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From George Henslow   [c. 20 February 1878]

Summary

Discusses various authors’ interpretations of the structure of the embryo of grasses.

Author:  George Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 20 Feb 1878]
Classmark:  DAR 209.4: 431
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11219

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Libraire. Duchartre, Pierre Etienne Simon. 1867. Éléments de botanique: comprenant l’ …
  • … t.  II.  p.  71. Duchartre El.  de Bot. 1867.  p.  906. & 903. (I incline to first view …
  • … Lestiboudois 1848 ; Gris 1864 ; Duchartre 1867 . ‘General presence of Albumen’ is a …

To Edward Frankland   2 December [1878]

Summary

Thanks for the Blue Book [Report to the Local Government Board on the water supplied to London].

Gives instructions for sending the pure water.

Has sent for the Wenham ice.

Enjoyed his talk with EF.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Frankland
Date:  2 Dec [1878]
Classmark:  The John Rylands Library, The University of Manchester (Frankland Collection 2230)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11768A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … an office in the Strand, London ( Wynter 1867 , pp. 243–53). The water was for experiments …
  • … of California Press. Wynter, Andrew. 1867. Our social bees; or, pictures of town & country …

From G. H. Darwin   7 November 1878

Summary

Encloses William Thomson’s report on GHD’s paper. Some of it was written in Rayleigh’s hand.

Author:  George Howard Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Nov 1878
Classmark:  DAR 210.2: 71, The Royal Society (RR/8/91)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11738

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of natural philosophy ( Thomson and Tait 1867 , pp. 646–9), Thomson and Peter Guthrie Tait …
  • … Thomson, William and Tait, Peter Guthrie. 1867. Treatise on natural philosophy. Vol. 1 (no …

From G. H. Darwin   10 October 1878

Summary

Recounts the experiments on Fechner’s law he has found in Helmholz; they are on the smallest perceptible differences of illumination. Describes how to test whether plants’ responses to lights are in accordance with it.

Author:  George Howard Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Oct 1878
Classmark:  DAR 210.2: 70
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11722

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Breitkopf and Härtel. Helmholtz, Hermann von. 1867. Handbuch der physiologischen Optik . …
  • … to perception of light intensity, see Helmholtz 1867 , pp. 309–16. Fechner, in studies on …

To George Francis   22 February 1878

Summary

Thanks for the specimens: the bulbs have been planted.

He has not attended to the colouring matter of plants, but he will ask H. C. Sorby if he would like the specimens.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Francis
Date:  22 Feb 1878
Classmark:  State Library of South Australia (inserted in Insectivorous plants 583.121 D228)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11371F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … using a spectrum microscope (see Sorby 1867 and 1875). Sorby had examined the colouring of …

From W. W. Baxter   7 January 1878

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Summary

Constituents of spermaceti ointment supplied to CD. Perhaps effect was caused by substance used to bleach the bees-wax.

Author:  William Walmisley Baxter
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Jan 1878
Classmark:  DAR 209.8: 150
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11315

Matches: 1 hit

  • … pharmacopœia (1877). Third reprint of the 1867 edition, with additions made in 1874. …

From Alfred Moschkau    26 March 1878

Summary

Describes hereditary defect in ear muscle.

Discusses influence of wet nurse on infant.

Describes talking starlings.

Author:  Otto Carl Alfred (Alfred) Moschkau
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Mar 1878
Classmark:  DAR 171: 252
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11446

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Noch gelehrter war ein Staar, welchen im Jahre 1867 ein Gasthofsbesitzer “zur Hummel” in …
  • … Hornitz near Zittau in Lusatia in the year 1867. This animal talked so much and whistled …

To John Tyndall   4 December [1878]

Summary

Has observed, perhaps erroneously, that certain plants were excited to movement by a prolonged high note on the bassoon. Would now like to try a siren and asks JT to bring one from the Royal Institution.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Tyndall
Date:  4 Dec [1878]
Classmark:  DAR 261.8: 27 (EH 88205965)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11771

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Institution of Great Britain (see Tyndall 1867, pp. 67–78; the apparatus is figured on p. …

To Francis Darwin   25 July [1878]

Summary

Is forwarding the writing machine to Carl Semper.

Is glad FD has taken up his old friends, the twiners.

Hopes to get heliotropic aerial roots from J. D. Hooker. Asks FD to find out whether any moulds or roots are apheliotropic. Is puzzled by heliotropism in subterranean roots.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  25 July [1878]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 40
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11631

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Journal of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 9 (1867): 1–118. Movement in plants : The power …

From Raphael Meldola   26 January 1878

Summary

Returns Kosmos.

Thanks CD for permission to use Fritz Müller’s last letter, which contains new observations.

Author:  Raphael Meldola
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Jan 1878
Classmark:  DAR 171: 125
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11332

Matches: 1 hit

  • … s observation on Prioneris , see Wallace 1867, p. 314. For Arthur Gardiner Butler’s …

From B. J. Sulivan   [14–20] April [1878]

Summary

Asks whether CD wishes to join other old "Beagles" in supporting an orphan grandson of Jemmy Button.

Author:  Bartholomew James Sulivan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [14–20] Apr [1878]
Classmark:  DAR 177: 304
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11459

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Society; CD had made a donation in 1867 (see Correspondence vol. 22, letter from B. J. …

From J. D. Hooker   7 October 1878

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Summary

Botanical evidence is against F. B. White’s origin of St Helena fauna. JDH holds flora is S. African. Since plants must arrive before insects, if fauna is Palearctic then flora survived glacial period. Flora not Miocene since old and relic orders are absent. Suggests S. African west coastal mountains as insects’ origin.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Oct 1878
Classmark:  DAR 104: 118–20
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11718

Matches: 1 hit

  • … had described Sium helenianum in Hooker ed. 1867–91, 1: 23–4, as endemic to St Helena (the …

To W. R. Greg   31 December 1878

Summary

Discusses a chapter on design, written by WRG’s son [Percy Greg, The devil’s advocate (1878)]. Comments on the younger Greg’s criticisms of natural selection and evolution.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Rathbone Greg
Date:  31 Dec 1878
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.557)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11812

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Gaston de Saporta and Saporta 1862–5 and 1867–8; Albert Oppel and Oppel 1856–8 ; Melchior …
Document type
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Date
1878
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Darwin in letters, 1867: A civilised dispute

Summary

Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (Variation). The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in…

Matches: 30 hits

  • …   Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work,  The …
  • … publisher in the final week of 1866. It would take all of 1867 to correct proofs, and just when …
  • … becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in 1867, as he continued to circulate a list of …
  • … transmutation theory. Three important new correspondents in 1867 were Hermann Müller and Anton Dohrn …
  • … the New Year’s greeting, ‘may you be eupeptic through 1867 & your friends & the world in …
  • … publisher, John Murray, he wrote to Murray on 3 January 1867 , ‘I cannot tell you how sorry I am …
  • … for selling a Book’ ( letter to John Murray, 31 January [1867] ). A week later, Darwin had …
  • … the additional chapter. In a letter written on 8 February [1867] to his close friend, Joseph …
  • … Darwin’s time. The first proof-sheets arrived on 1 March 1867 and the tedious work of correction …
  • … . In a letter to his son William dated 27 [March 1867] , he admitted, ‘I fear the book is by no …
  • … papers with his first letter to Darwin of 15 March 1867 , although he described some of Alexander …
  • … told his publisher, John Murray, in a letter of 4 April [1867] , not to send stereotypes of the …
  • … had received other offers, notably one from Vogt in April 1867, to translate the new work. Carus had …
  • … will be published’ ( letter from J. V. Carus, 5 April 1867 ). This hint of uncertainty caused …
  • … to give up the task’ ( letter to Carl Vogt, 12 April [1867] ). Darwin need not have worried …
  • … to the German public ( letter from J. V. Carus, 15 April 1867 ). Darwin may not have fully …
  • … in preference to you’ ( letter to J. V. Carus, 18 April [1867] ). Darwin was not disappointed in …
  • … the ‘wonderful discovery’ to Darwin on 14 March 1867 . Then, in April, Robert Trail wrote from …
  • … in a mottled hybrid ( letter from Robert Trail, 5 April 1867 ). Darwin told his American friend …
  • … physiological fact’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 15 April [1867] ). Although he did not succeed in …
  • … step in Biology’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 22 August [1867] ). Darwin’s insecurity persisted, …
  • … ferocity’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 17 November [1867] ). Even when the corrections were …
  • … to be introduced’ ( letter to W. S. Dallas, 8 November [1867] ). Dallas resisted the temptation to …
  • … as I could wish’ (letter from W. S. Dallas, 20 November 1867). Dallas, like Carus, alerted Darwin to …
  • … for information on Fuegian expressions. On 11 January 1867, Sulivan replied , enclosing belated …
  • … 27 years old In a letter of 22 February [1867] to Fritz Müller in Brazil, in which …
  • … Russel Wallace, who suggested in his response of 11 March [1867] that Darwin send his queries to …
  • … ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [12–17] March [1867] ). Darwin’s doggedness in pursuing answers to his …
  • … so do not want any more’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 15 April [1867] ). Nevertheless, at some point …
  • … in  Notes and Queries on China and Japan , 31 August 1867. Another version, possibly derived from …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to …
  • … Barber, Mary E. [after Feb 1867] [Grahamstown, Cape …
  • … Bowker, J.H. [10 Dec 1867] [Cape of Good Hope (South …
  • … Bowman, William 5 Aug 1867 5 Clifford St, London, …
  • … Darwin, Francis 20 June 1867 Unknown? …
  • … Erskine, H. N. B. 1 Nov 1867 [Ahmednuggur, Bombay, …
  • … Gaika, Christian 7 July 1867 Bedford [Cape of Good …
  • … Geach, F.F. June 1867 Johore, Malaysia …
  • … Gibbs, George 31 March 1867 Smithsonian Institution, …
  • … Gray, Asa 26 March 1867 Cambridge, Massachusetts, …
  • … Haast, J.F.J. von 12 May - 2 June 1867 Christchurch, …
  • … Haast, J.F.J. von 4 Dec 1867 Christchurch, New …
  • … Hagenauer, F.A. [12 Sept 1867] Lake Wellington, …
  • … Huxley, H.A. 22 Mar [1867] Abbey Place, London, …
  • … Kempson, L.F. 20 June 1867 Penmaenmawr, Conway, …
  • … Lubbock, E.F. [1867-8?] Lombard Street, London? …
  • … Muller, Fritz 22 Feb [1867] Down, Kent, England …
  • … Paget, James 9 July 1867 1 Harewood Place, Hanover …
  • … Rothrock, J.T. 31 March 1867 McVeytown [Pennsylvania …
  • … Stack, James West 4 Dec 1867 Christchurch, New …
  • … Sulivan, B.J. 11 Jan 1867 Bournemouth, England …
  • … Sutton, Seth 8 Aug 1867 Zoological Gardens, Regents …
  • … Swinhoe, Robert 5 Aug 1867 Amoy, China …
  • … Wallace, A. R. 2 March [1867] 9 St. Mark’s Crescent, …
  • … Wallace, A. R. 11 March [1867] 9 St. Mark’s Crescent …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. 7 July 1867 Bedford, Cape of Good Hope …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. [10 Dec 1867] Bedford, Cape of Good …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Sunday to Mahomet.   ( to John Lubbock, 26 March [1867] ) The most striking …
  • … 'not a little in the dark' ( to John Lubbock, 26 March [1867] ). Trouble with the …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber responds to …
  • … Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • … Letter 5602 - Sutton, S. to Darwin, [8 August 1867] Sutton, the keeper of the …
  • … 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] Explorer and geologist Haast …
  • … Letter 5585  - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [26 July 1867] Darwin praises Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 5403  - Darwin to Carus,  J. V.  [17 February 1867] Darwin thanks Carus for his …
  • … 5410  - Darwin to Muller, J. F. T., [22 February 1867] Darwin thanks Muller for …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 5605: Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 15 Aug [1867] Darwin asks Fritz Müller, a …

Edward Lumb

Summary

Edward Lumb was born in Yorkshire. According to the memoirs of his daughter Anne, Lady Macdonell, he travelled to Buenos Aires aged sixteen with his merchant uncle, Charles Poynton, and after some fortunate enterprises set up in business there. In 1833…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … still at Buenos Aires, or even still alive. However, in 1867 Darwin’s son, William, went to the …
  • … persuaded her husband to go back to Buenos Aires in October 1867. However, they had eventually …

A tale of two bees

Summary

Darwinian evolution theory fundamentally changed the way we understand the environment and even led to the coining of the word 'ecology'. Darwin was fascinated by bees: he devised experiments to study the comb-building technique of honey bees and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … much ahead of his time when, in a letter to Darwin in 1867 , he commented on Edward Wilson’s plan …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7312 - Darwin to Darwin, F., [30 August 1867 - 70] Darwin asks his son, …
  • … Letter 5391 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [6 February 1867] Lydia Becker thanks Darwin …
  • … Letter 5712 - Dallas, W. S. to Darwin, [8 December 1867] Translator and author …

Sexual selection

Summary

Although natural selection could explain the differences between species, Darwin realised that (other than in the reproductive organs themselves) it could not explain the often marked differences between the males and females of the same species.  So what…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Variation under domestication,  neared completion in 1867, that he systematically sought more …
  • … Typical is his query to Fritz Müller in  February 1867 : Do you know of any lowly …
  • … as an argument in favour of Divine creation (Campbell  1867, pp. 203–4). Brent gave it as his …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Letter 5457 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 23 Mar 1867 Müller explains how Origin …
  • … 5471 — Darwin, C. R. to Müller, H. L. H., 29 Mar [1867] Darwin learns that German botanist …
  • … Letter 5481 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr [1867] Müller thanks Darwin for the …
  • … Letter 5657 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 23 Oct 1867 Müller thanks Darwin for the …
  • … Letter 5585 — Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, H. E., 26 July [1867] Darwin writes to his daughter …
  • … Letter 5745 — Barber, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., [after Feb 1867] In this letter, naturalist, …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 5429 — Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 4 Mar 1867 Müller reports observations on …
  • … Letter 5480 — Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr 1867 Müller cites cases of difference …
  • … 5551 — Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 26 May [1867] Darwin thanks Müller for information …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] Darwin’s niece, Frances, …
  • … Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece to …

Controversy

Summary

The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 5500 — Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 12 Apr [1867] Darwin is sympathetic to Haeckel’s …
  • … Letter 5533 — Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, C. R., 12 May 1867 Haeckel thanks Darwin for the …
  • … 5544 — Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 21 May [1867] Darwin discusses his previous …

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 5617 , Darwin to Weale, J. P. M., 27 August [1867] "You have been extremely …
  • … Letter 5722 , Weale, J. P. M. to Darwin, [10 December 1867] "You speak sanguinely …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 5565 — Kingsley, Charles to Darwin, C. R., 6 June 1867 Clergyman Charles Kingsley …
  • … 5648 — Darwin, C. R. to Wallace, A. R., 12–13 Oct [1867] Darwin thinks naturalist A. R. …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … A GRAY 15 AUGUST 1868 177  TO A GRAY 15 APRIL 1867 178  C DARWIN TO JD …

Orchids

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment A project to follow On the Origin of Species Darwin began to observe English orchids and collect specimens from abroad in the years immediately following the publication of On the Origin of Species. Examining…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 5637 - Alfred Russel Wallace to Charles Darwin 1 October 1867 Alfred Russell Wallace, a …

Dining at Down House

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [14 April 1867] Emma debates the wisdom of making a visit to …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 5670f - Darwin to Kingsley, C., [6 November 1867] Darwin discusses ‘rudiments’ …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and sending Darwin a copy of the article. In early spring 1867, Darwin initiated a correspondence …
  • … Darwin  replied encouragingly  and in the summer of 1867, Müller began working on fertilisation of …
  • … preventing unwanted visitors from gaining access. In October 1867, Müller sent Darwin a letter …
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