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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To Albert Gaudry   17 September [1866]

Summary

Thanks AG for Considérations générales [sur les animaux fossiles] de Pikermi [1866]. The observations on the various intermediate fossil forms seem most valuable.

AG does not fully understand what CD means by "the struggle for existence, or concurrence vitale".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albert-Jean (Albert) Gaudry
Date:  17 Sept [1866]
Classmark:  Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milan (Library: Fondo Gaudry b. 7, fasc. 28, doc. 1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5213

Matches: 6 hits

  • … London: John Murray. 1871. Gaudry, Albert. 1862–7. Animaux fossiles et géologie de l’ …
  • … Géologique de France. Gaudry, Albert. 1862. Sur le singe fossile de Grèce. Bulletin de la …
  • … on the fossil animals of Greece ( Gaudry 1862–7 ). CD’s separately paginated offprint, …
  • … as a ‘type transitionnel’ (see Gaudry 1862 , p.  1023). Although CD did not cite this …
  • … reflected his infinite beauty ( Gaudry 1862–7 , p.  370). CD may have been alluding to …
  • … both the antelope and the goat (see Gaudry 1862–7 , p.  347). He included several graphs …

To J. D. Hooker   25 September [1866]

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Summary

Susan Darwin still lives, but is dying.

Requests an Erica massoni to compare with Drosera.

On L. Agassiz’s "astonishing" view that Amazon Valley was filled with gigantic glacier. Asa Gray says LA is determined to cover the globe with glaciers in order to destroy "Darwinian views".

Excellent review of A. Murray [The geographical distribution of mammals] in Gardeners’ Chronicle [(1866): 902].

Frankland’s Royal Institution lecture ["On the source of muscular power" Not. Proc. R. Inst. G. B. 4 (1862–6): 661–85].

Wallace’s paper.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  25 Sept [1866]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 300
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5217

Matches: 2 hits

  • … source of muscular power" Not. Proc. R. Inst. G. B. 4 (1862–6): 661–85]. Wallace’s paper. …
  • … the Royal Institution of Great Britain 4 (1862–6): 661–85. Loudon, John Claudius. 1841. An …

From George Bentham   25 September 1866

Summary

Replies to CD’s two memoranda, GB explains: 1. That he never said thistles do not produce seeds, but rather that the infinite majority of new plants are propagated from buds

2. That book-borrowing rules of the Linnean Library are not so stringent as the Librarian makes out.

Author:  George Bentham
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Sept 1866
Classmark:  DAR 160: 158
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5218

Matches: 3 hits

  • … seed— All I have said was in my address of 1862 p.  19 in which I observed “How is it that …
  • … refers to a statement from his address to the Linnean Society meeting of 24 May 1862 ( …
  • … Bentham 1862, p.  lxxxii). The page number given by Bentham refers to a separately …

To Asa Gray   10 September [1866]

Summary

L. Agassiz’s evidence [for glaciation of America] is very weak.

Thanks AG for arranging for American edition of Variation, but doubts that the book will be successful.

Has found no differences in pollen of Rhamnus so cannot conjecture whether it is dimorphic.

The common oxlip of England is certainly a hybrid between the primrose and the cowslip whereas Primula elatior is a good species.

Reports experiments on the relative vigour of seedlings from cross- and self-fertilised plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  10 Sept [1866]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (92)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5210

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his collection (see Correspondence vol.  10, letters to Asa Gray, 10–20 June [1862] and …
  • … 28 July [1862]). See letter from Asa Gray, 27 August 1866 . Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz’s …
  • … of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 6 (1862): 77–96. [ Collected papers 2: 45–63. ] Forms of …

From J. D. Hooker   28 September 1866

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Summary

Drosera and Erica massoni have been sent.

Had heard of Agassiz’s theory but not that CD’s theory had raised it.

JDH wrote the article on A. Murray.

Frankland’s lecture too much for him.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 Sept 1866
Classmark:  DAR 102: 106–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5222

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 211–13). Genera plantarum (Bentham and Hooker 1862–83) was published in seven parts. The …
  • … 8 June 1866. ] Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain 4 (1862–6): 661–85. …

To Fritz Müller   25 September [1866]

Summary

Fertilisation in orchids: Friedrich Hildebrand’s paper.

Self-sterility.

Climbing plants.

Agassiz’s attempts to eliminate all Darwinian views.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  25 Sept [1866]
Classmark:  British Library (Loan MS 10 no 9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5216

Matches: 2 hits

  • … he examined were male; however, in 1862 John Scott succeeded in pollinating flowers with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1862. Origin 4th ed. : On the origin of species by …

To Charles Lyell   8[–9] September [1866]

Summary

Disappointed to put off CL’s visit because of illness of CD’s sister [Susan], but hopes to see him in October.

Thanks for lending pamphlet [L. Agassiz, Geology of the Amazons]. Agassiz has written "wild nonsense".

Refers to a translation of Pictet and Humbert’s "capital" paper on fossil fish ["Recent researches on the fossil fishes of Mount Lebanon", Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. 18 (1866): 237].

Hooker’s lecture at BAAS Nottingham meeting.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8[–9] Sept [1866]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.319)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5208

Matches: 2 hits

  • … vol.  10, letter from H.  W.  Bates, 30 April 1862  and n.  3, and letter to H.   …
  • … W.  Bates, 4 May [1862] and n.  5. In Origin 4th ed. , p.  454, CD speculated that the …

To Lucy Caroline Wedgwood   [before 25 September 1866]

Summary

Asks her to see whether the flowers or leaves of Erica massoni are noted as glutinous in the Botanical Magazine.

Inquires about the pods of peony: are they brilliantly coloured and do birds eat them?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Lucy Caroline Wedgwood; Lucy Caroline Harrison
Date:  [before 25 Sept 1866]
Classmark:  CUL (Add 4251: 336)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5203

Matches: 1 hit

  • … L.  S. , and M.  S.  Wedgwood, 4 [August 1862]). In his Experimental notebook (DAR 157a: …

From W. B. Tegetmeier   12 September 1866

Summary

Has had the blocks cut as requested and forwards the proofs.

Encloses article on habits of jungle fowl.

Author:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Sept 1866
Classmark:  DAR 178: 75
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5211

Matches: 1 hit

  • … the Zoological Society of London since 1862 ( DNB ). No record of the date of the council …
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1862 in keywords
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Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … As the sheer volume of his correspondence indicates, 1862 was a particularly productive year for …
  • … be so’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [15 and] 20 November [1862] ). I have not the least …
  • … him from this view ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 14 [January 1862] ): 'no doubt you are right …
  • … Huxley replied ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 January 1862 ): 'I entertain no doubt that …
  • … but continued ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 18 December [1862] ): 'you say the answer to …
  • … but complained ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 28 December [1862] ): 'To get the degree of …
  • … him the commission ( see letter to John Scott, 11 December [1862] ). Darwin was altogether taken …
  • … is no common man’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 [December 1862] ). Two sexual forms: …
  • … with his study of  Primula  and escalated throughout 1862 as he searched for other cases of …
  • … 1861, and was published in the society’s journal in March 1862. The paper described the two …
  • … in almost daily’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 22 January [1862] ). In a postscript, he mentioned his work …
  • … telling Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 March [1862] ): ‘I am nearly sure that daylight is …
  • … great’, he told Gray ( letter to Asa Gray, 10–20 June [1862] ), ‘I have lately counted one by one …
  • …  labour over them’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 [October 1862] ; see ML 2: 292–3). Other …
  • … of dimorphism’ ( letter to Daniel Oliver, 12 [April 1862] ), and experimenting to test his …
  • … sets of experiments’ ( letter to M. T. Masters, 24 July [1862] ). The materials that Darwin …
  • …  case he determined to experiment on  Linum  in 1862. Soon he was enthralled, especially by the …
  • … be generically distinct’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 14 July [1862] ). The case was so good that he …
  • … Linum  ‘at once’ ( letter to John Scott, 11 December [1862] ), writing up his experiments in …
  • … complex case—’ ( letter to Daniel Oliver, 29 [July 1862] ). The three forms had different lengths …
  • … who exclaimed to Gray ( letter to Asa Gray, 9 August [1862] ), ‘I am almost stark staring mad over …
  • … the Linnean Society ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 6 October [1862] ). However, it was not until 1864 …
  • … pleasure to ride’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 22 January [1862] ). But he worried about the resulting …
  • … the Book will sell’ ( letter to John Murray, 9 [February 1862] ). To his son, William, his …
  • … every  flower’ ( letter to Daniel Oliver, 8 June [1862] ). I never before felt half so …
  • … he told Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 15 [May 1862] ). But he did not have long to wait. ‘It is …
  • … it ‘most valuable’ (letter from George Bentham, 15 May 1862).  Orchids  was published on 15 May, …
  • … all, ‘a success’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 30 [June 1862] ). a flank-movement on the …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 8 hits

  • … in the mud. BEGINNING OF WAR IN AMERICA: 1861-1862 In which the start of the American …
  • … cause. Tension.   THE DARWIN BOYS: 1862 In which Darwin reports one …
  • … 1856 33  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER, 14 MARCH 1862 34  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, …
  • … 1861 115 A GRAY TO CHARLES WRIGHT, 17 APRIL 1862 116 A GRAY TO RW CHURCH 7 MAY …
  • … 10 JUNE 1861 121  A GRAY TO C DARWIN, 31 MARCH 1862 122  JD HOOKER TO C …
  • … 16 DEC 1861 124 A GRAY TO ENGELMANN, 20 FEB 1862 125  A GRAY TO C DARWIN, 31 …
  • … 7 JULY 1863 152 C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER, DECEMBER 1862 153  JD HOOKER TO C …
  • … 1861 163  C Darwin TO A Gray, 16 OCTOBER 1862 164  C Darwin TO ASA GRAY, …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Towards the end of 1862, Darwin resolved to build a small hothouse at Down House, for ‘experimental purposes’ (see Correspondence vol. 10, letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1862], and volume 10, letter to Thomas Rivers, 15 January 1863). The decision…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Towards the end of 1862, Darwin resolved to build a small hothouse at Down House, for …
  • …  vol. 10, letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1862] , and volume 10, letter to Thomas Rivers, …
  • … a construction suitable for tropical plants. In 1861 and 1862, while preparing  Orchids , he was …
  • …  vol. 10, letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 [December 1862] and n. 13). Initially, Darwin purchased for …
  • … over the previous two years. In a letter of 24 December [1862] ( Correspondence  vol. 10) …
  • … Kent ( Post Office directory of the six home counties  1862). 3.  Asclepias curassavica. …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … towards your doctrines … Huxley to Darwin, 1862. I cannot bear the thought …
  • … … Darwin to Asa Gray, in Boston, Mass., 1862. I have been greatly …

Clémence Auguste Royer

Summary

Getting Origin translated into French was harder than Darwin had expected. The first translator he approached, Madame Belloc, turned him down on the grounds that the content was ‘too scientific‘, and then in 1860 the French political exile  Pierre…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … her translation of Origin. First published in 1862, Royer’s translation of …
  • … “I received 2 or 3 days ago”, he told Asa Gray in 1862 , “a French Translation of the Origin by a …
  • … criticisms of her work always made reference to her sex. In 1862, Edouard Claparede wrote to …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October 1862] Henrietta Darwin provides …
  • … Letter 3634 - Darwin to Gray, A., [1 July 1862] Darwin tells American naturalist Asa …
  • … 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August 1862] Darwin’s niece, Margaret, …
  • … lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin …
  • …  - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S, M. S. & L. C., [4 August 1862] Darwin thanks his “angel …

Floral Dimorphism

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Floral studies In 1877 Darwin published a book that included a series of smaller studies on botanical subjects. Titled The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, it consisted primarily of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 3468 - Darwin to JD Hooker, 7 March 1862 Darwin wishes he could sympathize with Asa …
  • … Letter 3515 - Daniel Oliver to Darwin, 23 April 1862 Daniel Oliver, an assistant under …
  • … Letter 3757 - Joseph Dalton Hooker to Darwin, 12 October 1862 J. D. Hooker writes to …

Darwin & Glen Roy

Summary

Although Darwin was best known for his geological work in South America and other remote Beagle destinations, he made one noteworthy attempt to explain a puzzling feature of British geology.  In 1838, two years after returning from the voyage, he travelled…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 1 October [1861] To Charles Lyell, 1 April [1862] To Charles Lyell, 14 October …

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Orchids

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment A project to follow On the Origin of Species Darwin began to observe English orchids and collect specimens from abroad in the years immediately following the publication of On the Origin of Species. Examining…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … SOURCES Books Darwin, Charles 1862. On the various contrivances by which …
  • … 3421 —Charles Darwin to Joseph Dalton Hooker 30 January 1862 Darwin tells Hooker about a …
  • … Letter 3662 —Charles Darwin to Asa Gray 23-4 July 1862 Darwin tells Asa Gray, a professor …
  • … Darwin’s work with orchids and Chapter 1 of Darwin’s 1862 book On the various …

Dining at Down House

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 3626 —Emma Darwin to T. G. Appleton, 28 June [1862] Here Emma writes on her husband’s …
  • … Letter 3597 —Darwin to Joseph Dalton Hooker, 11 June [1862] Among bits of family news and …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … on  Verbascum.  Darwin had suggested to Scott in 1862, when Scott was working at the Royal Botanic …
  • … vol. 10, letter to John Scott, 19 November [1862] ). Darwin had already written to Hooker of …
  • … disturbing the serenity of the Christian world’ (Brewster 1862, p. 3). John Hutton Balfour, though …
  • …  vol. 10, letter from J. H. Balfour, 14 January 1862 ). According to Hooker, Balfour’s prejudice …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … all of their education in the home, although he noted in 1862 that his fifteen-year-old daughter …
  • … her own wish’ (Darwin to his son William,  30 [October 1862] ). Darwin frequently discussed the …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin …

Sexual selection

Summary

Although natural selection could explain the differences between species, Darwin realised that (other than in the reproductive organs themselves) it could not explain the often marked differences between the males and females of the same species.  So what…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the Lords' ( to J. D. Hooker, 25 [and 26] January [1862] ) In 1869, Darwin …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … thus completing the work he had started on the genus in 1862. His varied botanical observations and …
  • … act. In his ongoing quest to confirm the statement in his 1862 book on orchids that nature ‘abhors …
  • … Scott, a gardener at the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, in 1862 with a letter regarding the …
  • … and Book of Joshua critically examined  (Colenso 1862–79). After reading extracts from Colenso’s …
  • … Correspondence vol. 10, letter to Asa Gray, 6 November [1862] ). A declaration that Erasmus …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 3715 - Claparède, J. L. R. A. E. to Darwin, [6 September 1862] Claparède acknowledges …

Insectivorous Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Plants that consume insects Darwin began his work with insectivorous plants in the mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin reflected on the delay that…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 3853 - Charles Darwin to John Scott, 11 December 1862 This is a lengthy letter …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … with Owen when it became clear that Owen’s November 1862 description of the recently discovered  …
  • … work on mimicry in butterflies, which had been published in 1862 (see  Correspondence  vol. 10). …
  • … to the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury in September 1862 ( see letter to Julius von Haast, 22 …
  • … men, given at the Museum of Practical Geology at the end of 1862, and published as a book in early …
  • … that had already occupied much of his time in 1861 and 1862. With the publication in 1862 of his …
  • … a question he had been struggling with in 1861 and 1862; he wanted to determine experimentally …
  • … Edinburgh, had initiated the correspondence in November 1862 with a letter correcting Darwin’s …
  • … ( see letter to Asa Gray, 23 February [1863] , and Loring 1862). However, his tolerance of Gray’s …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 3800 — Scott, John to Darwin, C. R., [11 Nov 1862] Scottish gardener John Scott notes …
  • … Letter 3805 — Darwin, C. R. to Scott, John, 12 Nov [1862] Darwin thanks Scott for bringing …
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