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From Fritz Müller   15 June 1869

Summary

FM much gratified by the appearance of Für Darwin translation.

Discusses dimorphism in Rubiaceae.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 June 1869
Classmark:  DAR 110: B115; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Directors’ Correspondence 215/175)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6783

Matches: 23 hits

  • … From Fritz Müller   15 June 1869
  • … Theodor (Fritz) Müller Santa Catharina, Brazil 15 June 1869 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Itajahy, S a Catharina, Brazil June 15. 1869. My dear Sir. I have been prevented from …
  • … have been altered. See Correspondence vol. 17, letters to Fritz Müller, 14 March 1869 and …
  • … 18 March 1869. …
  • … In a letter of 12 June 1869, Müller told his brother, Hermann Müller, that he had …
  • … are for his reply to Müller of 8 September [1869] ( Correspondence vol. 17); he refers to …
  • … John Murray. 1877. [Leifchild, John R. ] 1869. [Review of Facts and arguments for Darwin …
  • … by W. S. Dallas. ] Athenæum , 27 March 1869, p. 431. Origin : On the origin of species by …
  • … English as Facts and arguments for Darwin (Dallas trans.  1869; see Correspondence vol. …
  • … 17, letter to Fritz Müller, 14 March 1869 ). …
  • … The review in the 21 April 1869 issue of Scientific Opinion (Anon.   …
  • 1869) was positive, but the …
  • … one in the 27 March 1869 issue of the Athenæum was critical, and the author remarked, ‘It …
  • … Crustacean than Christian’ ( [Leifchild] 1869 ). The reviewer, John R.  Leifchild, had …
  • … vol. 17, letter to Fritz Müller, 14 March 1869  and n.  9. In Forms of flowers , p. 129, …
  • … vol. 17, letter to Fritz Müller, 14 March 1869 . In Cross and self fertilisation , pp. …
  • … 1883). See Correspondence vol. 17, letter from Fritz Müller, 12 January 1869  and nn.  3– …
  • … 5, and letter to Fritz Müller, 14 March 1869  and n.  13. Müller had described the unusual …
  • … monocotyledons. In his letter of 14 March 1869 ( Correspondence vol. 17), CD had suggested …
  • … letter from Fritz Müller, 18 October 1869 ). CD later described it as Oxalis regnelli (a …
  • … 17, letter from Fritz Müller, 14 March 1869 . CD had sent seeds of the first Begonia to …
  • … ibid. , letter to George Bentham, 10 May [1869] ; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Inwards …

From Fritz Müller   18 October 1869

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Summary

Describes experiments to test the fertility of Abutilon, which appears self-sterile,

and briefly mentions dichogamy in Eschscholzia.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Oct 1869
Classmark:  DAR 76: B178, Linnean Society of London (LS Ms 299/12)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6943

Matches: 11 hits

  • … From Fritz Müller   18 October 1869
  • … Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller Santa Catharina, Brazil 18 Oct 1869 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … See letter from Fritz Müller, 14 March 1869 . The last two paragraphs of the letter are …
  • … the letter to T.  H.  Farrer, [27 November 1869] . See Correspondence vol.  15, letter to …
  • … Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil, Octr.  18. 1869. My dear Sir I received some weeks ago …
  • … See letter to Fritz Müller, 18 July [1869] . See …
  • … letter to Fritz Müller, 18 July [1869] and n.  5. Müller refers to Abutilon striatum ( …
  • … Naturali Milano 11 (1868): 265–352; 12 (1869): 179–233; 13 (1870): 167–205; 17 (1874): …
  • … Hildebrand on this subject before October 1869 has been found. Oxalis martiana is now O.   …
  • … more seeds of E.  californica shortly after his letter of 14 March 1869 (see letter from …
  • … Fritz Müller, 15 June 1869 ). Friedrich Hildebrand reported his observations on self- …

From Fritz Müller   29 March 1870

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Summary

His observations on mimicry in butterflies

and self-sterility in plants.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Mar 1870
Classmark:  DAR 76: B36
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7150

Matches: 11 hits

  • … to letter to Fritz Müller, 1 December [1869] . See Correspondence vol.  16, letters from …
  • … October 1868, and Correspondence vol.  17, letters from Fritz Müller, 12 January 1869 and …
  • … 18 October 1869. Müller refers to Alexander Agassiz (see also Correspondence …
  • … vol.  17, letter to Fritz Müller, 1 December [1869] ). A.  Agassiz 1864 . …
  • … See Correspondence vol.  17, letter from Fritz Müller, 18 December 1869 . …
  • … the letter to Fritz Müller, 1 December [1869] ( Correspondence vol.  17). Müller had six …
  • … issue of the Academy , dated 9 October 1869, contained a review of the English translation …
  • … of Müller’s Für Darwin (Dallas trans.  1869; Academy …
  • … 1 (1869–70): 14–15). Müller also refers to Wallace 1869c ( …
  • … vol.  17, letter to Fritz Müller, 1 December [1869] ). See Wallace 1869a, 1: 199–207. See …
  • … 1868 from your seeds and which only flowered 1869. — The other plants from the same seeds, …

From Fritz Müller   18 December 1869

Summary

Discusses dimorphic and trimorphic plants; mentions especially Rubiaceae and a dimorphic monocotyledon.

Notes observations on the monstrous male flowers of Begonia,

and on self-sterile plants.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Dec 1869
Classmark:  DAR 109: B125–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7029

Matches: 7 hits

  • … From Fritz Müller   18 December 1869
  • … Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller Santa Catharina, Brazil 18 Dec 1869 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … see letter to Fritz Müller, 8 September [1869] and n.  10. A specimen of Rudgea eriantha ( …
  • … Itajahy, S a Catharina, Brazil Decbr.  18. 1869 My dear Sir I have to thank you for having …
  • … Magazine of Natural History 4th ser. 4 ( 1869): 141–59. [ Collected papers 2: 138–56. ] …
  • … Auxiliador da Industria nacional” (April 1869 pg 158). A “fazendeiro” of the province of …
  • … See letter from Fritz Müller, 18 October 1869  and n.  9. For examples of Karl Friedrich …

From Fritz Müller   14 March 1869

Summary

Describes experiments with sterility in Abutilon.

Describes hermaphroditism in a wild Begonia in Brazil.

Has been observing humble bees on Salvia.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Mar 1869
Classmark:  Linnean Society of London (SP 859)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6662F

Matches: 5 hits

  • … From Fritz Müller   14 March 1869
  • … Theodor (Fritz) Müller Itajahy, Santa Catharina, Brazil 14 Mar 1869 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … See letter from Fritz Müller, 12 January 1869  and n.  8. See Journal of researches 2d …
  • … 3, and letter to Fritz Müller, 14 March 1869  and n.  15. Rio Capivary (now Capivari) is a …
  • … Itajahy, S a Catharina, Brazil March 14, 1869 My dear Sir I have received your kind letter …

From Fritz Müller   12 January 1869

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Summary

Gives details of some crossing experiments with Eschscholzia.

Describes the grass Streptochaeta, which FM believes to be a primitive grass.

Relates some observations on maize that are well explained by Pangenesis.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Jan 1869
Classmark:  DAR 76: B34–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6549

Matches: 3 hits

  • … From Fritz Müller   12 January 1869
  • … Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller Santa Catharina, Brazil 12 Jan 1869 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Itajahy, S a Catharina, Brazil January 12. 1869. My dear Sir As the Eschscholzia-seed, …

From Fritz Müller   16 February 1870

Summary

Sends specimens of Passiflora and seeds for T. H. Farrer [letter enclosed with 7188].

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Feb 1870
Classmark:  Linnean Society of London
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7108

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  17, letter to T.  H.  Farrer, [27 November 1869] , letter from T.   …
  • … H.  Farrer, 28 November 1869 , and letter to …
  • … Fritz Müller, 1 December [1869] ). CD sent this portion of Müller’s letter and the seeds …

From Fritz Müller   17 June 1868

Summary

Again thanks CD for trouble in arranging for translation of Für Darwin.

Sends addition answering critics of his idea of insect metamorphosis [see Möller ed. 1915–21, 1: 259].

Agrees with Charles Lyell’s suggested English title "Facts and arguments in favor of Darwin", although perhaps more accurate to call it "Darwinism tested by Carcinology" or "Carcinology as bearing on the origin of species".

Says any profit should go to CD for his trouble and expense with the translation.

Thanks for seeds of Eschscholtzia.

Gives observations on number of climbing plants, including Dilleniacea, Marantacea, Catasetum.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 June 1868
Classmark:  Möller 1915–21, 2: 141–3; W. S. Dallas trans. 1869, pp. 119–21 n.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6248A

Matches: 4 hits

  • … 1915–21, 2: 141–3; W. S. Dallas trans. 1869, pp. 119–21 n. Johann Friedrich Theodor ( …
  • … references are to W.  S.  Dallas trans.  1869. Podophthalma: Crustacea with eyes set on …
  • … translation was W.  S.  Dallas trans.  1869. The original enclosure has not been found. …
  • … from a footnote in W.  S.  Dallas trans.  1869, pp.  119–21. Müller refers to Origin 4th …

From Fritz Müller   22 April 1868

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Summary

His opinion of Pangenesis.

On relative proportion of sexes in marine animals [sthg missing!?] Crustacea.

Sexual differences.

Music of Cicadae.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Apr 1868
Classmark:  DAR 86: A85–6; Möller 1915–21, 2: 140; Darwin Library–CUL (tipped into CD’s copy of F. Müller 1864a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6140

Matches: 5 hits

  • … by Rudolf Albert von Kölliker (Kölliker 1869–72, 8: 106–10). Müller refers to Ragnar …
  • … 1864, p.  55, and W.  S.  Dallas trans.  1869, pp.  81–2. For the observation of Carl …
  • … 1864, p.  55, and W.  S.  Dallas trans.  1869, p.  82. Dr Powel has not been further …
  • … p.  64, and W.  S.  Dallas trans.  1869, p.  95. Peltogaster is a genus of Rhizocephala. …
  • … of the carina’ (see W.  S.  Dallas trans.  1869, p.  137); CD underlined the word ‘carina’ …

From Fritz Müller   [c. January 1874]

Summary

Agrees with Bates that neuter termites are not modified imagos (sterile females), but modified larvae (of both sexes).

Systematic relations of stingless honey-bees (Melipona and Trigona) are not yet well established.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. Jan 1874]
Classmark:  Nature, 19 February 1874, p. 309
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9281

Matches: 2 hits

  • … about six weeks. Müller began studying termites around 1869. Müller sent a description of …
  • … nest to Hermann August Hagen on 30 August 1869; Hagen presented it at a meeting of the …

From Fritz Müller   17 July 1867

Summary

Thanks CD for sending F. H. G. Hildebrand’s book on fertilisation [Die Geschlechter-Vertheilung bei den Pflanzen (1867)]

and J. D. Hooker’s "Lecture on insular floras".

Describes work on Rubiaceae, Oxalis,

and on crossing orchids. Lists crosses made.

As for CD’s query concerning sexual differences among invertebrates, he gives the case of the local amphipod, Brachyscellus diversilor. Male differs in shape of antennae and coloration.

Also mentions local fish in sea near Sta Catharina which emits melodic tone to attract females.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 July 1867
Classmark:  Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 130–1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5583A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … his observations in F.  Müller 1868a, 1869, and 1870; CD added a reference to Müller’s …
  • … Müller 1864, p.  53 (see also Dallas trans.  1869, pp.  78–9; CD annotated this section in …

From Fritz Müller   1 January 1867

Summary

Describes his experiments in fertilising Oncidium flexuosum and comparison with Notylia.

Has been examining Catasetum.

Encloses seeds of two species of Gesneria and describes hairs in the seed capsule. Hairs in other plants seem to have a different function.

Starting tomorrow for a botanical excursion on the Continent.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Jan 1867
Classmark:  Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 104–9; DAR 157a: 104
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5344A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and Magazine of Natural History 4th ser. 4 (1869): 141–59. [ Collected papers 2: 138–56. ] …
  • … Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1869. ‘Three sexual forms of Catasetum tridentatum ’: …

From Fritz Müller   6 March 1866

Summary

Thanks CD for German translation of Origin.

Droughts over the summers have brought about changes in the numbers of plants and animals in the area. The small quantity of Orchestia darwinii that has survived the changes no longer includes two previously common male forms. Great changes also take place without such unusual physical conditions. The disappearance of a briefly abundant bryozoan in local caves has made way not for the return of original bryozoan inhabitants but for a completely new fauna.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Mar 1866
Classmark:  Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 80–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5027A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Müller 1864c, p.  54, and Dallas trans.  1869, pp.  79–80). Müller refers to the coast of …
  • … Müller 1864c; translated as Dallas trans.   1869). Max Johann Sigismund Schultze founded …

From Fritz Müller   19 October 1877

Summary

Doubts that glands of calyx of cleistogamic Malpighiaceae serve as protection.

Some species of Solanum bear long- and short-styled flowers on same plant.

Changing colours of some flowers may show insects the proper moment for fertilisation.

Doubts that the style of Pontederia cordata changes length.

Sexual difference in wings of some butterflies due to development in male of scales that emit odours to excite female.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 Oct 1877
Classmark:  Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 363–4; Nature, 29 November 1877, pp. 78–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11191

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Naturali Milano 11 (1868): 265–352; 12 (1869): 179–233; 13 (1870): 167–205; 17 (1874): …

From Fritz Müller   9 September 1868

Summary

Will repeat CD’s experiments on dimorphic and trimorphic plants.

Auditory organs of Orthoptera; stridulation in lamellicorn beetles.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Sept 1868
Classmark:  DAR 82: A92, Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 146–7.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6359

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 10 (1869): 437–54. Variation : The variation of animals …
  • … Linnean Society of London ( Botany ) 10 (1869): 393–437. Journal of researches : Journal …

From Fritz Müller   31 October 1868

Summary

Writes on various observations and discoveries on dimorphic and trimorphic plants.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 Oct 1868
Classmark:  DAR 142: 98, 103
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6439

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Linnean Society of London ( Botany ) 10 (1869): 393–437. Müller, Fritz. 1871. Ueber den …
  • … Faramea described in this letter (F.  Müller 1869). Müller began corresponding with Joseph …

From Fritz Müller   2 February 1867

Summary

Thanks for CD’s letter inquiring about capsules produced by the Maxillaria with larger pods [see 5331]. Gives descriptions of Maxillaria and of the other Vandeae.

Describes Oncidium flexuosum.

Tells of botanical results of recent excursion to the German colony Theresopolis. Brought home fine collection of living orchids.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Feb 1867
Classmark:  Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 109–11; DAR 70: 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5389A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … and Magazine of Natural History 4th ser. 4 (1869): 141–59. [ Collected papers 2: 138–56. ] …

From Fritz Müller   14 June 1871

Summary

Discussion of mimicry and sexual selection among butterflies, occasioned by reading Descent.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 June 1871
Classmark:  DAR 89: 91–3; DAR 142: 58
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7820

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 17, letter to Fritz Müller, 8 September [1869] and n.  2, and Correspondence vol.  18, …

From Fritz Müller   5 November 1865

Summary

Thanks CD for the copy of Orchids and papers on Linum and Lythrum [Collected papers 2: 93–105; 106–31].

Intends to travel to the River Itajahy and will make observations on climbing plants. Is not sure whether Dalbergia is a winding plant.

CD has changed FM’s whole perception of nature.

CD has helped him to understand distribution of coastal flora.

The vegetation on Desterro is changing.

Louis Agassiz is seeking evidence against transmutation in the distribution of the fish in the Amazon.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Nov 1865
Classmark:  Möller 1915–21, 2: 76–7.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4929A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … and Magazine of Natural History 4th ser. 4 (1869): 141–59. [ Collected papers 2: 138–56. ] …

From Fritz Müller   1 December 1866

Summary

Gives observations on orchid ovules ripening long after blooming.

Infertility with own pollen sometimes does and sometimes does not indicate dimorphism; gives observations on Ximenia, Eschscholtzia and Oncidium flexuosum.

Describes some striking seeds eaten by birds,

and some new dimorphic species.

Variation in Thillia.

Confirms CD’s suspicion that the lancet-fish [Amphioxus] lives in competition with invertebrates: it shares its habitat with a similar-looking Ophelia, which is quite unlike other annelids, just as the lancet-fish is unlike other fishes.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Dec 1866
Classmark:  Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 99–102.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5292A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1869. Taylor, C. M. 1994. Revision of Hillia ( …
Document type
letter (21)
Author
Müller, Fritz[X]
Addressee
Correspondent
Date
1865 (1)
1866 (3)
1867 (3)
1868 (4)
1869 (5)
1870 (2)
1871 (1)
1874 (1)
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Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition …
  • … that is something’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [22 January 1869] ). Much of the remainder of …
  • … to be the case’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 January 1869 ). Hooker went straight to a crucial …
  • … probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , and letter from A. R. Wallace, …
  • … in distribution’ ( letter to James Croll, 31 January [1869] ). Darwin had argued ( Origin , pp. …
  • … formation’ ( letter to James Croll,  31 January [1869] ). Croll could not supply Darwin with an …
  • … have got that yet’ ( letter from James Croll, 4 February 1869 ).  Darwin did not directly …
  • … towards [Thomson]’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 19 March [1869] ). Towards Descent …
  • … ‘everlasting old Origin’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 1 June [1869] ), he was able to return to work on  …
  • … ( letter from Robert Elliot to George Cupples, 21 June 1869 ).  Details on mating behaviour …
  • … in the garden ( letter from Frederick Smith, 8 October 1869 ). Albert Günther, assistant in the …
  • … varieties ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 25 February [1869] ). The data contined to …
  • … cocks & hens.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 November [1869] ). Yet completion of the work was …
  • … for  Descent . Researching emotion In 1869, Darwin still expected that  Descent …
  • … hatred—’ ( from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May [1869] ). James Crichton-Browne and …
  • … ( enclosure to letter from Henry Maudsley, 20 May 1869 ). Darwin had often complained of the …
  • … in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More remarkable still were Wallace …
  • … seem to you like some mental hallucination’ ( 18 April 1869 ). Since his marriage to Annie …
  • …  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and scolded him for again being too …
  • … demands justice’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). Proceeding on all fronts …
  • … South American cordillera ( letter to Charles Lyell, 20 May 1869 ), and fossil discoveries in …
  • … investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a letter to the  Gardeners …
  • … of the soil ( letter to  Gardeners’ Chronicle , 9 May [1869] ). In March, Darwin received …
  • … in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This research contributed to  …
  • … editions ( see letter from Victor Masson, 29 September 1869 ). The work had been undertaken, like …
  • … Animals”’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 19 November [1869] ). Angered by these proceedings, Darwin …
  • … of Fritz Müller’s  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. 1869). The book, an explication of Darwinian …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Crichton-Browne, James 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 19 May 1869 West Riding …
  • … Gray, Asa 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Jane 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about …
  • … King, P.G. 25 Feb 1869 Sydney, Australia …
  • … Maudsley, Henry 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 17 Jan 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 28 June [1869] Sierra Leone, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 26 Dec 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa …
  • … Scott, John 2 July 1869 Royal Botanic Gardens, …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • … Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwin’s niece, Margaret, …
  • … Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John Scott responds to Darwin’s …
  • …  - Darwin to  Gunther, A. C. L. G., [21 September 1869] Darwin asks Gunther for “a great …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … (letter from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May 1869 ) Darwin cited Gray’s …
  • … their year long trip to Europe and North Africa in 1868 to 1869, the Grays visited Charles and Emma …
  • … 1868, and visiting again on their return journey in August 1869. Although they never met again, the …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Becker tells Darwin that …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Suffragist and …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

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  • … work on human expression. Donders visited Darwin in 1869 , and a year later Darwin consoled him …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Towards the end of 1862, Darwin resolved to build a small hothouse at Down House, for ‘experimental purposes’ (see Correspondence vol. 10, letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1862], and volume 10, letter to Thomas Rivers, 15 January 1863). The decision…

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  • … comprised two halves kept at different temperatures, and in 1869 Darwin told the botanist William …
  • … temperatures’ (letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March [1869] ,  Calendar  no. 6661). …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

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  • … vol. 17, letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). His views were presented more fully in a …
  • … comparative anatomist through his work on primates. In July 1869, Mivart published the first of a …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

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  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] Darwin thanks Antoinette …

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

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  • … " Letter 6728 : from Charles Lyell, 5 May 1869 "I feel that …
  • … Letter 6866 : From Federico Delpino, 22 August 1869 "Perhaps because of intellectual …

John Beddoe

Summary

In 1869, when gathering data on sexual selection in humans, Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with John Beddoe, a doctor in Bristol. He was looking for evidence that racial differences that appear to have no benefit in terms of survival - and…

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  • … In 1869 Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with a John Beddoe, a doctor in …

Suggested reading

Summary

  Contemporary writing Anon., The English matron: A practical manual for young wives, (London, 1846). Anon., The English gentlewoman: A practical manual for young ladies on their entrance to society, (Third edition, London, 1846). Becker, L. E.…

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  • … A. L. B.,  Studies in general science , (New York, 1869). Buckley, A.,  The fairy-land …
  • … M.,  On molecular and microscopic science ,  (London, 1869). Treat, M., ‘ Is the valve …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

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  • … himself an injustice & never demands justice” (14 April 1869). But Wallace continued, both …
  • … about the application of natural selection to ‘man’ in 1869, and looked instead to a ‘higher …
  • … investigation (see letter from A. R. Wallace, 18 April [1869]). Wallace’s views on man were also …
  • … the “great General” (letter to Charles Kingsley, 7 May 1869). In later years when Darwin reflected …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

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  • … was later expanded into the book, Hereditary Genius (1869), which contained an entry on the …

6248A_20488

Summary

From Fritz Müllerf1   17 June 1868Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil,17. Juni 1868. .... . Sie werden schon aus meinem letzten Briefe ersehen haben, dass es mir sehr schmeichelhaft ist, wenn Sie meine…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f3 The original enclosure …
  • … The figure and page references are to W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f15 Podophthalma: …
  • … F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f3 The original enclosure …
  • … text Möller 1915–21, 2: 141–3; W. S. Dallas trans. 1869, pp. 119–21 n. Physcial description …

6248A_20488A

Summary

From Fritz Müllerf1   17 June 1868Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil,17. Juni 1868. .... . Sie werden schon aus meinem letzten Briefe ersehen haben, dass es mir sehr schmeichelhaft ist, wenn Sie meine…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f3 The original enclosure …
  • … The figure and page references are to W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f15 Podophthalma: …
  • … F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f3 The original enclosure …
  • … text Möller 1915–21, 2: 141–3; W. S. Dallas trans. 1869, pp. 119–21 n. Physcial description …

6430_10256

Summary

From Sven Nilsson to J. D. Hookerf1   25 October 1868Lund (Suède)25 Okt. 1868.Monsieur le Professeur! J’ai écrit à deux de mes amis qui ont des connaissances personnelles à la Lapponie, pour avoir les…

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  • … and n. 10. f6 See Nilsson 1866–7. In Lubbock 1869, pp. 59–73, John Lubbock disagreed with …
  • … and n. 10. f6 See Nilsson 1866–7. In Lubbock 1869, pp. 59–73, John Lubbock disagreed with …

Family life

Summary

From the long letters exchanged with his sisters during the Beagle voyage, through correspondence about his marriage to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, the births—and deaths—of their children, to the  contributions of his sons and daughters  to his scientific…

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  • … From the long letters exchanged with his sisters during the  Beagle  voyage, through …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

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  • … John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down …

About the project

Summary

On this site you can read and search the full texts of more than 7,500 of Charles Darwin’s letters, and find information on 7,500 more. Available here are complete transcripts of all known letters Darwin wrote and received up to the year 1869. More are…

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  • … all known letters Darwin wrote and received up to the year 1869. More are being added all the time. …
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