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To A. R. Wallace   12 and 13 October [1867]

Summary

Response to ARW’s "Creation by law", especially the Angraecum sesquipedale and the predicted Madagascar moth.

ARW’s argument on beauty strikes CD as good.

Wishes ARW had made more clear the assumption of the reviewer [in North Br. Rev.] that each variation is a strongly marked one.

The Duke of Argyll’s argument on beauty is not candid.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  12 and 13 Oct 1867
Classmark:  The British Library (Add 46434 f. 96)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5648

Matches: 24 hits

  • … To A.  R.  Wallace   12 and 13 October [1867] …
  • … The British Library (Add 46434 f. 96) Charles Robert Darwin Down 12 Oct [1867] 13 …
  • … Oct [1867] Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … Bibliography Campbell, George Douglas. 1867. The reign of law. London: Alexander Strahan. …
  • … 1867c; see also letter to James Samuelson, 12 October [1867] , and letter from A.   …
  • … R.  Wallace, 1 October [1867] and n.  4). In The …
  • … and Natural History 1 (1868–9): 73–89. Warington, George. 1867. On the credibility of …
  • … Darwinism. [Read 4 March 1867. ] Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute 2: …
  • … of the paper appeared in the 12 October 1867 issue of Gardeners’ Chronicle (A.  R.   …
  • … to the letter from Wallace of 26 April [1867]. Frederick F.  Geach had sent answers to CD’ …
  • … see letter from F.  F.  Geach, June 1867). Wallace had provided CD with Geach’s address ( …
  • … see letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 2 March [1867] ). CD refers to Herbert Spencer Wallace ( …
  • … see letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 1 October [1867] and n.  7). CD had commented on Herbert …
  • … see letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 1 October [ 1867] ). The last extant letter from Wallace …
  • … refers to George Warington, the Victoria Institute, and Warington 1867 (see also letter to …
  • … George Warington, 7 October [1867] and n.  2). The Victoria Institute was founded in 1865; …
  • … Press. [Jenkin, Henry Charles Fleeming. ] 1867. The origin of species. North British …
  • … reign of law ( G.  D.  Campbell 1867 ), pp.  45–6, George Douglas Campbell, the duke of …
  • … letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 1 October [1867] and n.  5). See A.  R.  Wallace 1867c, p.   …
  • … see, for example, G.  D.   Campbell 1867 , pp.  242–8, and A.  R.  Wallace 1867c, pp.   …
  • … Charles Fleeming Jenkin. See [Jenkin] 1867 , pp.  293–4, and Wallace 1867c, pp.  485–6. CD …
  • … 2: 416). CD refers to G.  D.  Campbell 1867 , pp.  128–80. Campbell had argued that a bird …
  • … could fly backwards ( G.  D.  Campbell 1867 , pp.  145–6). CD refers to ‘The disguises of …
  • … birds’ nests and their plumage’ on 9 September 1867 at the British Association meeting at …

From A. R. Wallace   22 October [1867]

Summary

Response to CD’s comments on "Creation by law" [see 5637].

The limits of variation discussed.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Oct [1867]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B46–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5656

Matches: 18 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   22 October [1867] …
  • … DAR 106: B46–7 Alfred Russel Wallace Hurstpierpoint 22 Oct [1867] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Bibliography Campbell, George Douglas. 1867. The reign of law. London: …
  • … Strahan. [Jenkin, Henry Charles Fleeming. ] 1867. The origin of species. North British …
  • … between this letter and the letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 12 and 13 October [1867] . In …
  • … his letter of 12 and 13 October [1867] , CD had praised Wallace’s article in the Quarterly …
  • … 1867c) defending CD’s theory against criticisms made in G.  D.  Campbell 1867  and [ …
  • … Jenkin] 1867 . In his anonymous article in the North British Review , Henry Charles …
  • … see letter to Charles Lyell, 22 August [1867] ). The reference is to Descent. Earlier, CD …
  • … agent in forming the human races (see letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 26 February [1867] ). …
  • … for patenting machines (see [Jenkin] 1867 , pp.  310–12, and A.  R.  Wallace 1867c, p.   …
  • … over long periods of time ( [Jenkin] 1867 , pp.  285–6). Wallace countered that the …
  • … 486–7). See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 12 and 13 October [1867] and n.  12. See letter to …
  • … A.  R.  Wallace, 12 and 13 October [1867] and n.  13. The ‘new Natural …
  • … Natural History (see letter from Andrew Murray, 12 August 1867  and n.  1). See letter to …
  • … A.  R.  Wallace, 12 and 13 October [1867] and n.  16. Wallace refers to the Journal of the …
  • … at 12 St James’s Square ( Post Office London directory 1867; see letter to A.  R.   …
  • … Wallace, 12 and 13 October [1867] and n.  20). Wallace refers to Charles Lyell, Thomas …

From A. R. Wallace   [19 June 1867]

Summary

CD is invited to see ARW’s collections at Bayswater.

ARW has written an answer to the Duke of Argyll and North British Review criticisms.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [19 June 1867]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B41–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5634

Matches: 13 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   [19 June 1867] …
  • … 2 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 [19 June 1867] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Creation by law’, appeared in the October 1867 issue of the Quarterly Journal of Science ( …
  • … Bibliography Campbell, George Douglas. 1867. The reign of law. London: …
  • … Strahan. [Jenkin, Henry Charles Fleeming. ] 1867. The origin of species. North British …
  • … 5, below). CD was in London from 17 to 24 June 1867 (see CD’s ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). …
  • … In 1867, the first Wednesday after 17 June was 19 June. Wallace refers to the gardens of …
  • … Douglas Campbell and to G.  D.  Campbell 1867 (for more on Campbell’s criticisms, see …
  • … the letter from Charles Kingsley, 6 June 1867 , and the letter to …
  • … Charles Kingsley, 10 June [1867] ). The unsigned …
  • … article in the North British Review for June 1867 was [ …
  • … Jenkin] 1867 (see letter from …
  • … Charles Kingsley, 6 June 1867  and n.  2). …

From A. R. Wallace   1 October [1867]

Summary

Informs CD of his reply to Argyll and the North British Review criticisms [in "Creation by law", Q. J. Sci. 4 (1867): 471–88]. Cites "the predicted Madagascar moth" and Angraecum sesquipedale.

Birth of Herbert Spencer Wallace.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Oct [1867]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B43–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5637

Matches: 14 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   1 October [1867] …
  • … Alfred Russel Wallace London, Westbourne Grove, 76 1/2 1 Oct [1867] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … to Wallace (see letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 12 and 13 October [1867] and nn.  14 and 20). …
  • … in "Creation by law", Q. J. Sci. 4 (1867): 471–88]. Cites "the predicted Madagascar moth" …
  • … Bibliography Campbell, George Douglas. 1867. The reign of law. London: Alexander Strahan. …
  • … was in London from 18 to 24 September 1867 (see ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). Wallace refers …
  • … was held in Dundee from 4 to 11 September 1867 ( Report of the thirty-seventh meeting of …
  • … Xanthopan morgani ; see A.  R.  Wallace 1867, p.  477; see also Kritsky 1991 ). Wallace …
  • … 1977 ). Wallace’s son was born on 22 June 1867 ( Raby 2001 , p.  194). Wallace’s brother, …
  • … Press. [Jenkin, Henry Charles Fleeming. ] 1867. The origin of species. North British …
  • … published The reign of law , a book critical of CD’s transmutation theory, in 1867 ( G.   …
  • … D.  Campbell 1867 ); the North British Review had published an anonymous article by Henry …
  • … Charles Fleeming Jenkin, also critical of CD’s theory, in June 1867 ( [ …
  • … Jenkin] 1867 ). Wallace responded to these criticisms in his article ‘Creation by law’ in …

To A. R. Wallace   [12–17] March [1867]

Summary

Asks to be kept informed on gaudy caterpillars.

Problems of his work on man; scope and role of sexual selection.

Indulgence of interest in expression is simply a "hobby-horse". Will see whether he can get queries inserted in an Indian newspaper.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  [12–17] Mar [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add 46434 ff. 80–83v)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5440

Matches: 15 hits

  • … To A.  R.  Wallace   [12–17] March [1867] …
  • … Add 46434 ff. 80–83v) Charles Robert Darwin Down [12–17] Mar [1867] Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … that Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood and Georgina Tollet were visiting from 11 to 21 March 1867. …
  • … letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 11 March [1867] . The end of the date range is established by …
  • … 17 March (see letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 17 March [1867] , and n.  10, below). See letter …
  • … from A.  R.  Wallace, 11 March [1867] . The other letter from Wallace has not been found. …
  • … Quaritch, a London bookseller, on 13 March 1867; these may have included A.  Murray 1866 ( …
  • … see letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 17 March [1867] , and n.  15). See letter …
  • … from A.  R.  Wallace, 11 March [1867] and n.  4. CD often dictated letters to his wife, …
  • … and Messenger 2003. See letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 11 March [1867] and n.  7. See letter …
  • … from A.  R.  Wallace, 11 March [1867] ; Wallace had asked whether CD’s work on humans …
  • … vol.  12). See letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 11 March [1867] and n.  2. See letter …
  • … from A.  R.  Wallace, 11 March [1867] . CD made notes on human expression as early as …
  • … Hartley 2001. In his letter of 11 March [1867] , Wallace suggested that CD send his list …
  • … letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 11 March [1867] and n.  6. CD refers to Andrew Murray, A.   …

To Alfred Russel Wallace   23 February 1867

Summary

Asks why caterpillars are sometimes beautifully coloured. It poses a problem for view that sexual selection is the explanation of colours of male butterflies.

More on mimetic butterflies.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  23 Feb 1867
Classmark:  Marchant ed. 1916, 1: 178
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5415

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To Alfred Russel Wallace   23 February 1867
  • … Marchant ed. 1916, 1: 178 Charles Robert Darwin Down 23 Feb 1867 Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … exhibition (see letter from A.  R.  Wallace, [19 June 1867] and n.  3, and A.  R.   …
  • … Wallace 1905 , 1: 404). See also letter to Edward Blyth, [19 February 1867] . …
  • … Henry Walter Bates. In a note dated 18 February 1867, CD wrote that Bates had observed a …
  • … Down, Bromley, Kent, S.E. February 23, 1867. Dear Wallace,— I much regretted that I was …
  • … letter to Alfred Newton, 19 January [1867] ). CD and Wallace evidently had a discussion on …
  • … see letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 29 April [1867] and n.  6). In 1862, Wallace had returned …
  • … in sexual selection, see the letter to Fritz Müller, 22 February [1867] and n.  8. …
  • … also letter from Alfred Newton, 21 January 1867  and n.  8. The first extant letter from …

To A. R. Wallace   7 March [1867]

Summary

Grateful for addresses of informants, especially that of Rajah James Brooke.

Dispatch of queries on expression. Answers will make interesting appendix to his "Essay on man" [Descent].

Protective adaptation of female butterflies believed probable.

Believes in sexual selection as applied to man.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  7 Mar [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add 46434 ff. 20–20v)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5992

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To A.  R.  Wallace   7 March [1867] …
  • … Add 46434 ff. 20–20v) Charles Robert Darwin Down 7 Mar [1867] Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … year after Descent. See letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 2 March [1867] and n.  3. See letter …
  • … from A.  R.  Wallace, 2 March [1867] and nn.  7–10. …
  • … the relationship between this letter and the letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 2 March [1867] . …
  • … In his letter of 2 March [1867] , Wallace sent two addresses for CD, including that of …
  • … from Ferdinand von Mueller, 28 February [1867]. Expression was ultimately published in …

From A. R. Wallace   11 March [1867]

Summary

ARW responds to CD’s list of queries about expression. Suggests acquiring informants through publishing the queries in newspapers. His doubts about their importance.

Has submitted caterpillar question to Entomological Society.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Mar [1867]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B24, B45; DAR 82: A22
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5437

Matches: 11 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   11 March [1867] …
  • … see letter from J.  P.  M.  Weale, 9 January  1867, and CD’s annotation to the letter from …
  • … A.  R.  Wallace, 24 February [1867] ). …
  • … Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 11 Mar [1867] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … the letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 7 March [1867] . The list of queries about expression that …
  • … see letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 7 March [1867] and n.  2. For a version of the questions …
  • … see letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 23 February 1867); in Bates 1861 , pp.  508–9, Bates noted …
  • … Man’ in his letter to Wallace of 7 March [1867]. Variation was published in 1868; CD had …
  • … see letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 8 February [1867] and n.  16). Expression was published in …
  • … 7. See letter from H.  W.  Bates, 11 March 1867 and n.  9. Wallace refers to the mullein …
  • … letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 24 February [1867] and n.  3. No comment by Wallace on this …

To A. R. Wallace   [24 June 1867]

Summary

CD now acknowledges that the sometimes very great sexual, i.e., ornamental, differences in fishes offer a difficulty to the view that females are not brightly coloured on account of the danger to propagation of the species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  [24 June 1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add 46434, f. 74)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5404

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To A.  R.  Wallace   [24 June 1867] …
  • … f. 74) Charles Robert Darwin London, Queen Anne St, 6 [24 June 1867] Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … of bird skins and butterflies (see letter from A.  R.  Wallace, [19 June 1867] and n.  3). …
  • … the relationship between this letter and the letter from A.  R.  Wallace, [19 June 1867] . …
  • … The first Monday after 19 June 1867 was 24 June. CD refers to the Quarterly Journal of …
  • … in north Wales’, which appeared in the January 1867 issue (A.  R.  Wallace 1867d); see …
  • … geology’ ( Quarterly Journal of Science 4 (1867): 1–19), was a review of Lyell’s services …
  • … to geology. CD may have met Wallace on 21 June 1867, after failing to see him earlier (see …
  • … letter from A.   R.  Wallace, [19 June 1867] ). In notes for Descent written on that …
  • … letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 26 April [1867] ). In Descent 2: 12–23, CD discussed colour …

From A. R. Wallace   2 March [1867]

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Summary

Pleased that CD approves his idea about caterpillars.

Thinks CD is right about selection in butterflies, but still believes protective adaptation has kept down colours of females.

Cannot yet see action of natural selection in forming the races of man.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Mar [1867]
Classmark:  DAR 85: A98
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5968

Matches: 11 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   2 March [1867] …
  • … A98 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 2 Mar [1867] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … see letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 26 February [1867] . CD touched on the roles of beauty and …
  • … letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 24 February [1867] . For Wallace’s hypothesis on caterpillar …
  • … experiment for testing it, see his letter of 24 February [1867] . CD praised Wallace’ …
  • … s idea in his letter of 26 February [1867] . …
  • … In his letter of 26 February [1867] CD had argued that sexual selection accounted for …
  • … letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 24 February [1867] and n.  6 for Wallace’s thoughts on sexual …
  • … See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 26 February [1867] and n.  5. Wallace maintained this view …
  • … in his letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 26 February [1867] . Wallace’s references are to Charles …
  • … his nephew Charles Brooke as his heir in 1867 ( ODNB ). Charles Brooke succeeded him in …

From A. R. Wallace   24 February [1867]

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Summary

Protective role of colours in caterpillars and butterflies. Sexual differences in colours of butterflies.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Feb [1867]
Classmark:  DAR 82: A19–21
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5416

Matches: 11 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   24 February [1867] …
  • … 21 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 24 Feb [1867] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … see letter from J.  P.  M.  Weale, 9 January 1867 and n.  7). In Descent 1: 416–17, CD …
  • … the letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 23 February 1867. Henry Walter Bates had advised CD to pose …
  • … letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 23 February 1867). In Descent 1: 416, CD paraphrased Wallace’s …
  • … statement made by Wallace at the 4 March 1867 meeting of the Entomological Society of …
  • … there is no further extant correspondence in 1867 regarding these experiments, John Jenner …
  • … Weir conducted them in the summers of 1867 and 1868 (see Correspondence vol.  16, letters …
  • … letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 23 February 1867 and n.  5. CD had asked Wallace how he would …
  • … see letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 23 February 1867). Wallace refers to Gonepteryx rhamni ( …
  • … of the Entomological Society of 4 March 1867 of Wallace’s asking for the experiments with …

To A. R. Wallace   26 February [1867]

Summary

ARW’s explanation of protective value of conspicuous coloration is ingenious.

CD still holds to sexual selection with respect to beauty in male butterflies.

Sexual selection and the races of man.

Expression of emotions is another subject he plans to include in his essay [Descent].

Asks ARW to suggest an observer in Malay Archipelago to whom he might send queries [on expression].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  26 Feb [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add 46434, f. 76)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5420

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To A.  R.  Wallace   26 February [1867] …
  • … Library (Add 46434, f. 76) Charles Robert Darwin Down 26 Feb [1867] Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … separately from Descent. See also letter to Fritz Müller, 22 February [1867] and n.  13. …
  • … letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 24 February [1867] and n.  2). When he described his enquiry …
  • … from A.  R.  Wallace, 24 February [1867] and nn.  5 and 6. Wallace was not convinced that …
  • … experiments, see his letter of 24 February [1867] . For CD’s intended publication on …
  • … the letter to Edward Blyth, 23 February [1867] and n.  3. CD had tried in 1864 to convince …
  • … see letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 24 February [1867] and n.  8). CD eventually concluded in …

To A. R. Wallace   29 April [1867]

Summary

Comments on ARW’s view of colouring in relation to sexual selection and protection. It is not new to CD. Hopes to discuss subject fully in his "Essay on Man" [Descent]. As to the problem of brightly coloured females, CD is not satisfied that it is due to males taking over incubation. Admires "value and beauty" of ARW’s generalisations.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  29 Apr [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add 46434, f. 84)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5517

Matches: 11 hits

  • … To A.  R.  Wallace   29 April [1867] …
  • … Library (Add 46434, f. 84) Charles Robert Darwin Down 29 Apr [1867] Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … letter and the letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 1 May 1867 . CD refers to the letter from A.   …
  • … R.  Wallace, 26 April [1867] , and to Wallace’s view that the brightness of the plumage of …
  • … See also letter to Alfred Newton, 4 March [1867] and n.  3. See also Descent 2: 207–8. CD …
  • … letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 8 February [1867] and n.  16). Sexual selection among animals, …
  • … had visited London from 13 to 21 February 1867 (CD’s ‘Journal’ ( Correspondence vol.  15, …
  • … see letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 23 February 1867). He was also in London from 22 to 29  …
  • … brightly coloured; see letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 23 February 1867, and letter from A.   …
  • … R.  Wallace, 24 February [1867] . The Mexican bird (if it existed) has not been …
  • … See letter to Alfred Newton, 19 January [1867] . CD discussed Rhynchaea (now Rostratula ), …

To A. R. Wallace   5 May [1867]

Summary

Returns ARW’s notes. He will work up subject much better than CD.

Apologises for the note of illiberality in his letter regarding ARW’s work on the colouring and other sexual differences in mammals.

Discusses laws of inheritance based on sexual selection.

He questions the extent of applicability of principles of protection and sexual selection to lower animal forms, though Ernst Haeckel has shown how protection may account for transparency and absence of colour in lower oceanic animals.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  5 May [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add 46434 f. 89)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5528

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To A.  R.  Wallace   5 May [1867] …
  • … Library (Add 46434 f. 89) Charles Robert Darwin Down 5 May [1867] Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … 355–7). See Descent 1: 323. See letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 1 May 1867  and nn.  2 and 3. …
  • … between this letter and the letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 1 May 1867 . See letter from A.   …
  • … R.  Wallace, 1 May 1867  and n.  3. See letter …
  • … from A.  R.  Wallace, 26 April [1867] , and letter to A.   …
  • … R. Wallace, 29 April [1867] . See Variation 2: 71–5; see also Descent 1: 282–5. See Origin …

From A. R. Wallace   1 May 1867

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Summary

Never imagined that the facts about sexual selection could be new to CD. Thought fact that brightly coloured females build concealed nests and almost all those in which sexes differ remarkably build exposed nests might be new to him. Some problems remain. Sends his notes for CD to use if he wants.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 May 1867
Classmark:  DAR 84.1: 36–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5522

Matches: 7 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   1 May 1867
  • … 36–7 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 1 May 1867 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … See letter to A.  R.  Wallace, 29 April [1867] and n.  5. Wallace published two papers on …
  • … See letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 26 April [1867] , and letter to A.   …
  • … R. Wallace, 29 April [1867] . Wallace had suggested that the dull colouring of many female …
  • … 9, St. Mark’s Crescent May 1 st . 1867 Dear Darwin I was afraid you had rather …
  • … published in the Westminster Review in July 1867. The need for protection of birds sitting …

To A. R. Wallace   6 July [1867]

Summary

Acknowledgment of article on mimicry [Westminster Rev. 88 (1867): 1–43].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  6 July [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add 46434, f. 92)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5579

Matches: 4 hits

  • … To A.  R.  Wallace   6 July [1867] …
  • … Acknowledgment of article on mimicry [ Westminster Rev. 88 (1867): 1–43]. …
  • … Library (Add 46434, f. 92) Charles Robert Darwin Down 6 July [1867] Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … also letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 1 May 1867 . Wallace’s article ‘The philosophy of birds’ …

From A. R. Wallace   26 April [1867]

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Summary

Describes his view on colour [of plumage] of males and females – i.e., that absence of brilliant colour in either sex is due to need for protection in incubation, rather than to sexual selection.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Apr [1867]
Classmark:  DAR 84.1: 32–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5515

Matches: 7 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   26 April [1867] …
  • … 5 Alfred Russel Wallace London, St Mark’s Crescent, 9 26 Apr [1867] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … and the letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 1 May 1867 . Wallace refers to his paper ‘Mimicry and …
  • … published in the Westminster Review in July 1867 ([A.  R.  Wallace] 1867a). CD discussed [ …
  • … London: John Murray. 1871. Lyell, Charles. 1867–8. Principles of geology or the modern …
  • … for his letter to Wallace of 29 April [1867]. In Descent 2: 187, CD wrote: ‘When the adult …
  • … Lyell’s Principles of geology ( C.  Lyell 1867–8 , 2: 356), where Lyell recounted an …

From Alfred Russel Wallace   20 January 1869

Summary

Dedication of Malay Archipelago to CD.

Comments on scientific papers.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Jan 1869
Classmark:  DAR 106: B73–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6561

Matches: 6 hits

  • … p.  203). Wallace’s review of C.  Lyell 1867–8 appeared in the April 1869 issue of the …
  • … Disraeli had passed the Reform Act in 1867 (Mitchell et al. 1988). See n.  8, above. …
  • … Quarterly Review 125: 188–217. Lyell, Charles. 1867–8. Principles of geology or the modern …
  • … John Murray. Murchison, Roderick Impey. 1867. Siluria: a history of the oldest rocks in …
  • … Lyell’s Principles of geology ( C.  Lyell 1867–8 ) appeared in the Guardian , 30 December …
  • … Impey Murchison’s Siluria ( Murchison 1867 ), ‘Sir Roderick Murchison and modern schools …

From A. R. Wallace   8 [April] 1868

Summary

If CD is not convinced by his notes on sterility, ARW has little doubt that he is wrong. In fact he was only half-convinced by his own arguments.

Modifies his first proposition [a species varies occasionally in two directions, but owing to free inter-crossing the variations never increase] and further discusses the subject.

Encloses Berthold Seemann’s notes on flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Presence of European alpine species in Hawaiian volcanoes is a "hard nut" for geographical distribution [but see ARW’s Island life (1880), p. 323].

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 [Apr] 1868
Classmark:  DAR 106: B57-8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6104

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Bibliography Lyell, Charles. 1867–8. Principles of geology or the modern changes of the …
  • … 7 (1865–8): 143–235. Mann, Horace. 1867. Enumeration of Hawaiian plants. Cambridge, …
  • … in Journal of Botany 5 (1867): 314 (the journal was edited by Seemann). Wallace later …
  • … 21 March 1868] ). Wallace refers to Lyell 1867–8 , 2: 402–32. For earlier remarks by CD …
  • … Mann 1866 ). The article was reprinted as a book ( Mann 1867 ), a notice of which appeared …

From A. R. Wallace   18 April [1869]

Summary

Expands upon their differences in regard to man and the question of the existence of forces not yet recognised by science.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Apr [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B79–80
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6703

Matches: 3 hits

  • … to his review of George Douglas Campbell’s The reign of law ( G.  D.  Campbell 1867 , …
  • … Wallace 1867). …
  • … Bibliography Campbell, George Douglas. 1867. The reign of law. London: Alexander Strahan. …
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Darwin in letters, 1867: A civilised dispute

Summary

Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (Variation). The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in…

Matches: 30 hits

  • …   Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work,  The …
  • … publisher in the final week of 1866. It would take all of 1867 to correct proofs, and just when …
  • … becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in 1867, as he continued to circulate a list of …
  • … transmutation theory. Three important new correspondents in 1867 were Hermann Müller and Anton Dohrn …
  • … the New Year’s greeting, ‘may you be eupeptic through 1867 & your friends & the world in …
  • … publisher, John Murray, he wrote to Murray on 3 January 1867 , ‘I cannot tell you how sorry I am …
  • … for selling a Book’ ( letter to John Murray, 31 January [1867] ). A week later, Darwin had …
  • … the additional chapter. In a letter written on 8 February [1867] to his close friend, Joseph …
  • … Darwin’s time. The first proof-sheets arrived on 1 March 1867 and the tedious work of correction …
  • … . In a letter to his son William dated 27 [March 1867] , he admitted, ‘I fear the book is by no …
  • … papers with his first letter to Darwin of 15 March 1867 , although he described some of Alexander …
  • … told his publisher, John Murray, in a letter of 4 April [1867] , not to send stereotypes of the …
  • … had received other offers, notably one from Vogt in April 1867, to translate the new work. Carus had …
  • … will be published’ ( letter from J. V. Carus, 5 April 1867 ). This hint of uncertainty caused …
  • … to give up the task’ ( letter to Carl Vogt, 12 April [1867] ). Darwin need not have worried …
  • … to the German public ( letter from J. V. Carus, 15 April 1867 ). Darwin may not have fully …
  • … in preference to you’ ( letter to J. V. Carus, 18 April [1867] ). Darwin was not disappointed in …
  • … the ‘wonderful discovery’ to Darwin on 14 March 1867 . Then, in April, Robert Trail wrote from …
  • … in a mottled hybrid ( letter from Robert Trail, 5 April 1867 ). Darwin told his American friend …
  • … physiological fact’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 15 April [1867] ). Although he did not succeed in …
  • … step in Biology’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 22 August [1867] ). Darwin’s insecurity persisted, …
  • … ferocity’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 17 November [1867] ). Even when the corrections were …
  • … to be introduced’ ( letter to W. S. Dallas, 8 November [1867] ). Dallas resisted the temptation to …
  • … as I could wish’ (letter from W. S. Dallas, 20 November 1867). Dallas, like Carus, alerted Darwin to …
  • … for information on Fuegian expressions. On 11 January 1867, Sulivan replied , enclosing belated …
  • … 27 years old In a letter of 22 February [1867] to Fritz Müller in Brazil, in which …
  • … Russel Wallace, who suggested in his response of 11 March [1867] that Darwin send his queries to …
  • … ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [12–17] March [1867] ). Darwin’s doggedness in pursuing answers to his …
  • … so do not want any more’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 15 April [1867] ). Nevertheless, at some point …
  • … in  Notes and Queries on China and Japan , 31 August 1867. Another version, possibly derived from …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to …
  • … Barber, Mary E. [after Feb 1867] [Grahamstown, Cape …
  • … Bowker, J.H. [10 Dec 1867] [Cape of Good Hope (South …
  • … Bowman, William 5 Aug 1867 5 Clifford St, London, …
  • … Darwin, Francis 20 June 1867 Unknown? …
  • … Erskine, H. N. B. 1 Nov 1867 [Ahmednuggur, Bombay, …
  • … Gaika, Christian 7 July 1867 Bedford [Cape of Good …
  • … Geach, F.F. June 1867 Johore, Malaysia …
  • … Gibbs, George 31 March 1867 Smithsonian Institution, …
  • … Gray, Asa 26 March 1867 Cambridge, Massachusetts, …
  • … Haast, J.F.J. von 12 May - 2 June 1867 Christchurch, …
  • … Haast, J.F.J. von 4 Dec 1867 Christchurch, New …
  • … Hagenauer, F.A. [12 Sept 1867] Lake Wellington, …
  • … Huxley, H.A. 22 Mar [1867] Abbey Place, London, …
  • … Kempson, L.F. 20 June 1867 Penmaenmawr, Conway, …
  • … Lubbock, E.F. [1867-8?] Lombard Street, London? …
  • … Muller, Fritz 22 Feb [1867] Down, Kent, England …
  • … Paget, James 9 July 1867 1 Harewood Place, Hanover …
  • … Rothrock, J.T. 31 March 1867 McVeytown [Pennsylvania …
  • … Stack, James West 4 Dec 1867 Christchurch, New …
  • … Sulivan, B.J. 11 Jan 1867 Bournemouth, England …
  • … Sutton, Seth 8 Aug 1867 Zoological Gardens, Regents …
  • … Swinhoe, Robert 5 Aug 1867 Amoy, China …
  • … Wallace, A. R. 2 March [1867] 9 St. Mark’s Crescent, …
  • … Wallace, A. R. 11 March [1867] 9 St. Mark’s Crescent …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. 7 July 1867 Bedford, Cape of Good Hope …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. [10 Dec 1867] Bedford, Cape of Good …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Sunday to Mahomet.   ( to John Lubbock, 26 March [1867] ) The most striking …
  • … 'not a little in the dark' ( to John Lubbock, 26 March [1867] ). Trouble with the …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber responds to …
  • … Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • … Letter 5602 - Sutton, S. to Darwin, [8 August 1867] Sutton, the keeper of the …
  • … 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] Explorer and geologist Haast …
  • … Letter 5585  - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [26 July 1867] Darwin praises Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 5403  - Darwin to Carus,  J. V.  [17 February 1867] Darwin thanks Carus for his …
  • … 5410  - Darwin to Muller, J. F. T., [22 February 1867] Darwin thanks Muller for …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 5605: Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 15 Aug [1867] Darwin asks Fritz Müller, a …

Edward Lumb

Summary

Edward Lumb was born in Yorkshire. According to the memoirs of his daughter Anne, Lady Macdonell, he travelled to Buenos Aires aged sixteen with his merchant uncle, Charles Poynton, and after some fortunate enterprises set up in business there. In 1833…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … still at Buenos Aires, or even still alive. However, in 1867 Darwin’s son, William, went to the …
  • … persuaded her husband to go back to Buenos Aires in October 1867. However, they had eventually …

A tale of two bees

Summary

Darwinian evolution theory fundamentally changed the way we understand the environment and even led to the coining of the word 'ecology'. Darwin was fascinated by bees: he devised experiments to study the comb-building technique of honey bees and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … much ahead of his time when, in a letter to Darwin in 1867 , he commented on Edward Wilson’s plan …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7312 - Darwin to Darwin, F., [30 August 1867 - 70] Darwin asks his son, …
  • … Letter 5391 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [6 February 1867] Lydia Becker thanks Darwin …
  • … Letter 5712 - Dallas, W. S. to Darwin, [8 December 1867] Translator and author …

Sexual selection

Summary

Although natural selection could explain the differences between species, Darwin realised that (other than in the reproductive organs themselves) it could not explain the often marked differences between the males and females of the same species.  So what…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Variation under domestication,  neared completion in 1867, that he systematically sought more …
  • … Typical is his query to Fritz Müller in  February 1867 : Do you know of any lowly …
  • … as an argument in favour of Divine creation (Campbell  1867, pp. 203–4). Brent gave it as his …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Letter 5457 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 23 Mar 1867 Müller explains how Origin …
  • … 5471 — Darwin, C. R. to Müller, H. L. H., 29 Mar [1867] Darwin learns that German botanist …
  • … Letter 5481 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr [1867] Müller thanks Darwin for the …
  • … Letter 5657 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 23 Oct 1867 Müller thanks Darwin for the …
  • … Letter 5585 — Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, H. E., 26 July [1867] Darwin writes to his daughter …
  • … Letter 5745 — Barber, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., [after Feb 1867] In this letter, naturalist, …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 5429 — Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 4 Mar 1867 Müller reports observations on …
  • … Letter 5480 — Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr 1867 Müller cites cases of difference …
  • … 5551 — Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 26 May [1867] Darwin thanks Müller for information …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] Darwin’s niece, Frances, …
  • … Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece to …

Controversy

Summary

The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 5500 — Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 12 Apr [1867] Darwin is sympathetic to Haeckel’s …
  • … Letter 5533 — Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, C. R., 12 May 1867 Haeckel thanks Darwin for the …
  • … 5544 — Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 21 May [1867] Darwin discusses his previous …

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 5617 , Darwin to Weale, J. P. M., 27 August [1867] "You have been extremely …
  • … Letter 5722 , Weale, J. P. M. to Darwin, [10 December 1867] "You speak sanguinely …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 5565 — Kingsley, Charles to Darwin, C. R., 6 June 1867 Clergyman Charles Kingsley …
  • … 5648 — Darwin, C. R. to Wallace, A. R., 12–13 Oct [1867] Darwin thinks naturalist A. R. …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … A GRAY 15 AUGUST 1868 177  TO A GRAY 15 APRIL 1867 178  C DARWIN TO JD …

Orchids

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment A project to follow On the Origin of Species Darwin began to observe English orchids and collect specimens from abroad in the years immediately following the publication of On the Origin of Species. Examining…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 5637 - Alfred Russel Wallace to Charles Darwin 1 October 1867 Alfred Russell Wallace, a …

Dining at Down House

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [14 April 1867] Emma debates the wisdom of making a visit to …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 5670f - Darwin to Kingsley, C., [6 November 1867] Darwin discusses ‘rudiments’ …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and sending Darwin a copy of the article. In early spring 1867, Darwin initiated a correspondence …
  • … Darwin  replied encouragingly  and in the summer of 1867, Müller began working on fertilisation of …
  • … preventing unwanted visitors from gaining access. In October 1867, Müller sent Darwin a letter …
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