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From A. R. Wallace   10 March 1869

Summary

Weir’s paper on relation of protection to colour of caterpillars [Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (1869): 21–6; (1870): 337–9] confirms ARW’s hypothesis.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Mar 1869
Classmark:  DAR 106: B77–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6651

Matches: 11 hits

  • … are notes for his reply to Wallace. See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 22 March [1869] . …
  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   10 March 1869
  • … 8 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 10 Mar 1869 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … caterpillars [ Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (1869): 21–6; (1870): 337–9] confirms ARW’s …
  • … John Murray. 1871. Weir, John Jenner. 1869. On insects and insectivorous birds; and …
  • … 9, St. Mark’s Crescent | NW. March 10th.  1869 Dear Darwin Thanks for your kind note. I …
  • … See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 5 March [1869] and n.  2. Wallace refers to his publisher, …
  • … John Jenner Weir’s paper ‘On insects and insectivorous birds’ ( Weir 1869 ) was read …
  • … on 1 March 1869. CD cited it in Descent 1: 417. Wallace had been asked by CD to suggest a …
  • … and the edibility of Lepidoptera and their larvae. [Read 1 March 1869. ] Transactions …
  • … of the Entomological Society of London (1869): 21–6. …

From A. R. Wallace   20 October 1869

Summary

Looks forward to Descent, though he expects to find more to differ with than in any other of CD’s books.

Problems of usefulness of incipient organs and of the independent origin of similar complex organs are real difficulties.

Plans a little book on "Distribution of animals".

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Oct 1869
Classmark:  DAR 106: B86–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6949

Matches: 13 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   20 October 1869
  • … 7 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 20 Oct 1869 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Caerdeon, Barmouth, Wales, in June and July 1869 (see ‘Journal’ ( Correspondence vol.  17, …
  • … Bibliography Challis, James. 1869. Notes on the principles of pure and applied …
  • … John Murray. 1871. Murphy, Joseph John. 1869. Habit and intelligence in their connexion …
  • … 9, St. Mark’s Crescent, N.W. Oct r . 20th.  1869. Dear Darwin I do not know your son’s (Mr …
  • … of mathematical principles to theories of the physical forces ( Challis 1869 ). George’ …
  • … s response to Wallace, dated 23 October 1869, is in the British Library (Add.46434, f.   …
  • … 191). The reference is to Descent (see Academy 1 (1869–70): 15–16). …
  • … The notice appeared in the 9 October 1869 issue under the heading ‘Scientific notes’ and …
  • … and expression of the emotions. Wallace refers to Joseph John Murphy and Murphy 1869 . …
  • … Wallace reviewed Murphy 1869  in the …
  • … 25 November 1869 issue of Nature (Wallace 1869d). The unsigned article, ‘Difficulties of …

From A. R. Wallace   24 March 1869

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Summary

Comments on Fritz Müller’s book [Facts and arguments for Darwin].

Responds to CD’s corrections of his work [Malay Archipelago].

Plumage of birds of paradise.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Mar 1869
Classmark:  DAR 84.1: 112–15
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6681

Matches: 11 hits

  • … s annotations are notes for his reply (see letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 27 March [1869] ). …
  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   24 March 1869
  • … 15 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 24 Mar 1869 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Wallace refers to Dallas trans.  1869 (see letter to …
  • … Fritz Müller, 14 March 1869  and nn.  1 and 17). See …
  • … letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 22 March [1869] . See letter to A.   …
  • … R.  Wallace, 22 March [1869] and n.  12. The wapiti or (American) elk is Cervus …
  • … St. Mark’s Crescent, N.W. March 24 th . 1869 Dear Darwin Allow me first to thank you for …
  • … elk is Alces alces. See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 22 March [1869] . See letter to A.   …
  • … R.  Wallace, 22 March [1869] and n.  14. Wallace refers to the ruby-throated humming- …
  • … See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 22 March [1869] and n.  15. For Wallace’s discussion of …

From Alfred Russel Wallace   20 January 1869

Summary

Dedication of Malay Archipelago to CD.

Comments on scientific papers.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Jan 1869
Classmark:  DAR 106: B73–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6561

Matches: 12 hits

  • … From Alfred Russel Wallace   20 January 1869
  • … 4 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 20 Jan 1869 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … of C.  Lyell 1867–8 appeared in the April 1869 issue of the Quarterly Review ([Wallace] …
  • … 9, St. Mark’s Crescent | NW. Jan y . 20th.  1869 Dear Darwin It will give me very great …
  • … Museum (Natural History). 1987. Spruce, Richard. 1869. Palmae Amazonicae , sive enumeratio …
  • … aequatoriales lectarum. [Read 21 January 1869. ] Journal of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) …
  • … genius and his works. ’ Wallace 1869a was published in March 1869 ( Publishers’ Circular , …
  • … 15 March 1869, pp.  162, 171). Wallace refers to an …
  • … of man’, that appeared in the January 1869 issue of Quarterly Review of Science (Anon.   …
  • … in itinere suo per regiones Americae aequatoriales lectarum’ ( Spruce 1869 ) was read …
  • … on 21 January 1869. Spruce discussed ‘alternation …
  • … function’ in two species of Geonoma in Spruce 1869 , pp.  95–6, and hypothesised that the …

From A. R. Wallace   18 April [1869]

Summary

Expands upon their differences in regard to man and the question of the existence of forces not yet recognised by science.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Apr [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B79–80
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6703

Matches: 7 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   18 April [1869] …
  • … 80 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 18 Apr [1869] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … the letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 14 April 1869 . Wallace reviewed Charles Lyell’s geological …
  • … See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 14 April 1869 . Wallace refers to James Croll; see [ …
  • … was William Smith. See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 14 April 1869  and n.  12. See letter …
  • … from A.  R.  Wallace, 24 March 1869  and n.  9. Wallace refers to Richard Norris and …
  • … 210. See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 14 April 1869  and n.  10. Wallace also refers to his …

From A. R. Wallace   30 January 1869

Summary

Argues that [general variability] of species, not single variations or sports, is basis for modification and adaptation to new conditions.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Jan 1869
Classmark:  DAR 106: B75–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6583

Matches: 5 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   30 January 1869
  • … 6 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 30 Jan 1869 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 22 January [1869] and n.  7. Wallace refers to Henry Charles …
  • … Emma Darwin and to Violet Wallace, who was born on 27 January 1869 ( Raby 2001 , p.  199). …
  • … 9, St Mark’s Crescent | N.W. Jan y . 30 th . 1869 Dear Darwin Will you tell me where are …

From A. R. Wallace   4 December [1869]

Summary

Inquires about arrangements for the German translation and publication of their original Linnean Society papers [Collected papers 2: 3–19].

ARW thinks he has hit upon a solution to problem of geological time.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Dec [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B88–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7019

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   4 December [1869] …
  • … 9 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 4 Dec [1869] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … letter from A.  B.  Meyer, 16 November 1869 (see n.  2, below). Meyer translated Wallace’s …
  • … and Wallace 1858; see letter from A.  B.  Meyer, 16 November 1869). Meyer requested CD’ …
  • … s photograph in his letter of 24 November 1869 . CD agreed to Meyer’s translation of C.   …
  • … letter from A.  B.  Meyer, 24 November 1869 . The most recent photograph of CD by Ernest …

From A. R. Wallace   23 June [1869]

Summary

Asks whether sexual selection could produce the changing plumules or "battledore" scales on the wings of certain butterflies.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 June [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B81–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6797

Matches: 4 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   23 June [1869] …
  • … 2 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 23 June [1869] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 14 April 1869  and n.  12. Wallace refers to Wallace 1869a; …
  • … of Origin , which was published in June 1869. The ‘battledore’ scales were later found to …

From Alfred Russel Wallace   7 February 1868

Summary

Thanks for Variation.

Reports work on his travel book [The Malay Archipelago (1869)].

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Feb 1868
Classmark:  DAR 106: B48
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5848

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Thanks for Variation . Reports work on his travel book [ The Malay Archipelago (1869)]. …
  • … 22 September [1865] ). The travels were eventually published as A.  R.  Wallace 1869. …

From A. R. Wallace   4 February 1866

Summary

Looks forward to reading Variation.

Explains how two or more female forms occur in one species through selection. The physiological problem remains of how each produces offspring like the other without intermediates. Is not CD’s case of varieties that will not blend the physiological test of a species needed for "complete proof of the origin of species"?

"Travels" postponed.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Feb 1866
Classmark:  DAR 106: B31–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4997

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of 1867 and 1868 writing A.  R.  Wallace 1869 ( A.  R.  Wallace 1905 , 1: 405–6). See also …
  • … R.   Wallace 1869); in the preface, p.  viii, Wallace explained, ‘I could, indeed, at once …
  • … uninstructive to the public. ’ Between 1862 and 1869, Wallace published over thirty papers …
  • … on his collections (A.  R.  Wallace 1869, 1: viii–xiv). For a bibliography of Wallace’s …
  • … 1866. The two-volume narrative, The Malay Archipelago , was published in 1869 (A.   …

From A. R. Wallace   24 February [1867]

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Summary

Protective role of colours in caterpillars and butterflies. Sexual differences in colours of butterflies.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Feb [1867]
Classmark:  DAR 82: A19–21
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5416

Matches: 6 hits

  • … London: John Murray. 1871. Weir, John Jenner. 1869–70. On insects and insectivorous birds; …
  • … and the edibility of Lepidoptera and their larvæ. [ Read 1 March 1869 and 4 July 1870. ] …
  • … Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (1869): 21–6; (1870): 337–9. …
  • … and 31 March 1868 ). See also letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 10 March 1869 ( Calendar no.   …
  • … 6651). In 1869 and 1870, Weir read a paper describing his …
  • … birds to the Entomological Society ( Weir 1869–70 ); see Descent 1: 417. Wallace refers to …

From A. R. Wallace   16 August [1868]

Summary

The problem of sterility, and its relation to natural selection.

George Bentham’s support of Darwinism.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Aug [1868]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B63–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6318

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Read 19 March 1868. ] Journal of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 10 (1869): 437– 54. …
  • … studies of man and nature (A.  R.  Wallace 1869) was an account of Wallace’s time in the …
  • … of the Linnean Society of London ( Botany ) 10 (1869): 393–437. ‘Specific difference in …

From Alfred Russel Wallace   [December? 1860]

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Summary

Gives an extract from L. von Buch on the flora of the Canaries [Physikalische Beschreibung der Canarische Inseln (1825)].

Natural selection does not explain why animals of different groups in the same place often resemble each other.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Dec? 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 45: 1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2627

Matches: 4 hits

  • … around Macassar on the island of Celebes in 1856 (see Wallace 1869, 1: 334 et seq . ) …
  • … from Amboina in 1857 and 1859 (see Wallace 1869, 1: 460 et seq . ). During 1860, having …
  • … all of which were very poor in beetles (Wallace 1869, 1: 296 et seq . ). Buch 1825 , later …
  • … he first noted mimicry among birds (Wallace 1869, 2: 150–3). At the time this letter was …

From A. R. Wallace   15 March [1868]

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Summary

Coloration of butterflies; brilliantly coloured females.

Commends CD on his paper on specific differences in Primula [J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 10 (1869): 437–54; reprinted and revised in Forms of flowers] as a test-case proving origin of real species.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 Mar [1868]
Classmark:  DAR 82: 23–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6012

Matches: 2 hits

  • … J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot. ) 10 (1869): 437–54; reprinted and revised in Forms of …
  • … of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 10 (1869): 437–54. Winhard, Walter. 2000. Pieridae I. 2 …

From A. R. Wallace   4 October 1868

Summary

Sexual differences in coloration. Sexual selection versus natural selection as explanations. ARW continues to argue against sexual selection, saying that natural selection, in keeping the female dull for protection, would account for differences in sexual colouring more effectively than inheritance and partial transmission of sexually selected male colours. Colours of female birds of paradise. Protective coloration. Disagrees with CD on coincidence of hidden nests and bright colours of females.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Oct 1868
Classmark:  DAR 106: B68–69
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6408

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his Malay Archipelago (A.  R.  Wallace 1869). Wallace wrote a draft of this letter dated …
  • … the great argus pheasant in A.  R.  Wallace 1869, 1: 51–2. Wallace also refers to what is …
  • … respective males; he cited A.  R.  Wallace 1869, 2: 394 for the information. The genus is …

From A. R. Wallace   27 January 1871

Summary

Response to [vol. 1 of] CD’s Descent.

Not yet convinced on sexual selection and protection, though their differences are not so great as CD thinks.

On man, he does not think CD has accounted for every step of his development by "ascertained laws".

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 Jan 1871
Classmark:  DAR 106: B96–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7460

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  17, letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 24 March 1869 , and letter to A.   …
  • … R.  Wallace, 14 April 1869 . …

From A. R. Wallace   [14 September 1868]

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Summary

On sounds produced by Euchirus longimanus beetle. Sends a pair by post.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [14 Sept 1868]
Classmark:  DAR 82: A25–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6364

Matches: 2 hits

  • … collecting in New Guinea in A.  R.  Wallace 1869, pp.  512–13. Mutilla , a genus in the …
  • … the Moluccas in the 1850s (A.  R.  Wallace 1869, pp.  309, 406). The Wallaces visited Down …

From A. R. Wallace   2 October 1865

Summary

Information concerning improvements in the Reader under new sponsorship.

Current reading and work [on pigeons for Ibis 1 (1865): 365–400, and catalogue of his collection of birds].

Book of travels postponed indefinitely.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Oct 1865
Classmark:  DAR 106: B27–30
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4906

Matches: 3 hits

  • 1869). Wallace had met Richard Spruce in July 1849 while they were both collecting in the …
  • … received a Civil List pension in 1865. In 1869, his condition improved enough for him to …
  • … trans.  1866). An English translation of Müller 1864 appeared in 1869 (Dallas trans.   …

From A. R. Wallace   29 May [1864]

Summary

Argues the antiquity of the human species because natural selection acts differently with respect to men. Changes in man are largely confined to head and brain. Warfare and sex are very uncertain as means of selection.

Gives CD complete credit for theory of natural selection.

Is beginning his narrative of his travels.

Lyell argues against tracing man as far back as Miocene times. R. I. Murchison’s argument that Africa is the oldest existing land implies that Africa is the place to look for early man.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 May [1864]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B14–19
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4514

Matches: 3 hits

  • … also letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 28 [May 1864] and n.  11. In 1869, Wallace published The …
  • … Malay Archipelago (Wallace 1869), an account of his travels from 1854 to 1862. Henry …
  • … 1863] . Wallace divided his book (Wallace 1869) by his travels to five different sets of …

From A. R. Wallace   2 March [1867]

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Summary

Pleased that CD approves his idea about caterpillars.

Thinks CD is right about selection in butterflies, but still believes protective adaptation has kept down colours of females.

Cannot yet see action of natural selection in forming the races of man.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Mar [1867]
Classmark:  DAR 85: A98
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5968

Matches: 2 hits

  • … a copper mine in Timor (A.  R.  Wallace 1869, pp.  147–9). See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, …
  • … see A.  R.  Wallace 1864c and A.  R.  Wallace 1869. For CD’s ‘essay’ on human descent, see …
Document type
letter (25)
Author
Wallace, A. R.[X]
Addressee
Correspondent
Date
1860 (1)
1861 (1)
1864 (2)
1865 (1)
1866 (2)
1867 (2)
1868 (7)
1869 (8)
1871 (1)
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Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition …
  • … that is something’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [22 January 1869] ). Much of the remainder of …
  • … to be the case’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 January 1869 ). Hooker went straight to a crucial …
  • … probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , and letter from A. R. Wallace, …
  • … in distribution’ ( letter to James Croll, 31 January [1869] ). Darwin had argued ( Origin , pp. …
  • … formation’ ( letter to James Croll,  31 January [1869] ). Croll could not supply Darwin with an …
  • … have got that yet’ ( letter from James Croll, 4 February 1869 ).  Darwin did not directly …
  • … towards [Thomson]’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 19 March [1869] ). Towards Descent …
  • … ‘everlasting old Origin’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 1 June [1869] ), he was able to return to work on  …
  • … ( letter from Robert Elliot to George Cupples, 21 June 1869 ).  Details on mating behaviour …
  • … in the garden ( letter from Frederick Smith, 8 October 1869 ). Albert Günther, assistant in the …
  • … varieties ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 25 February [1869] ). The data contined to …
  • … cocks & hens.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 November [1869] ). Yet completion of the work was …
  • … for  Descent . Researching emotion In 1869, Darwin still expected that  Descent …
  • … hatred—’ ( from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May [1869] ). James Crichton-Browne and …
  • … ( enclosure to letter from Henry Maudsley, 20 May 1869 ). Darwin had often complained of the …
  • … in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More remarkable still were Wallace …
  • … seem to you like some mental hallucination’ ( 18 April 1869 ). Since his marriage to Annie …
  • …  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and scolded him for again being too …
  • … demands justice’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). Proceeding on all fronts …
  • … South American cordillera ( letter to Charles Lyell, 20 May 1869 ), and fossil discoveries in …
  • … investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a letter to the  Gardeners …
  • … of the soil ( letter to  Gardeners’ Chronicle , 9 May [1869] ). In March, Darwin received …
  • … in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This research contributed to  …
  • … editions ( see letter from Victor Masson, 29 September 1869 ). The work had been undertaken, like …
  • … Animals”’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 19 November [1869] ). Angered by these proceedings, Darwin …
  • … of Fritz Müller’s  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. 1869). The book, an explication of Darwinian …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Crichton-Browne, James 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 19 May 1869 West Riding …
  • … Gray, Asa 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Jane 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about …
  • … King, P.G. 25 Feb 1869 Sydney, Australia …
  • … Maudsley, Henry 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 17 Jan 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 28 June [1869] Sierra Leone, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 26 Dec 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa …
  • … Scott, John 2 July 1869 Royal Botanic Gardens, …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • … Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwin’s niece, Margaret, …
  • … Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John Scott responds to Darwin’s …
  • …  - Darwin to  Gunther, A. C. L. G., [21 September 1869] Darwin asks Gunther for “a great …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … (letter from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May 1869 ) Darwin cited Gray’s …
  • … their year long trip to Europe and North Africa in 1868 to 1869, the Grays visited Charles and Emma …
  • … 1868, and visiting again on their return journey in August 1869. Although they never met again, the …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … standard of science’ ( to Charles Layton, 24 November [1869] ). From the 3 rd edition on …
  • … published, 1866 5 th English edition published, 1869 6 th English edition …
  • … on the fifth edition from Boxing Day 1868 until February 1869.  Among the changes were stories about …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Becker tells Darwin that …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Suffragist and …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

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  • … work on human expression. Donders visited Darwin in 1869 , and a year later Darwin consoled him …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Darwin became increasingly involved in botanical experiments in the years after the publication of Origin. The building of a small hothouse - a heated greenhouse - early in 1863  greatly increased the range of plants that he could keep for scientific…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … comprised two halves kept at different temperatures, and in 1869 Darwin told the botanist William …
  • … temperatures’ (letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March [1869] ,  Calendar  no. 6661). …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … vol. 17, letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). His views were presented more fully in a …
  • … comparative anatomist through his work on primates. In July 1869, Mivart published the first of a …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

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  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] Darwin thanks Antoinette …

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

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  • … " Letter 6728 : from Charles Lyell, 5 May 1869 "I feel that …
  • … Letter 6866 : From Federico Delpino, 22 August 1869 "Perhaps because of intellectual …

John Beddoe

Summary

In 1869, when gathering data on sexual selection in humans, Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with John Beddoe, a doctor in Bristol. He was looking for evidence that racial differences that appear to have no benefit in terms of survival - and…

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  • … In 1869 Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with a John Beddoe, a doctor in …

Suggested reading

Summary

  Contemporary writing Anon., The English matron: A practical manual for young wives, (London, 1846). Anon., The English gentlewoman: A practical manual for young ladies on their entrance to society, (Third edition, London, 1846). Becker, L. E.…

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  • … A. L. B.,  Studies in general science , (New York, 1869). Buckley, A.,  The fairy-land …
  • … M.,  On molecular and microscopic science ,  (London, 1869). Treat, M., ‘ Is the valve …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … himself an injustice & never demands justice” (14 April 1869). But Wallace continued, both …
  • … about the application of natural selection to ‘man’ in 1869, and looked instead to a ‘higher …
  • … investigation (see letter from A. R. Wallace, 18 April [1869]). Wallace’s views on man were also …
  • … the “great General” (letter to Charles Kingsley, 7 May 1869). In later years when Darwin reflected …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … was later expanded into the book, Hereditary Genius (1869), which contained an entry on the …

6430_10256

Summary

From Sven Nilsson to J. D. Hookerf1   25 October 1868Lund (Suède)25 Okt. 1868.Monsieur le Professeur! J’ai écrit à deux de mes amis qui ont des connaissances personnelles à la Lapponie, pour avoir les…

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  • … and n. 10. f6 See Nilsson 1866–7. In Lubbock 1869, pp. 59–73, John Lubbock disagreed with …
  • … and n. 10. f6 See Nilsson 1866–7. In Lubbock 1869, pp. 59–73, John Lubbock disagreed with …

About the project

Summary

On this site you can read and search the full texts of more than 7,500 of Charles Darwin’s letters, and find information on 7,500 more. Available here are complete transcripts of all known letters Darwin wrote and received up to the year 1869. More are…

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  • … all known letters Darwin wrote and received up to the year 1869. More are being added all the time. …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

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  • … John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down …

Family life

Summary

From the long letters exchanged with his sisters during the Beagle voyage, through correspondence about his marriage to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, the births—and deaths—of their children, to the  contributions of his sons and daughters  to his scientific…

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  • … From the long letters exchanged with his sisters during the  Beagle  voyage, through …

Interview with John Hedley Brooke

Summary

John Hedley Brooke is President of the Science and Religion Forum as well as the author of the influential Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 1991). He has had a long career in the history of science and…

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  • … in spiritualism. He first writes to Darwin about this in 1869, and this is exactly the same time …
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