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To Fritz Müller   2 November 1867

Summary

Variation to be published at end of month.

Dimorphism and self-sterility.

Seed dissemination in Adenanthera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  2 Nov 1867
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 19)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5666

Matches: 26 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   2 November 1867
  • … MS 10 no 19) Charles Robert Darwin Down 2 Nov 1867 Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … s Genera plantarum , published on 12 October 1867 (Bentham and Hooker 1862–83; see also …
  • … vol.  14, letter to Fritz Müller, [late December 1866 and ] 1 January 1867 and n.  13, …
  • … and this volume, letter from Fritz Müller, 4 March 1867 ). …
  • … Down. | Bromley. | Kent. S.E. Nov 2. 1867 My dear Sir I rec d y r letter of July 17 two …
  • … see letter from Fritz Müller, 17 July 1867  and n.  5). The information on Müller’s …
  • … in the missing section of the letter from Fritz Müller, 17 July 1867 . Variation. …
  • … as forthcoming in the Athenaeum , 19 October 1867, p.  487. It was published in January  …
  • … On Müller’s address, see the letter from Fritz Müller, 17 July 1867  and n.  5. Müller had …
  • … as dimorphic (see letter from Fritz Müller, 17 July 1867  and n.  3). The reference is to …
  • … unnamed species of Epidendrum. See letter from Fritz Müller, 17 July 1867  and n.  19. On …
  • … Brachyscelus diversicolor , see the letter from Fritz Müller, 17 July 1867  and n.  16. …
  • … See also letter from Fritz Müller, 1 April  1867 . …
  • … In his letter of 2 June 1867 , Müller noted that the rubiaceous plant that he had sent to …
  • … related dimorphic genus Borreria. See also letter from Fritz Müller, 4 March 1867 . In …
  • … his letter to Müller of 15 August [1867], CD reported that his Borreria seeds had …
  • … see letter from Fritz Müller, 2 June 1867 ). Müller had informed CD of dimorphism in …
  • … and this volume, letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 24 [March 1867] ). CD later reported that he …
  • … plants ( letter to Fritz Müller, 26 May [1867] ). CD reported the germination of hundreds …
  • … Müller, in his letter to Müller of 26 May [1867]. On CD’s earlier doubt about dimorphism …
  • … Müller, [late December 1866 and] 1 January 1867  and n.  8. Müller had found Eschscholzia …
  • … Brazilian orchids to be self-sterile (see letters from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1867  and …
  • … 2  June 1867 ). CD had written to John Scott in India, enquiring …
  • … see letter from John Scott, 24 September 1867 ). On CD’s receipt of seed from Müller, and …
  • … See letter from John Scott, 24 September 1867 . CD refers to the third part of the first …

To Fritz Müller   25 March [1867]

Summary

Thanks for facts on orchids.

Friedrich Hildebrand’s new book on fertilisation of plants [Die Geschlechten-Vertheilung bei den Pflanzen (1867)].

CD correcting proofs of Variation.

FM likes Ernst Haeckel’s book [Generelle Morphologie (1866)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  25 Mar [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 14)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5458

Matches: 20 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   25 March [1867] …
  • … 10 no 14) Charles Robert Darwin Down 25 Mar [1867] Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … Geschlechten-Vertheilung bei den Pflanzen (1867)]. CD correcting proofs of Variation . FM …
  • … relationship between this letter and the letter from Fritz Müller, 2 February 1867 . See …
  • … letter from Fritz Müller, 2 February 1867 . Müller had described the movement of the …
  • … see letter from Fritz Müller, 2 February 1867  and n.  11). Friedrich Hildebrand had sent …
  • … see letter to Friedrich Hildebrand, 20 March [1867] and nn.  2 and 4). Müller had given …
  • … letter from Fritz Müller, 2 February 1867  and nn.  2 and 4). Since Müller mentioned …
  • … and this volume, letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 29 January [1867] ). In a letter to J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker of 24 [March 1867] , CD reported that Müller had sent seeds of a climbing …
  • … 1866 and seeds of Cordia in early February 1867 (see Correspondence vol.  14, letter to …
  • … volume, letter to Fritz Müller, 7 February [1867] and n.  4). Many species of Cordia , a …
  • … the paper in his letter of 2 February 1867 , of which only an incomplete copy is extant. …
  • … his brother, Hermann Müller, of 11 February 1867, Müller wrote that CD would send Hermann …
  • … see the letter from Hermann Müller, 23 March 1867 , n.  1. CD had begun correcting proof- …
  • … see letter to W.  B.  Tegetmeier, 5 March [1867] and n.  2). Müller’s comments on Ernst …
  • … 1866 ) were evidently in a now missing part of his letter of 2 February 1867 . In his …
  • … letter to Hermann Müller of 11 February 1867, Müller wrote that he thought Haeckel’s book …
  • … on Echites were evidently in a now missing part of his letter of 2 February 1867 . In his …
  • … letter to Hermann Müller of 11 February 1867, Müller wrote that the flower of an Echites …

To Fritz Müller   22 April [1867]

Summary

Self-sterility in orchids.

Growth differences in plants raised from self- and cross-fertilised seed.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  22 Apr [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 15)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5509

Matches: 18 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   22 April [1867] …
  • … 10 no 15) Charles Robert Darwin Down 22 Apr [1867] Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … in Williamson 1984 . Müller thanked CD for the paper in his letter of 17 July 1867 . …
  • … and the letter from Fritz Müller, 4 March 1867 . CD told Müller in his letter of [before …
  • … Müller mentioned that the copies had not arrived in his letter of 4 March 1867 . See …
  • … letter from Fritz Müller, 4 March 1867 . Müller had written that Oncidium flexuosum was …
  • … regarding Brazilian plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 4 March 1867 ). Hooker had planned …
  • … to visit CD from 20 to 22 April 1867 (see letter from J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 13 April 1867 ). CD refers to a privately printed version of Hooker’s article …
  • … late December 1866 and] 1 January 1867 ). CD reported Müller’s findings in Variation …
  • … 2: 134. In his letter of 4 March 1867 , Müller listed some orchids whose pollen and stigma …
  • … Müller, 1 December 1866 , and this volume, letters from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1867  and …
  • … 2 February 1867 . …
  • … In his letter of 4 March 1867 , Müller recorded the production of seeds in Epidendrum …
  • … results in Variation 2: 134. See letter to Asa Gray, 15 April [1867] and n.  8. …
  • … See letter from Fritz Müller, 4 March 1867 . In his letter to J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 24 [March 1867] , CD mentioned that Müller had sent him seeds of a dimorphic …
  • … for them in his letter of 25 March [1867] . Bates 1863 . Müller had expressed surprise …

To Fritz Müller   15 August [1867]

Summary

Queries about expressions in crying monkeys.

Has received letter from Hermann Müller on orchid fertilisation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  15 Aug [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 18)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5605

Matches: 15 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   15 August [1867] …
  • … 10 no 18) Charles Robert Darwin Down 15 Aug [1867] Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … Hooker, 26 [and 27] March 1867 . CD wrote to John Scott for information on the means by …
  • … letter from John Scott, 24 September 1867 ). In Origin 4th ed. , p.  240, CD had argued …
  • … been found, but see the letter to Hermann Müller, 16 August [1867] . Müller had enclosed a …
  • … of Borreria with his letter of 4 March 1867 . He described it as a ‘dimorphic Rubiaceæ , …
  • … his own specimens (see letter from Fritz Müller, 2 June 1867  and n.  2). CD had received …
  • … in December 1866 (see letter to Fritz Müller, 7 February [1867] ). Müller enclosed seeds …
  • … of Gesneria with his letter of 1 January 1867 . He enclosed seeds of …
  • … Plumbago and Lobelia with his letter of 2 February 1867 (see letter to J.   …
  • … D.   Hooker, 24 [March 1867] , and letter to …
  • … Fritz Müller, 25 March [1867] ). Müller sent CD bulbils of Oxalis with his letter of 1 and …
  • … letter to Müller of [late December 1866 and] 1 January 1867 ( Correspondence vol.  14). …
  • … See also letter to Fritz Müller, 25 March [1867] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 24 [March 1867] , and letter from J.  D.   …

To Fritz Müller   31 July [1867]

Summary

Has abstracted for insertion in his sterility chapter [Variation 2, ch. 18], FM’s observations of plant’s pollen being poisonous to itself.

Occurrence of mimetic plants.

Colouring of Planariae.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  31 July [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 17)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5591

Matches: 11 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   31 July [1867] …
  • … no 17) Charles Robert Darwin Down 31 July [1867] Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … enclosed in the letter from Fritz Müller, [8 October 1867] (see n.  2 of that letter). …
  • … CD had sent a copy of the queries with his letter to Müller of 22 February [1867]. …
  • … the relationship between this letter and the letter from Fritz Müller, 2 June 1867 . See …
  • … letter from Fritz Müller, 2 June 1867 . CD described Müller’s observations in Variation 2: …
  • … to discussions in the letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1867 . Müller had sent seeds of …
  • … of Coccocypselum with his letter of 2 June 1867 ; he also sent seeds of Oncidium flexuosum …
  • … See letter from Fritz Müller, 2 June 1867 . James Philip Mansel Weale evidently noted …
  • … resemblance in an excised portion of his letter of 7 July 1867 (see letter to J.  P.   …
  • … M.  Weale, 27 August [1867] . John Lubbock was a neighbour of CD’s; he documented his …

To Fritz Müller   26 May [1867]

Summary

Thanks for information on sexual differences.

Orchids; self-sterility and difficulty of getting seeds to germinate.

Dimorphism.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  26 May [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 16)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5551

Matches: 12 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   26 May [1867] …
  • … 10 no 16) Charles Robert Darwin Down 26 May [1867] Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … the relationship between this letter and the letter from Fritz Müller, 1 April 1867 . See …
  • … letter from Fritz Müller, 1 April 1867 . CD refers to Carl Friedrich Claus. …
  • … See letter to Fritz Müller, 22 February [1867] , and letter from …
  • … Fritz Müller, 1 April 1867 . CD was seeking material for Expression. In ‘Fertilization of …
  • … him. See letter from Fritz Müller, 1 April 1867 . Müller had discovered that when he tried …
  • … see the letter from Fritz Müller, 1 April 1867 . Müller had sent CD seeds of Plumbago ( …
  • … letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 24 [March 1867] ), possibly with his …
  • … letter of 2 February 1867 ; he sent seed of Gesneria …
  • … with his letter of 1 January 1867 . Max Kuhn made this announcement in his …
  • … Blüthenpolymorphismus’ ( Botanische Zeitung , 1 March 1867, p.  67). There is an annotated …

To Fritz Müller   22 February [1867]

Summary

Observations on orchid self-sterility.

Wants information on characters that may have originated through sexual selection in lower animals.

Encloses queries on expression.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  22 Feb [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 13)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5410

Matches: 13 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   22 February [1867] …
  • … 10 no 13) Charles Robert Darwin Down 22 Feb [1867] Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … Ekman ed.  1998. Müller’s replies, written on 5 October 1867 and sent to CD, have not been …
  • … see letter from Fritz Müller, [8 October 1867] , n.  2. See also Expression , pp.  268–9. …
  • … See letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1867 . See Correspondence vol 14, letter from …
  • … letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1867  and nn.  1, 5, and 8–10. CD may be recalling …
  • … by Müller only once (see letter from Fritz Müller, 1 April 1867 ). CD also asked this …
  • … of correspondents at the end of February 1867. CD had earlier sent similar queries on …
  • … letter from B.  J.  Sulivan, 11 January 1867 and n.  3). For more on CD’s queries about …
  • … in his letter to Müller of 7 February [1867]. See n.  2, above. CD discussed self-impotent …
  • … the letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1867  and nn.  15 and 16. CD had received letters …
  • … n. See letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1867  and nn.  17–19. CD had briefly discussed …
  • … see letter to William Turner, 11 February [1867] ). Ultimately, he published Expression …

To Fritz Müller   7 February [1867]

Summary

CD’s Variation is in printer’s hands.

Orchid self-sterility.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  7 Feb [1867]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 12)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5393

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   7 February [1867] …
  • … 10 no 12) Charles Robert Darwin Down 7 Feb [1867] Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … and the letter from Fritz Müller, 1 April 1867 . See Correspondence vol.  14, letter from …
  • … see letter to W.  D.  Fox, 6 February [1867] and n.  2). Müller may have included seeds of …
  • … 1866  and n.  8, and this volume, letters from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1867  and nn.   …
  • … 1, 2, and 5, and 2 February 1867 and n.  9. CD reported Müller’s findings in Variation 2: …

To Fritz Müller   30 January [1868]

Summary

Sends Variation and would like to hear what FM thinks of Pangenesis.

Thanks for information on expression.

Dimorphic plants;

differences in seed production in cross- and self-fertilised plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  30 Jan [1868]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 20)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5816

Matches: 7 hits

  • … vol.  15, letter to Fritz Müller, 25 March [1867] ). Müller had observed self-sterility in …
  • … letter to Fritz Müller, 2 November 1867 ). CD reported the results of further experiments, …
  • … portion of his letter to CD of [8 October 1867] ( Correspondence vol.  15). Müller is …
  • … flatworms) in his letter of 31 July [1867] ( Correspondence vol.  15; see also Descent 1: …
  • … missing portion of his letter of [8 October 1867] ( ibid. ). Müller sent information about …
  • … of birds in his letter of [8 October 1867] ( ibid. ). Pavonia is a genus in the family …
  • … In his letter to Müller of 2 November 1867 ( Correspondence vol.  15), CD reported that …

To Fritz Müller   11 February 1868

Summary

Is working on sexual selection and is interested in any anomalous sex ratios in lower animals and any sex-related characters.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  11 Feb 1868
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 21)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5860

Matches: 4 hits

  • … vol.  15, letter from Fritz Müller, 1 April 1867 . The case of Gelasimus is mentioned in …
  • … See Correspondence vol.  15, letter to Fritz Müller, 22 February [1867] , and letter from …
  • … Fritz Müller, 1 April 1867 . On the sale of Variation , see the letter from John Murray, …
  • … sexes) mentioned in your letter of April 1. 1867, in which you say the male much the most …

To Fritz Müller   [late December 1866 and] 1 January 1867

Summary

Thanks for observations on dimorphic plants. Dimorphism prevalent in certain groups throughout the world.

Retarded fertilisation in certain orchids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  31 Dec 1866 and 1 Jan 1867
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 11)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5331

Matches: 3 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   [late December 1866 and] 1 January 1867
  • … Robert Darwin Down [late Dec 1866] 1 Jan 1867 Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … very sincerely | Charles Darwin P.S.  Jan  1 1867 By some unaccountable delay I have only …

To Fritz Müller   3 June 1868

Summary

Is glad FM approves of a translation of Für Darwin.

Hopes FM will think well of Pangenesis.

Sexual differences in insect auditory and stridulating organs.

Read FM’s paper on Balanus with great interest ["On Balanus armatus", Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 4th ser. 1 (1868): 393–412].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  3 June 1868
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 24)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6224

Matches: 4 hits

  • … London: John Murray. 1871. Landois, Hermann. 1867. Die Ton- und Stimmapparate der Insecten …
  • … London: Ray Society. 1854. Müller, Fritz. 1867. Ueber Balanus armatus und einen Bastard …
  • … refers to Hermann Landois and Landois 1867 . CD discussed beaks of toucans (Ramphastidae) …
  • … F.  Müller 1868a, a translation of F.  Müller 1867 . Balanus armatus is a synonym of B.   …

To Fritz Müller   17 October [1865]

Summary

Is sending FM’s two letters on climbing plants as a paper to the Linnean Society ["Notes on some of the climbing plants near Desterro, in south Brazil", J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 9 (1867): 344–9].

Adaptations for pollination in Catasetum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  17 Oct [1865]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 3)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4916

Matches: 2 hits

  • … J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot. ) 9 (1867): 344–9]. Adaptations for pollination in …
  • … of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 9 (1867): 1–118. Collected papers : The collected papers …

To Fritz Müller   [9 and] 15 April [1866]

Summary

Structure of Scaevola and its fertilisation with insect aid.

Fertilisation of Aristolochia.

FM’s paper on climbing plants [see 5146].

Is preparing new edition of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  9 and 15 Apr 1866
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 6)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5050

Matches: 3 hits

  • … to Müller 1864c were added to the third German edition (Bronn and Carus trans.  1867). …
  • … of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 9 (1867): 1–118. Collected papers : The collected papers …
  • … 15, letter from Fritz Müller, 4 March 1867 ). The information on Aristolochia is probably …

To Fritz Müller   20 September [1865]

Summary

Thanks for interesting letter on climbing plants.

FM’s view on Anelasma seems probable.

Difficulty quoted by FM from A. Agassiz on embryology of Echinodermata is quite beyond CD.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  20 Sept [1865]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 2)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4895

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 9 (1867): 1–118. Columbia gazetteer of the world : The …
  • … B.  trigonus ) was published in Müller 1867; an English version appeared the next year ( …
  • … crabs that he had observed earlier (Müller 1867, pp.  344–5, and Müller 1868a, pp.  404–5; …

To Fritz Müller   3 April [1868]

Summary

Movement in plants.

Dimorphism.

Would welcome FM’s opinion of Pangenesis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  3 Apr [1868]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 23)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6085

Matches: 2 hits

  • … vol.  15, letter from Fritz Müller, [8 October 1867] ). CD refers to Variation and to his …
  • … vol.  15, letter to Fritz Müller, 15 August [1867] and nn.  7 and 8. For more on Maranta , …

To Fritz Müller   23 August [1866]

Summary

Thanks for observations on orchids.

FM’s paper on climbing plants [see 5146]; CD has received proofs.

Carl Claus’s pamphlet on copepods [Die Copepodenfauna von Nizza (1866)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  23 Aug [1866]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5196

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in a letter to his brother, Hermann, of 30 May 1867 (see Möller ed.  1915–21, 2: 123–7; a …
  • … de la Société Botanique de France 14 (1867): 70–1). Although the fourth edition of Origin …

To Fritz Müller   [before 10 December 1866]

Summary

Hildebrand’s paper on trimorphism in Oxalis ["Über den Trimorphismus in der Gattung Oxalis", Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (1866): 352–74].

Problems of explaining brightly coloured, attractive seeds.

Haeckel has visited Down.

FM’s climbing plants paper is printed [J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 9 (1867): 344–9].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  [before 10 Dec 1866]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 10)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5261

Matches: 1 hit

  • … s climbing plants paper is printed [ J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot. ) 9 (1867): 344–9]. …

To Fritz Müller   [9 February 1876]

Summary

Has sent FM’s letter on to Nature ["Brazil kitchen middens, habits of ants, etc.", Nature 13 (1876): 304–5].

Would be grateful for Ceropegia seeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  [9 Feb 1876]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 38) (EH 88205868)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10384

Matches: 1 hit

  • … pp. 185–90. In his letter of 22 April [1867] ( Correspondence vol. 15), CD had suggested …

To Fritz Müller   28 August 1870

Summary

Mimicry in Lepidoptera.

Sexual selection.

The Franco-Prussian war.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  28 Aug 1870
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 33)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7310

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 9 (1867): 156–60. Wawro, Geoffrey. 2003. The Franco- …
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Müller, Fritz[X]
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Darwin in letters, 1867: A civilised dispute

Summary

Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (Variation). The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in…

Matches: 30 hits

  • …   Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work,  The …
  • … publisher in the final week of 1866. It would take all of 1867 to correct proofs, and just when …
  • … becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in 1867, as he continued to circulate a list of …
  • … transmutation theory. Three important new correspondents in 1867 were Hermann Müller and Anton Dohrn …
  • … the New Year’s greeting, ‘may you be eupeptic through 1867 & your friends & the world in …
  • … publisher, John Murray, he wrote to Murray on 3 January 1867 , ‘I cannot tell you how sorry I am …
  • … for selling a Book’ ( letter to John Murray, 31 January [1867] ). A week later, Darwin had …
  • … the additional chapter. In a letter written on 8 February [1867] to his close friend, Joseph …
  • … Darwin’s time. The first proof-sheets arrived on 1 March 1867 and the tedious work of correction …
  • … . In a letter to his son William dated 27 [March 1867] , he admitted, ‘I fear the book is by no …
  • … papers with his first letter to Darwin of 15 March 1867 , although he described some of Alexander …
  • … told his publisher, John Murray, in a letter of 4 April [1867] , not to send stereotypes of the …
  • … had received other offers, notably one from Vogt in April 1867, to translate the new work. Carus had …
  • … will be published’ ( letter from J. V. Carus, 5 April 1867 ). This hint of uncertainty caused …
  • … to give up the task’ ( letter to Carl Vogt, 12 April [1867] ). Darwin need not have worried …
  • … to the German public ( letter from J. V. Carus, 15 April 1867 ). Darwin may not have fully …
  • … in preference to you’ ( letter to J. V. Carus, 18 April [1867] ). Darwin was not disappointed in …
  • … the ‘wonderful discovery’ to Darwin on 14 March 1867 . Then, in April, Robert Trail wrote from …
  • … in a mottled hybrid ( letter from Robert Trail, 5 April 1867 ). Darwin told his American friend …
  • … physiological fact’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 15 April [1867] ). Although he did not succeed in …
  • … step in Biology’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 22 August [1867] ). Darwin’s insecurity persisted, …
  • … ferocity’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 17 November [1867] ). Even when the corrections were …
  • … to be introduced’ ( letter to W. S. Dallas, 8 November [1867] ). Dallas resisted the temptation to …
  • … as I could wish’ (letter from W. S. Dallas, 20 November 1867). Dallas, like Carus, alerted Darwin to …
  • … for information on Fuegian expressions. On 11 January 1867, Sulivan replied , enclosing belated …
  • … 27 years old In a letter of 22 February [1867] to Fritz Müller in Brazil, in which …
  • … Russel Wallace, who suggested in his response of 11 March [1867] that Darwin send his queries to …
  • … ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [12–17] March [1867] ). Darwin’s doggedness in pursuing answers to his …
  • … so do not want any more’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 15 April [1867] ). Nevertheless, at some point …
  • … in  Notes and Queries on China and Japan , 31 August 1867. Another version, possibly derived from …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to …
  • … Barber, Mary E. [after Feb 1867] [Grahamstown, Cape …
  • … Bowker, J.H. [10 Dec 1867] [Cape of Good Hope (South …
  • … Bowman, William 5 Aug 1867 5 Clifford St, London, …
  • … Darwin, Francis 20 June 1867 Unknown? …
  • … Erskine, H. N. B. 1 Nov 1867 [Ahmednuggur, Bombay, …
  • … Gaika, Christian 7 July 1867 Bedford [Cape of Good …
  • … Geach, F.F. June 1867 Johore, Malaysia …
  • … Gibbs, George 31 March 1867 Smithsonian Institution, …
  • … Gray, Asa 26 March 1867 Cambridge, Massachusetts, …
  • … Haast, J.F.J. von 12 May - 2 June 1867 Christchurch, …
  • … Haast, J.F.J. von 4 Dec 1867 Christchurch, New …
  • … Hagenauer, F.A. [12 Sept 1867] Lake Wellington, …
  • … Huxley, H.A. 22 Mar [1867] Abbey Place, London, …
  • … Kempson, L.F. 20 June 1867 Penmaenmawr, Conway, …
  • … Lubbock, E.F. [1867-8?] Lombard Street, London? …
  • … Muller, Fritz 22 Feb [1867] Down, Kent, England …
  • … Paget, James 9 July 1867 1 Harewood Place, Hanover …
  • … Rothrock, J.T. 31 March 1867 McVeytown [Pennsylvania …
  • … Stack, James West 4 Dec 1867 Christchurch, New …
  • … Sulivan, B.J. 11 Jan 1867 Bournemouth, England …
  • … Sutton, Seth 8 Aug 1867 Zoological Gardens, Regents …
  • … Swinhoe, Robert 5 Aug 1867 Amoy, China …
  • … Wallace, A. R. 2 March [1867] 9 St. Mark’s Crescent, …
  • … Wallace, A. R. 11 March [1867] 9 St. Mark’s Crescent …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. 7 July 1867 Bedford, Cape of Good Hope …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. [10 Dec 1867] Bedford, Cape of Good …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Sunday to Mahomet.   ( to John Lubbock, 26 March [1867] ) The most striking …
  • … 'not a little in the dark' ( to John Lubbock, 26 March [1867] ). Trouble with the …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber responds to …
  • … Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • … Letter 5602 - Sutton, S. to Darwin, [8 August 1867] Sutton, the keeper of the …
  • … 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] Explorer and geologist Haast …
  • … Letter 5585  - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [26 July 1867] Darwin praises Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 5403  - Darwin to Carus,  J. V.  [17 February 1867] Darwin thanks Carus for his …
  • … 5410  - Darwin to Muller, J. F. T., [22 February 1867] Darwin thanks Muller for …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 5605: Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 15 Aug [1867] Darwin asks Fritz Müller, a …

Edward Lumb

Summary

Edward Lumb was born in Yorkshire. According to the memoirs of his daughter Anne, Lady Macdonell, he travelled to Buenos Aires aged sixteen with his merchant uncle, Charles Poynton, and after some fortunate enterprises set up in business there. In 1833…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … still at Buenos Aires, or even still alive. However, in 1867 Darwin’s son, William, went to the …
  • … persuaded her husband to go back to Buenos Aires in October 1867. However, they had eventually …

A tale of two bees

Summary

Darwinian evolution theory fundamentally changed the way we understand the environment and even led to the coining of the word 'ecology'. Darwin was fascinated by bees: he devised experiments to study the comb-building technique of honey bees and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … much ahead of his time when, in a letter to Darwin in 1867 , he commented on Edward Wilson’s plan …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7312 - Darwin to Darwin, F., [30 August 1867 - 70] Darwin asks his son, …
  • … Letter 5391 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [6 February 1867] Lydia Becker thanks Darwin …
  • … Letter 5712 - Dallas, W. S. to Darwin, [8 December 1867] Translator and author …

Sexual selection

Summary

Although natural selection could explain the differences between species, Darwin realised that (other than in the reproductive organs themselves) it could not explain the often marked differences between the males and females of the same species.  So what…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Variation under domestication,  neared completion in 1867, that he systematically sought more …
  • … Typical is his query to Fritz Müller in  February 1867 : Do you know of any lowly …
  • … as an argument in favour of Divine creation (Campbell  1867, pp. 203–4). Brent gave it as his …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Letter 5457 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 23 Mar 1867 Müller explains how Origin …
  • … 5471 — Darwin, C. R. to Müller, H. L. H., 29 Mar [1867] Darwin learns that German botanist …
  • … Letter 5481 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr [1867] Müller thanks Darwin for the …
  • … Letter 5657 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 23 Oct 1867 Müller thanks Darwin for the …
  • … Letter 5585 — Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, H. E., 26 July [1867] Darwin writes to his daughter …
  • … Letter 5745 — Barber, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., [after Feb 1867] In this letter, naturalist, …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 5429 — Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 4 Mar 1867 Müller reports observations on …
  • … Letter 5480 — Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr 1867 Müller cites cases of difference …
  • … 5551 — Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 26 May [1867] Darwin thanks Müller for information …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] Darwin’s niece, Frances, …
  • … Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece to …

Controversy

Summary

The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 5500 — Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 12 Apr [1867] Darwin is sympathetic to Haeckel’s …
  • … Letter 5533 — Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, C. R., 12 May 1867 Haeckel thanks Darwin for the …
  • … 5544 — Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 21 May [1867] Darwin discusses his previous …

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 5617 , Darwin to Weale, J. P. M., 27 August [1867] "You have been extremely …
  • … Letter 5722 , Weale, J. P. M. to Darwin, [10 December 1867] "You speak sanguinely …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 5565 — Kingsley, Charles to Darwin, C. R., 6 June 1867 Clergyman Charles Kingsley …
  • … 5648 — Darwin, C. R. to Wallace, A. R., 12–13 Oct [1867] Darwin thinks naturalist A. R. …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … A GRAY 15 AUGUST 1868 177  TO A GRAY 15 APRIL 1867 178  C DARWIN TO JD …

Orchids

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment A project to follow On the Origin of Species Darwin began to observe English orchids and collect specimens from abroad in the years immediately following the publication of On the Origin of Species. Examining…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 5637 - Alfred Russel Wallace to Charles Darwin 1 October 1867 Alfred Russell Wallace, a …

Dining at Down House

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [14 April 1867] Emma debates the wisdom of making a visit to …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 5670f - Darwin to Kingsley, C., [6 November 1867] Darwin discusses ‘rudiments’ …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and sending Darwin a copy of the article. In early spring 1867, Darwin initiated a correspondence …
  • … Darwin  replied encouragingly  and in the summer of 1867, Müller began working on fertilisation of …
  • … preventing unwanted visitors from gaining access. In October 1867, Müller sent Darwin a letter …
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