 18–28. Kölliker, Rudolf Albert von. 1870. Anatomisch-systematische Beschreibung der …
  • … Down. | Beckenham Kent. S.E. June 14. 1870. My dear Sir. I received two days ago from the …
  • … an offprint of the first part ( Kölliker 1870 ) in the Darwin Library–Down. See letter to …
  • … R.  A.  von Kölliker, 18 April 1870 and n.  3. CD refers to Kölliker’s isolation of ‘ …

To J. D. Hooker   8 July [1870]

Summary

Thinks well of Claparède’s criticism; worth publishing as an answer to Wallace. Bates thinks Wallace’s heterodox views have done mischief to the cause of evolution. Wallace thinks Claparède’s article very weak, CD concludes, because Claparède has arrived at an unpleasant judgment very much like Lyell’s about Bentham’s address.

CD would wager Lyell lately has said something about European Proteaceae.

Does not remember anyone before Wallace on Sumatra and Java.

CD does not think he has a chance against Brandt in French Academy election.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  8 July [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 177–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7271

Matches: 13 hits

  • … To J.  D.  Hooker   8 July [1870] …
  • … Johann Friedrich von Brandt. See letter from J.  D.  Hooker, [6 or 7 July 1870] and n.  5. …
  • … DAR 94: 177–8 Charles Robert Darwin Down 8 July [1870] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … between this letter and the letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 10 July 1870 . See letter to J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 2 July [1870] and nn.  3 and 4. See letter …
  • … from J.  D.  Hooker, [6 or 7 July 1870] and n.  3. CD refers to Edouard Claparède and …
  • … as applied to humans. See letter from H.  W.  Bates, 20 May 1870  and n.  1. See letter …
  • … from A.  R.  Wallace, 6 July 1870  and n.  3. CD refers to Charles Lyell and George …
  • … Bentham. See letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 2 July [1870] and n.  7, and letter from J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, [6 or 7 July 1870] . CD refers to Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel. See …
  • … letter from J.  D.  Hooker, [6 or 7 July 1870] and n.  7. CD refers to Brian Houghton …
  • … See letter from J.  D.  Hooker, [6 or 7 July 1870] and n.  8. Thomas Henry Huxley had …
  • … Huxley’s observation in a letter of 2 May 1870 (Huxley papers MS 10.238 (Imperial College …

To C. W. Thomson   10 October 1870

Summary

Testimonial letter hoping that CWT will be successful in getting Chair of Natural History at Edinburgh.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Wyville Thomson
Date:  10 Oct 1870
Classmark:  C. W. Thomson 1870, p. 10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7337

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To C.  W.  Thomson   10 October 1870
  • … C. W. Thomson 1870, p. …
  • … 10 Charles Robert Darwin Down 10 Oct 1870 Charles Wyville Thomson …
  • … see Correspondence vol. 18, letter from C.  W.  Thomson, 7 October 1870 and n.  2. …
  • … Thomson was appointed to the position on 7 November 1870 (see Swinney 1999 , p.  57). …
  • … 18, letter from C.  W.  Thomson, 7 October 1870. A draft of this letter was published in …
  • … vol. 18 with the date [after 7 October 1870]. This version is from a pamphlet containing a …
  • … that accompanied it ( C. W. Thomson 1870 ). Thomson participated in the voyages of HMS …
  • … Down, Beckenham, Kent, October 10th, 1870. My dear Sir,— I am very glad to hear that you …
  • … 11: 51–70. Thomson, Charles Wyville. 1870. Regius professorship of natural history in the …

To J. V. Carus   18 August 1870

Summary

Has just sent MS of Descent to printers. Recognises that [because of Franco-Prussian War] the publisher will have given up idea of a German translation.

Though the war is a misfortune for science, CD rejoices at the wonderful success of Germany; has met no one who does not share this feeling.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Julius Victor Carus
Date:  18 Aug 1870
Classmark:  Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Slg. Darmstaedter Lc 1859: Darwin, Charles, Bl. 60–61)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7305

Matches: 13 hits

  • … To J.  V.  Carus   18 August 1870
  • … Bl. 60–61) Charles Robert Darwin Bassett Down letterhead 18 Aug 1870 Julius Victor Carus …
  • … war: the German conquest of France in 1870–1871. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. …
  • … had been sent to the printers, William Clowes & Sons, on 9 August 1870 (see letter from …
  • … John Murray, 6 August [1870] , and letter to …
  • … Mr Dorrell, 9 August 1870 ; see also letter to J.   …
  • … J.  Moulinié, 18 August 1870). The Franco- …
  • … Prussian war had begun on 19 July 1870 ( Wawro 2003 , p.  65). The publishing firm E.   …
  • … in 1871 (Carus trans.  1871). See also letter to J.  J.  Moulinié, 18 August 1870. See …
  • … letter to Mr Dorrell, 9 August 1870 , and n.  2. …
  • … crossed the border into Prussia on 31 July 1870. Despite suffering heavy casualties, the …
  • … did not reach the British press until 19 August ( The Times , 19 August 1870, p.   10). …
  • … Kent. S.E. [Bassett, Southampton] Aug 18 1870 My dear Sir I have just sent the MS.  of my …

To W. W. Reade   30 June [1870]

Summary

Thanks WWR for information on the Nehro idea of beauty and other facts relating to expression.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Winwood Reade
Date:  30 June [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 96: 79–80
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7255

Matches: 11 hits

  • … To W.  W.  Reade   30 June [1870] …
  • … DAR 96: 79–80 Charles Robert Darwin Down 30 June [1870] William Winwood Reade …
  • … in Expression , pp.  143–4. See letter from W.  W.  Reade, 4 June 1870  and n.  7. …
  • … this letter and the letter from W.  W.  Reade, 4 June 1870 . See letter from W.  W.   …
  • … Reade, [ c. 8 or 9 April 1870]. See letter from W.   …
  • … W.  Reade, 4 June 1870 . Reade published The African sketch-book in 1873 ( Reade 1873 ). …
  • … See letter from W.  W.  Reade, 4 June 1870  and n.  4. …
  • … CD sent the manuscript of Descent to the printers in August 1870 ( letter to John …
  • … Murray, 5 [August 1870] ). Expression was published in November 1872 (CD’s ‘Journal’ (DAR …
  • … 158)). See letters from W.  W.  Reade, [ c. 8 or 9 April 1870] and n.   …
  • … 7, and 4 June 1870 and n.  14. The letter in which CD asked Reade about gorillas and …

To Edwin Ray Lankester   15 March [1870]

Summary

CD much interested by ERL’s book [On comparative longevity (1870)]. Is pleased to find ERL refers to CD’s "despised child" Pangenesis, and is also pleased how thoroughly ERL appreciates Herbert Spencer, a philosopher perhaps equal to any that has lived.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edwin Ray Lankester
Date:  15 Mar [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 249: 92
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7135

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To Edwin Ray Lankester   15 March [1870] …
  • … DAR 249: 92 Charles Robert Darwin Down 15 Mar [1870] Edwin Ray Lankester …
  • … by ERL’s book [ On comparative longevity (1870)]. Is pleased to find ERL refers to CD’s " …
  • … Bibliography Lankester, Edwin Ray. 1870. On comparative longevity in man and the lower …
  • … s On comparative longevity in man and the lower animals , which was published in 1870 ( …
  • … Lankester 1870 ). There …
  • … is an annotated copy of Lankester 1870  in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia 1: 482). …
  • … of pangenesis (see Variation 2: 357–404) in Lankester 1870 , pp.  30–1, 35. Lankester …
  • … units’ as an alternative to CD’s ‘gemmules’ in Lankester 1870 , pp.  32, 35–8. …

To P. L. Sclater   21 November [1870]

Summary

Sends two sheets [of Descent] for correction of names of birds. PLS will save him many disgraceful misspellings. Descent now being prepared in five foreign editions.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  21 Nov [1870]
Classmark:  Zoological Society of London (GB 0814 BADD (Darwin))
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7379

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To P.  L.  Sclater   21 November [1870] …
  • … L.  Youmans, 25 September 1870 ). …
  • … GB 0814 BADD (Darwin)) Charles Robert Darwin Down 21 Nov [1870] Philip Lutley Sclater …
  • … the letter to P.  L.  Sclater, 9 November 1870 . Sclater had offered to read the proof- …
  • … see letter to P.  L.  Sclater, 11 November [1870] and n.  2. William Clowes & Sons were …
  • … see letter from J.  V.  Carus, 2 October 1870 ); into French by Jean Jacques Moulinié ( …
  • … 1872; see letter to John Murray, 26 September 1870 ); into Russian by Vladimir Onufrievich …
  • … letter from V.  O.  Kovalevsky, 22 November 1870 ; this translation was never published); …
  • … Hartogh Heijs van Zouteveen, 27 November 1870 ). A US edition was also being prepared ( …
  • … Descent US ed. ; see letter from Asa Gray, 14 February 1870  and n.   5; letters from E.   …

To J. D. Hooker   2 July [1870]

Summary

Thanks JDH for offer of lilies.

The paper on orchids is by Hermann Müller [Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande & Westphalens 25 (1868): 1–62], on Platanthera and Epipactis.

Cites another work by P. Rohrbach [Über den Blüthenbau (1866)].

MS [of Descent] ready for printer.

Has read Bentham’s last Linnean Society [Presidential] Address [Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (1870): lxxiv–xciv] with great interest.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  2 July [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 175–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7261

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To J.  D.  Hooker   2 July [1870] …
  • … DAR 94: 175–6 Charles Robert Darwin Down 2 July [1870] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … were numerous in Europe during Eocene times ( Bentham 1870 , pp.  lxxxiv–lxxxix). …
  • … Bibliography Bentham, George. 1870. Anniversary address. [ …
  • … Read 24 May 1870. ] Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 27: lxxiv–xciv. Müller, …
  • … Presidential] Address [ Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (1870): lxxiv–xciv] with great interest. …
  • … between this letter and the letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 1 July 1870 . See letter from J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 1 July 1870 . See letter from J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 1 July 1870  and n.  3. CD refers to Hermann Müller’s observations on …
  • … CD visited London from 24 June to 1 July 1870, but did not visit Hooker (see ‘Journal’ ( …

To P. L. Sclater   9 November 1870

Summary

Thanks PLS for his generous offer to go over the part on birds [in Descent]. Does not think PLS realises that there are more than 200 pages – most of which will have nothing new for him.

W. H. Hudson’s proofs have arrived ["Letters on the ornithology of Buenos Ayres", Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. (1870): 87–9, 158–60, 332–4, 545–50, 671–3, 748–50, 798–82; (1871): 4–7, 258–62, 326–9].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  9 Nov 1870
Classmark:  Zoological Society of London (GB 0814 BADD (Darwin))
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7362

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To P.  L.  Sclater   9 November 1870
  • … London (GB 0814 BADD (Darwin)) Charles Robert Darwin Down 9 Nov 1870 Philip Lutley Sclater …
  • … of Buenos Ayres", Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. (1870): 87–9, 158–60, 332–4, 545–50, 671–3, 748– …
  • … Down. | Beckenham | Kent. S.E. Nov 9. 1870 My dear Mr Sclater Your offer is most …
  • … the letter to P.  L.  Sclater, 4 November [1870] . Sclater had evidently offered to check …
  • … Society of London on the ornithology of Buenos Aires ( Hudson 1870 ). See letter to P.   …
  • … L.  Sclater, 30 August [1870]. …
  • … John Murray. 1871. Hudson, William Henry. 1870. On the ornithology of Buenos Ayres. [ …
  • … 24 March, 26 May, 23 June, 1 and 15 November, and 6 December 1870] Proceedings of the …
  • … Zoological Society of London (1870): 87–9, 112–14, 158–60, 332–4, 545–50, 671–3, 748–50, …

To J. D. Hooker   [29 June 1870]

Summary

Asks whether JDH can send seeds of Hibiscus africanus and of Nolana prostrata raised at Kew.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [29 June 1870]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 173
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7251

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To J.  D.  Hooker   [29 June 1870] …
  • … 94: 173 Charles Robert Darwin London Queen Anne St, 6 [29 June 1870] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … seed merchants Carter, Dunnett and Beale of London ( Post Office London directory 1870). …
  • … Sunday was 26 June 1870; the Darwins went back to …
  • … Down on Friday 1 July 1870. …
  • … relationship between this letter and the letters to J.  D.  Hooker, 25 May [1870] and [ …
  • … 13 June 1870? ] , and by the dates of CD’s visit …
  • … were in London from 24 June to 1 July 1870 (CD’s ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). The only …
  • … letter to J.  D.  Hooker, [13 June 1870? ] and n.  2, and Cross and self fertilisation , …
  • … See letter to J.  D.  Hooker, [13 June 1870? ] and nn.  3 and 4. Hibiscus africanus is a …

To B. J. Sulivan   30 June [1870]

Summary

Congratulates BJS on his K.C.B.

In autumn he will publish a book partly on man [Descent], which he expects "many will decry as very wicked".

Thinks the success of the Tierra del Fuego mission is wonderful.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Bartholomew James Sulivan
Date:  30 June [1870]
Classmark:  Sulivan family (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7256

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To B.  J.  Sulivan   30 June [1870] …
  • … private collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 30 June [1870] Bartholomew James Sulivan …
  • … which children went. See letter from B.   J.  Sulivan, 27 June 1870 and n.  13. See letter …
  • … from B.  J.  Sulivan, 27 June 1870. CD refers to the Bournemouth Natural History Society. …
  • … this letter and the letter from B.  J.  Sulivan, 27 June 1870. See letter from B.   …
  • … J.  Sulivan, 27 June 1870. Sulivan was made a Knight …
  • … Commander of the Order of the Bath on 2 June 1870 ( ODNB ). See letter from B.   …
  • … J.  Sulivan, 27 June 1870 and n.  3. CD refers to Descent. CD had been …
  • … see letter from B.  J.  Sulivan, 27 June 1870 and n.  1. CD refers to Leonard Darwin. CD …
  • … Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) for 21 June 1870 reads, ‘They went to Swiss—’; another note …

To P. L. Sclater   11 November [1870]

Summary

Accepts PLS’s offer to read proofs of [Descent].

W. H. Hudson’s paper is interesting.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  11 Nov [1870]
Classmark:  Kotte Autographs (dealers) (April 2019)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7366

Matches: 11 hits

  • … To P.  L.  Sclater   11 November [1870] …
  • … dealers) (April 2019) Charles Robert Darwin Down 11 Nov [1870] Philip Lutley Sclater …
  • … letter to P.  L.  Sclater, 9 November 1870 . Sclater’s letter to CD has not been found, …
  • … letter to P.  L.  Sclater, 9 November 1870 ). William Clowes & Sons were printing Descent. …
  • … Hudson’s letters to the Zoological Society of London ( Hudson 1870 ; see letter to P.   …
  • … John Murray. 1871. Hudson, William Henry. 1870. On the ornithology of Buenos Ayres. [ …
  • … 24 March, 26 May, 23 June, 1 and 15 November, and 6 December 1870] Proceedings of the …
  • … Zoological Society of London (1870): 87–9, 112–14, 158–60, 332–4, 545–50, 671–3, 748–50, …
  • … L.  Sclater, 9 November 1870 ). CD may refer to a passage at …
  • … the end of a letter read at the Zoological Society on 23 June 1870 ( …
  • … Hudson 1870 , p.  550), on the waste of other birds’ eggs caused by Molothrus …

To W. T. Preyer   15 May 1870

Summary

Comments on WP’s biographical article on CD. Asks him to thank O. F. Peschel for his present of the publication [Das Ausland 2 Apr 1870].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Thierry (William) Preyer
Date:  15 May 1870
Classmark:  DAR 147: 256–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7190

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To W.  T.  Preyer   15 May 1870
  • … DAR 147: 256–8 Charles Robert Darwin Down 15 May 1870 William Thierry (William) Preyer …
  • … him to thank O. F. Peschel for his present of the publication [ Das Ausland 2 Apr 1870]. …
  • … See letter from W.  T.  Preyer, 9 May 1870  and n.  2. Preyer sent two copies of Preyer  …
  • … a work by Oscar Ferdinand Peschel (see letter from W.  T.  Preyer, 9 May 1870  and n.  3). …
  • … Descent went to press on 30 August 1870 (see ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). Ernst Haeckel. …
  • … May 15. 1870. My Dear Sir. — I received two days ago your article, which has gratified me …

To J. D. Hooker   25 May [1870]

Summary

Concern about futures of Willy [Hooker] and Horace [Darwin].

Henrietta [Darwin] back from Cannes.

CD has been to Cambridge to visit Frank [Darwin]. Saw Sedgwick, who took him to the [Geological] Museum and utterly exhausted him. Humiliating to be "killed by a man of 86".

Saw Alfred Newton.

CD has been working away on man, to much greater length (as usual) than expected,

and on cross- and self-fertilisation.

Does JDH happen to have seeds of Canna warszewiczii matured in some hot country?

Sympathises with JDH on Dawson’s paper – amusing that Dawson hashes up E. D. Cope’s and L. Agassiz’s views.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  25 May [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 169–72
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7200

Matches: 14 hits

  • … To J.  D.  Hooker   25 May [1870] …
  • … DAR 94: 169–72 Charles Robert Darwin Down 25 May [1870] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … 133–4). CD refers to Charles Paget Hooker. See letter from J.  D.  Hooker, [22 May 1870] . …
  • … See letter from J.  D.  Hooker, [22 May 1870] . CD refers to …
  • … student’s flora of the British Islands ( Hooker 1870 ). William Henslow Hooker. See letter …
  • … from J.  D.  Hooker, [22 May 1870] and n.  2. Henrietta Emma Darwin. CD refers to Francis …
  • … Murray. 1871. Hooker, Joseph Dalton. 1870. The student’s flora of the British Islands. …
  • … Sir William Dawson’s Bakerian Lecture of 1870. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of …
  • … and CD had visited the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge, on 23 May 1870 (see letter to …
  • … Alfred Newton [22 May 1870]). Alfred Newton. John Stevens Henslow had died in 1861. CD …
  • … 108). Descent went to press on 30 August 1870 (see CD’s ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). CD had …
  • … letter from Federico Delpino, 20 May  1870  and n.  3). CD has double scored both margins, …
  • … s critical report on John William Dawson’s Bakerian lecture of 1870 (see letter from J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, [22 May 1870] and n.  5). The other referee was Peter Martin Duncan, who gave …

To W. G. Smith   6 November 1870

Summary

Thanks for the information sent by WGS in his letter of 4 November 1870.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Worthington George Smith
Date:  6 Nov 1870
Classmark:  The British Library (Add MS 54224: 196)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7359F

Matches: 4 hits

  • … To W.  G.  Smith   6 November 1870
  • … See letter from W.  G.  Smith, 4 November 1870. …
  • … Library (Add MS 54224: 196) Charles Robert Darwin 6 Nov 1870 Worthington George Smith …
  • … Thanks for the information sent by WGS in his letter of 4 November 1870. …

To A. R. Wallace   22 November [1870]

Summary

Praise for ARW’s reply [Nature 3 (1870): 49–50] to a paper by A. W. Bennett ["Natural selection from a mathematical point of view", Nature 3 (1870): 30–3] holding that mind is a leading cause of variation.

Is reading proof of his "confounded book" [Descent].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  22 Nov [1870]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add MS 46434: 207–8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7380

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To A.  R.  Wallace   22 November [1870] …
  • … Add MS 46434: 207–8) Charles Robert Darwin Down 22 Nov [1870] Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … Praise for ARW’s reply [ Nature 3 (1870): 49–50] to a paper by A. W. …
  • … a mathematical point of view", Nature 3 (1870): 30–3] holding that mind is a leading cause …
  • … Bibliography Bennett, Alfred William. 1870. The theory of natural selection from a …
  • … and the letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 24 November 1870 . CD refers to Wallace’s response to …
  • … Bennett on natural selection (Wallace 1870d; Bennett 1870 ); Wallace 1870d was published …
  • … in the 17 November 1870 number of Nature. There is an annotated copy in the Darwin …
  • … occur through natural selection (see Bennett 1870 , pp.  30–1, and Wallace 1870d, p.  49). …
  • … ibid. , pp.  411–15. Bennett wrote ( Bennett 1870 , p.  32): ‘I cannot but believe in the …

To J. P. M. Weale   30 July 1870

Summary

Has forwarded JPMW’s papers to the Linnean Society [four articles by J. P. M. Weale, J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 13 (1870–2): 42–58].

Comments on JPMW’s findings concerning flowers and their fertilisation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Philip Mansel Weale
Date:  30 July 1870
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.380)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7290

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To J.  P.  M.  Weale   30 July 1870
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.380) Charles Robert Darwin Down 30 July 1870 James Philip Mansel Weale …
  • … he lived, was in a now missing section of his letter to CD of [25 May 1870]. …
  • … P. M. Weale, J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot. ) 13 (1870–2): 42–58]. Comments on JPMW’s findings …
  • … Down. | Beckenham | Kent. S.E. July 30 1870 My dear Sir I received 3 days ago your …
  • … See letter from J.  P.  M.  Weale, [25 May 1870]. The letter is now incomplete. …
  • … See letter to Richard Kippist, 28 July [1870] and n.  3. Weale had compared the ease of …
  • … missing paper enclosed with his letter to CD of [25 May 1870] (see letter from J.  P.   …
  • … M.  Weale, [25 May 1870] and n.3). Weale’ s account of the region of Kaffraria, where …
  • … section of his letter to CD of [25 May 1870]; only the first part of his comments on …

To Fritz Müller   12 May 1870

Summary

Crossing experiments and self-sterility [in Eschscholzia].

Pangenesis.

Hermann Müller on insect adaptations for fertilisation of flowers.

CD working on book on man and sexual selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  12 May 1870
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 32)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7184

Matches: 12 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   12 May 1870
  • … Descent , which went to press on 30 August 1870 (see CD’s ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). …
  • … 10 no 32) Charles Robert Darwin Down 12 May 1870 Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … 1869 ( Correspondence vol.  17) and 29 March 1870. CD evidently wrote ‘15’ in error. …
  • … In his letter of 29 March 1870 , Müller had reported his most recent results with plants …
  • … the letter from Fritz Müller, 16 February 1870 . Müller had enclosed seeds of Passiflora. …
  • … also the letter from J.  J.  Weir, 17 March 1870 and n.  1 for more on the mare of Lord …
  • … in Variation 2: 357–404. See letter from Hermann Müller, 8 March 1870  and n.  2. …
  • … Albert von Kölliker and Albert Günther visited Down on 15 April 1870 (see letter from …
  • … Albert Günther, 12 April 1870 ). CD refers to …
  • … Down Beckenham | Kent May 12. 1870 My dear Sir I thank you for your two letters of Dec  …
  • … see the letter to J.  J.  Weir, 17 March [1870] , in which CD quoted a passage from Müller …
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Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The …
  • … machine’  ( letter to Charles Lyell, 25 December [1870] ). Finishing Descent; …
  • … some weeks’  ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on …
  • … I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had previously read proof-sheets …
  • … shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta disagreed: ‘Certainly …
  • … of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). Darwin was also encouraged …
  • … sense of mankind’ ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in …
  • … great philosophy?’ ( letter from F. P. Cobbe, 28 March [1870?] ). Humans as animals: ears …
  • … [1868] ; this volume, letter to Thomas Woolner, 10 March [1870] ). Darwin included Woolner’s …
  • … findings ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 15 March 1870 ). Indeed, Darwin noted the same …
  • … bane of existence!’ ( letter to William Ogle, 9 November 1870 ). Researching expression: …
  • … spirits were white ( letter from W. W. Reade, 9 November 1870 ). Keen for more evidence of …
  • … hurting it much?’ ( letter to A. D. Bartlett, 5 January [1870] ). Darwin made a similar request of …
  • … not succeed’ ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 8 June [1870] ). Darwin’s queries were part …
  • … of a baby’s brows ( letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [5 May 1870] ). He also wrote to a leading Dutch …
  • … on this subject’  ( letter from F. C. Donders, 17 May 1870 ). Human evolution: debates and …
  • … more fully in a collection of essays published in April 1870 (Wallace 1870a). Wallace wrote to …
  • … naturalist’ (letter to A. R.Wallace, 26 January [1870]). Despite their increasing …
  • … in one sense rivals’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 20 April [1870] ). Darwin alluded here to the …
  • … No one but yourself’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 20 May 1870 ). Darwin very rarely used the …
  • … never  write reviews’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, [22 May 1870] ). St George Jackson Mivart …
  • … to answer objectors’ ( letter to W. H. Flower, 25 March [1870] ). In his letters to Mivart, Darwin …
  • … on the Primates’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 April [1870] ). He also tried to recruit Mivart’s …
  • … lump of granite’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 22 April 1870 ). Mivart hinted that his …
  • … his “origin” ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 25 April 1870 ). In his critical essays (later revised …
  • … Charles Darwin et ses précurseurs français  (Quatrefages 1870), that gave a detailed account, as …
  • … many others’  ( letter to Armand de Quatrefages, 28 May [1870] ). Quatrefages had …
  • … discord’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 30 March 1870 ). In proposing Darwin for election, …
  • … them’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 18 July 1870 ). The assertion had been made by Emile …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … Brooke, C.A.J. 30 Nov 1870 Sarawak, Borneo …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 15 March 1870 West Riding …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 18 March 1870 Down, Kent, …
  • … Donders, F.C. 27 May 1870 Utrecht, Netherlands …
  • … Forbes, David 13 June 1870 Portman Square, London W. …
  • … Nicol, Patrick 13 May 1870 Sussex Lunatic Asylum, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. [c.8 or 9 Apr 1870] Accra, West …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 4 June 1870 Lagos, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 3 Sept 1870 Conservative Club, St …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 9 Nov 1870 11 St Mary Abbot's …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. [25 May 1870] Bedford, Cape of Good …
  • … Weir, J.J. 27 June 1870 Blackheath, London, England …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before …
  • … Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to …
  • … Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to Darwin, [29 April 1870] George Cupples tells Darwin about a …

Francis Darwin

Summary

Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … honours in the natural sciences tripos in December 1870. The small amount of surviving …
  • … I appear to you’ (letter to Francis Darwin,  18 October [1870] ). Subsequently Francis …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … behaviour of her dog (letter from J. L. Gray, 14 February 1870 ), she also passed on information …

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … on my mind’ ( letter to W. T. Preyer, 17 February [1870 ])) that without earthworms aerating the …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … more litters & no happy results”, he wrote on 26 April 1870 . In the following year, Galton …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Audio of more …

Darwin and Gender Projects by Harvard Students

Summary

Working in collaboration with Professor Sarah Richardson and Dr Myrna Perez, Darwin Correspondence Project staff developed a customised set of 'Darwin and Gender' themed resources for a course on Gender, Sex and Evolution first taught at Harvard…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … grateful I shall be.”(Letter to Darwin, H. E., [8 Feb 1870] ) Although Miranda acknowledges that …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ideas to humans.  After his election as MP for Maidstone in 1870, Lubbock tried at Darwin’s request …
  • … Lubbock’s Origin of civilisation , published in 1870 as Darwin was completing Descent, was …
  • … good of my internal viscera’ ( to John Lubbock, 21 July [1870] ). It seems what principally gave …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … you owe any more … Darwin to his son Francis, 1870. …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, …
  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … & I feel deeply for you. ( Letter to F. C. Donders, 19 May 1870 )     …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …
  • … Letter 7329 – Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7314 - Kovalevsky, S. to Darwin, [1 September 1870] Sophia Kovalevsky accepts …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7145 : Darwin to Cobbe, F. P. 23 March [1870?] Darwin met the religious writer and …
  • … Letter 7149 : Cobbe, F. P. to Darwin, 28 March [1870?] "I more than suspect you of a …

Power of movement in plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Family experiments Darwin was an active and engaged father during his children's youth, involving them in his experiments and even occasionally using them as observational subjects. When his children…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 7346 - Darwin to Francis Darwin, 18 October 1870 Darwin writes to Francis to …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … the basis for a new German edition (Bronn and Carus trans. 1870), prepared by Julius Victor Carus, …
  • … own evolutionary views and critical commentary (Royer trans. 1870). Darwin complained to Hooker, …
  • … work some hours daily’ ( letter to Anton Dohrn, 4 January 1870 ). Darwin’s health was generally …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Morning Star in 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75, 1 February 1872, p. 66). The …
  • … of a prize for a humane trap ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). The prize was still …
  • … England and Wales every night ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). Under these circumstances, …
  • … Star , 8 December 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). 5 Animal baiting, …
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