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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To John Murray   1 October [1878]

Summary

Encloses a cheque for £11.19.9. Will transmit £7.9.4 to Fritz Müller. Thanks for account of the sale of his books, which appears to be in a "lamentable state".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  1 Oct [1878]
Classmark:  DAR 147: 176
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11712A

Matches: 3 hits

  • … the money was for sales of Dallas trans. 1869 (the English translation of F. Müller 1864). …
  • … An account of sales of Dallas trans. 1869 as well as CD’s own books to June 1878 is in DAR …
  • … amount owing for sales of Dallas trans. 1869 is given as £7 9 s . 4 d . CD evidently paid …

From W. W. Baxter   7 January 1878

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Summary

Constituents of spermaceti ointment supplied to CD. Perhaps effect was caused by substance used to bleach the bees-wax.

Author:  William Walmisley Baxter
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Jan 1878
Classmark:  DAR 209.8: 150
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11315

Matches: 2 hits

  • … margarin were terms for components of plant oils (see Dussauce 1869 , pp. 171–2, OED ). …
  • … Medical Council. 1877. Dussauce, Hippolyte. 1869. A general treatise on the manufacture of …

From W. E. Hart   27 January 1878

Summary

Offers observations on pollination.

Author:  William Edward Hart
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 Jan 1878
Classmark:  DAR 166: 109
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11334

Matches: 2 hits

  • … H. Müller 1873 . Johan Severin Axell; Axell 1869 . Viola palustris is the marsh violet; V. …
  • … Bibliography Axell, Severin. 1869. Om anordningarna för de fanerogama växternas …

To F. B. Goodacre   3 September [1878]

Summary

The geese have arrived. Does not think FBG’s view that the two forms are domestic varieties will hold good. Many ornithologists put them in different genera, and the wild type of each is known.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Burges Goodacre
Date:  3 Sept [1878]
Classmark:  Dr John Goodacre (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11686

Matches: 2 hits

  • … John Murray. 1871. Gray, George Robert. 1869–71. Handlist of genera and species of birds: …
  • … Cygnopsis (see, for example, G. R. Gray 1869–71 , 3: 75). See Origin 6th ed. , chapter 9, …

From A. S. Wilson   6 August 1878

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Summary

Observations on dimorphic and trimorphic plants of Scotland.

On fertilisation of Scrophularia nodosa.

Author:  Alexander Stephen Wilson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Aug 1878
Classmark:  DAR 86: B19–20
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11641

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Bibliography Axell, Severin. 1869. Om anordningarna för de fanerogama växternas …
  • … S. vulgaris , bladder campion) in Axell 1869 , p. 46. Hermann Müller had, in fact, briefly …

From G. A. Gaskell   20 November 1878

Summary

Thanks CD for his encouraging letter. Replies to CD’s points. Thinks more attention should be given to the origin and growth of sexual shame.

Author:  George Arthur Gaskell
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Nov 1878
Classmark:  DAR 165: 13
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11752

Matches: 1 hit

  • … committee’; the practice was in place by 1869 and is described in Noyes 1870 ( ANB ). …

To G.S. Ffinden   9 December 1878

Summary

Encloses a cheque for £5.5.0 for the Down Coal and Clothing Club.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Sketchley Ffinden
Date:  9 Dec 1878
Classmark:  John Wilson (dealer), Catalogue 64 (1988)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11782A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … savings; CD served as treasurer from 1848 to 1869 (see Correspondence vol. 4, letter to …

To C. G. Semper   [after 6 December 1878]

Summary

Gives CGS permission to use his letters in any way he thinks fit.

Discusses the direct effect of external conditions as an agent of change in organisms; has encountered many cases since the publication of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Carl Gottfried Semper
Date:  [after 6 Dec 1878]
Classmark:  DAR 202: 120v
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11777

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1869. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

From J. D. Hooker   12 March 1878

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Summary

Has written to Farrer in support of Torbitt’s grant.

Resistance of Liberian coffee to "fly" and susceptibility to fungus.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Mar 1878
Classmark:  DAR 104: 105–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11417

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Asia, see Gardeners Chronicle , 6 November 1869, p. 1157. CD reported that, according to …

From T. H. Noyes   19 November 1878

Summary

THN, a medium with a gift to cure occult diseases, outlines a course of treatment to remedy CD’s ailments.

Author:  Thomas Herbert Noyes
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 Nov 1878
Classmark:  DAR 201: 28
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11749

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 17, letter from A. R. Wallace, 18 April [1869] and n. 6). CD’s cousin Francis Galton had …

To Fritz Müller   12 January 1878

Summary

CD and son [Francis] working on spontaneous movements of plants and heliotropism.

Has given [Raphael Meldola] permission to read extracts of FM’s last letter [not found], on odours emitted by moths, before Entomological Society [Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (1878): ii–iii].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  12 Jan 1878
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 44)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11319

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 17, letter from Fritz Müller, 18 December 1869 and n. 3). CD had described heterostyly in …

From E. A. Floyer   22 September 1878

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Summary

Sends fruit of date-palm which has not been impregnated by pollen from a male.

Has read Origin, which "puts everything straight".

Author:  Ernest Ayscoghe Floyer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Sept 1878
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 231
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11702

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Floyer had been working abroad since 1869, when he was 17 years old. The first chapter of …

From Francis Darwin   [before 7 July 1878]

Summary

He has been talking to Julius von Sachs about sleeping plants that move with and without growth.

Author:  Francis Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 7 July 1878]
Classmark:  DAR 274.1: 57
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11593F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … The Sunday Lecture Society, founded in 1869 as a successor to the Sunday Evenings for the …

From W. E. Darwin   10 July [1878]

Summary

Has taken OCM to the photographer’s, and is sending photographs to be signed.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 July [1878]
Classmark:  Cornford Family Papers (DAR 275: 68)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11597F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … a fortune from his uncle George Peabody in 1869; this allowed him to amass a spectacular …

To Francis Darwin   17 July [1878]

Summary

Discusses sleep movements of Porlieria.

Has read an abstract of Julius Wiesner on heliotropism and geotropism ["Die heliotropischen Erscheinungen im Pflanzenreiche", Anz. Kais. Akad. Wiss. Wien 15 (1878): 137–40] which seems important but is puzzling.

Gives details of his observations on climbing plants with reference to comments by Julius Sachs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  17 July [1878]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 37
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11615

Matches: 1 hit

  • … family Marantaceae, Maranta , in Delpino 1869; CD had been instrumental in getting this …

From T. H. Farrer   4 May 1878

Summary

Sends Ledum, the nectar of which catches many insects.

Describes his Primula varieties.

Author:  Thomas Henry Farrer, 1st Baron Farrer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 May 1878
Classmark:  DAR 164: 91
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11494

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Read 19 March 1868. ] Journal of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 10 (1869): 437–54. …

From W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   16 July 1878

Summary

Sends specimens.

Sensitive plants.

Author:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 July 1878
Classmark:  DAR 178: 103
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11612

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Naturali Milano 11 (1868): 265–352; 12 (1869): 179–233; 13 (1870): 167–205; 17 (1874): …

To J. D. Hooker   5 October [1878]

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Summary

Before JDH discusses flora of Canary Islands CD suggests he read F. B. White’s paper [see 11707], which explains stocking of Atlantic island fauna as due to changed currents during [last, or Miocene] northern glacial period.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 Oct [1878]
Classmark:  DAR 95: 475–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11715

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1869. White, Francis Buchanan. 1878. Contributions …
Document type
letter (18)
Date
1878
01 (3)
03 (1)
05 (1)
07 (4)
08 (1)
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1869 in keywords
45 Items
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Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition …
  • … that is something’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [22 January 1869] ). Much of the remainder of …
  • … to be the case’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 January 1869 ). Hooker went straight to a crucial …
  • … probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , and letter from A. R. Wallace, …
  • … in distribution’ ( letter to James Croll, 31 January [1869] ). Darwin had argued ( Origin , pp. …
  • … formation’ ( letter to James Croll,  31 January [1869] ). Croll could not supply Darwin with an …
  • … have got that yet’ ( letter from James Croll, 4 February 1869 ).  Darwin did not directly …
  • … towards [Thomson]’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 19 March [1869] ). Towards Descent …
  • … ‘everlasting old Origin’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 1 June [1869] ), he was able to return to work on  …
  • … ( letter from Robert Elliot to George Cupples, 21 June 1869 ).  Details on mating behaviour …
  • … in the garden ( letter from Frederick Smith, 8 October 1869 ). Albert Günther, assistant in the …
  • … varieties ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 25 February [1869] ). The data contined to …
  • … cocks & hens.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 November [1869] ). Yet completion of the work was …
  • … for  Descent . Researching emotion In 1869, Darwin still expected that  Descent …
  • … hatred—’ ( from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May [1869] ). James Crichton-Browne and …
  • … ( enclosure to letter from Henry Maudsley, 20 May 1869 ). Darwin had often complained of the …
  • … in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More remarkable still were Wallace …
  • … seem to you like some mental hallucination’ ( 18 April 1869 ). Since his marriage to Annie …
  • …  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and scolded him for again being too …
  • … demands justice’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). Proceeding on all fronts …
  • … South American cordillera ( letter to Charles Lyell, 20 May 1869 ), and fossil discoveries in …
  • … investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a letter to the  Gardeners …
  • … of the soil ( letter to  Gardeners’ Chronicle , 9 May [1869] ). In March, Darwin received …
  • … in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This research contributed to  …
  • … editions ( see letter from Victor Masson, 29 September 1869 ). The work had been undertaken, like …
  • … Animals”’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 19 November [1869] ). Angered by these proceedings, Darwin …
  • … of Fritz Müller’s  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. 1869). The book, an explication of Darwinian …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Crichton-Browne, James 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 19 May 1869 West Riding …
  • … Gray, Asa 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Jane 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about …
  • … King, P.G. 25 Feb 1869 Sydney, Australia …
  • … Maudsley, Henry 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 17 Jan 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 28 June [1869] Sierra Leone, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 26 Dec 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa …
  • … Scott, John 2 July 1869 Royal Botanic Gardens, …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • … Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwin’s niece, Margaret, …
  • … Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John Scott responds to Darwin’s …
  • …  - Darwin to  Gunther, A. C. L. G., [21 September 1869] Darwin asks Gunther for “a great …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … (letter from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May 1869 ) Darwin cited Gray’s …
  • … their year long trip to Europe and North Africa in 1868 to 1869, the Grays visited Charles and Emma …
  • … 1868, and visiting again on their return journey in August 1869. Although they never met again, the …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … standard of science’ ( to Charles Layton, 24 November [1869] ). From the 3 rd edition on …
  • … published, 1866 5 th English edition published, 1869 6 th English edition …
  • … on the fifth edition from Boxing Day 1868 until February 1869.  Among the changes were stories about …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Becker tells Darwin that …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Suffragist and …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work on human expression. Donders visited Darwin in 1869 , and a year later Darwin consoled him …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Darwin became increasingly involved in botanical experiments in the years after the publication of Origin. The building of a small hothouse - a heated greenhouse - early in 1863  greatly increased the range of plants that he could keep for scientific…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … comprised two halves kept at different temperatures, and in 1869 Darwin told the botanist William …
  • … temperatures’ (letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March [1869] ,  Calendar  no. 6661). …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … vol. 17, letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). His views were presented more fully in a …
  • … comparative anatomist through his work on primates. In July 1869, Mivart published the first of a …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] Darwin thanks Antoinette …

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … " Letter 6728 : from Charles Lyell, 5 May 1869 "I feel that …
  • … Letter 6866 : From Federico Delpino, 22 August 1869 "Perhaps because of intellectual …

John Beddoe

Summary

In 1869, when gathering data on sexual selection in humans, Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with John Beddoe, a doctor in Bristol. He was looking for evidence that racial differences that appear to have no benefit in terms of survival - and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1869 Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with a John Beddoe, a doctor in …

Suggested reading

Summary

  Contemporary writing Anon., The English matron: A practical manual for young wives, (London, 1846). Anon., The English gentlewoman: A practical manual for young ladies on their entrance to society, (Third edition, London, 1846). Becker, L. E.…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … A. L. B.,  Studies in general science , (New York, 1869). Buckley, A.,  The fairy-land …
  • … M.,  On molecular and microscopic science ,  (London, 1869). Treat, M., ‘ Is the valve …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … himself an injustice & never demands justice” (14 April 1869). But Wallace continued, both …
  • … about the application of natural selection to ‘man’ in 1869, and looked instead to a ‘higher …
  • … investigation (see letter from A. R. Wallace, 18 April [1869]). Wallace’s views on man were also …
  • … the “great General” (letter to Charles Kingsley, 7 May 1869). In later years when Darwin reflected …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … was later expanded into the book, Hereditary Genius (1869), which contained an entry on the …

6430_10256

Summary

From Sven Nilsson to J. D. Hookerf1   25 October 1868Lund (Suède)25 Okt. 1868.Monsieur le Professeur! J’ai écrit à deux de mes amis qui ont des connaissances personnelles à la Lapponie, pour avoir les…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and n. 10. f6 See Nilsson 1866–7. In Lubbock 1869, pp. 59–73, John Lubbock disagreed with …
  • … and n. 10. f6 See Nilsson 1866–7. In Lubbock 1869, pp. 59–73, John Lubbock disagreed with …

About the project

Summary

On this site you can read and search the full texts of more than 7,500 of Charles Darwin’s letters, and find information on 7,500 more. Available here are complete transcripts of all known letters Darwin wrote and received up to the year 1869. More are…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … all known letters Darwin wrote and received up to the year 1869. More are being added all the time. …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down …

Family life

Summary

From the long letters exchanged with his sisters during the Beagle voyage, through correspondence about his marriage to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, the births—and deaths—of their children, to the  contributions of his sons and daughters  to his scientific…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … From the long letters exchanged with his sisters during the  Beagle  voyage, through …

Interview with John Hedley Brooke

Summary

John Hedley Brooke is President of the Science and Religion Forum as well as the author of the influential Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 1991). He has had a long career in the history of science and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … in spiritualism. He first writes to Darwin about this in 1869, and this is exactly the same time …
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