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To the Secretary, Royal Society   18 July 1856

Summary

Recommends W. B. Carpenter’s paper on Foraminifera, pt 2, be published in Philosophical Transactions [R. Soc. Lond. 146 (1856): 547–69].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Secretary, Royal Society
Date:  18 July 1856
Classmark:  The Royal Society (RR3: 40)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1930

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To the Secretary, Royal Society   18 July 1856
  • … Royal Society (RR3: 40) Charles Robert Darwin Down 18 July 1856 Secretary, Royal Society …
  • … pt 2, be published in Philosophical Transactions [ R. Soc. Lond. 146 (1856): 547–69]. …
  • … the Foraminifera, on Aveolina and other genera ( Carpenter 1856 , pt 2), had been read to …
  • … the Royal Society on 19 June 1856. CD had previously refereed the first part of Carpenter’ …
  • … Bibliography Carpenter, William Benjamin. 1856. Researches on the Foraminifera. Pt 1. …

To C. J. F. Bunbury   9 May [1856]

Summary

On geographical dispersal of plants. Would be interested in CJFB’s views on representative species and on his hypothesis of a mundane cold period, which CD cannot prove geologically, but thinks, if it explains many facts of geographical distribution, may be admitted as probable. Hooker and Alphonse de Candolle do not agree with him.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles James Fox Bunbury, 8th baronet
Date:  9 May [1856]
Classmark:  Suffolk Record Office, Bury St Edmunds (Bunbury Family Papers E18/700/1/9/6)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1871

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To C.  J. F. Bunbury   9 May [1856] …
  • … Charles Robert Darwin Down 9 May [1856] Charles James Fox Bunbury, 8th baronet …
  • … recorded in his reading notebook on 7 August 1856 ( Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, …
  • … 128: 20). See also letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 . See letter to C.  J. …
  • … F. Bunbury, [before 9 May 1856] . See letter to C.   …
  • … J. F. Bunbury, 21 April [1856] . CD refers to Heer …
  • … see letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 ). CD’s remarks must have been made after …
  • … the meeting of the Linnean Society on 6 May 1856. They are not included in the published …
  • … version ( Collected papers 1: 264–73). See also letter to Charles Lyell, 3 May [1856] . …

To J. D. Hooker   [early December 1856]

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Summary

Sends JDH part of MS for chapter 3 of Natural selection ["Possibility of all organic beings crossing"] to be corrected and returned.

JDH’s report of Podostemon flowering cleistogamously under water in Bengal.

[Copious revision by JDH.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [early Dec 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 205.5: 213
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1974

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   [early December 1856] …
  • … see Natural selection , p.  63. See letter to T.  H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] and n.  2. …
  • … DAR 205.5: 213 Charles Robert Darwin Down [early Dec 1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … flower under water. See letters from C.  C. Babington, 22 November 1856, and from H.   …
  • … C. Watson, 26 November 1856. CD referred to the crossing of these aquatic plants in …
  • … the chapter on crossing on 16 December 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). The following …
  • … from J.  D. Hooker, [early December 1856] ). CD put three reversed interrogation marks …

To Miles Joseph Berkeley   18 March [1856]

Summary

Thanks MJB for information which he is including in his article for the Linnean Society.

Refers to the peas "which produce the black or intensely purple pods". [See 1834 and 1836.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Miles Joseph Berkeley
Date:  18 Mar [1856]
Classmark:  Joseph R. Sakmyster, ADS Autographs (dealer) (no date)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1843A

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To Miles Joseph Berkeley   18 March [1856] …
  • … Autographs (dealer) (no date) Charles Robert Darwin 18 Mar [1856] Miles Joseph Berkeley …
  • … In his letter to Berkeley of 29 February [1856] ( Correspondence vol.  6), CD mentioned a …
  • … to impregnation’, and asked for a sample ( letter from M.  J.  Berkeley, 7 March 1856 ). …
  • … the letter from M.  J.  Berkeley, 7 March 1856 (see Correspondence vol.  6). Berkeley had …
  • … vol.  6, letter to M.  J.  Berkeley, 29 February [1856] and n.  3, and letter from M.   …
  • … J.  Berkeley, 7 March 1856 . The notice CD refers to is ‘On …
  • … on the germination of seeds’ (read 6 May 1856; Journal of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) …

To J. D. Hooker   [16 October 1856]

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Summary

Note accompanying MS of part of chapter 11 ["Geographical distribution"] of Natural selection [1975].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [16 Oct 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 50: E9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1965

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker    [16 October 1856] …
  • … DAR 50: E9 Charles Robert Darwin Down [16 Oct 1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … manuscript had been completed on 13 October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II) and was read by …
  • … Hooker by 9 November (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 9 November 1856 ). …
  • … distribution for his book on species (see letters to J.  D. Hooker, 13 July [1856] and …
  • … 28 September [1856] ). The fair copy is now in DAR 14. The date of the letter is that of …
  • … letter to J.  D. Hooker, 28 September [1856] ). Although it is possible that CD sent the …

From J. D. Hooker   [16 November 1856]

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Summary

JDH not happy with CD’s explanation of the absence of north temperate forms in the Southern Hemisphere, given his explanation for the spread of sub-arctic forms to the south. [CD’s note is in response to JDH’s criticism.]

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [16 Nov 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 162–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1622

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [16 November 1856] …
  • … and animals. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [ 1856] , and J.  Browne 1983 . …
  • … DAR 100: 162–3 Joseph Dalton Hooker Kew [16 Nov 1856] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … The Sunday after the letter to J.  D. Hooker, 15 November [1856] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 15 November [1856] . This note follows the letter in DAR 100: 163. In Natural …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   21 September [1856]

Summary

States his requirements with regard to pigeons and his interest in ducks and rabbits. Inquires about poultry seen at Leith Hill.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  21 Sept [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1957

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To W.  B. Tegetmeier   21 September [1856] …
  • … Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 21 Sept [1856] William Bernhard Tegetmeier …
  • … Bibliography Tegetmeier, William Bernhard. 1856. On the remarkable peculiarities existing …
  • … in England and possibly in France and Germany. See n.  1, above. Tegetmeier 1856 –7. …
  • … The first number was issued in May 1856. By September, three further numbers had been …
  • … CD stayed there from 13 to 19 September 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). Harrison Weir. …
  • … the best carrier pigeons at the Anerley poultry show, 29 July – 1 August 1856 ( Cottage …
  • … Gardener (1856) 16: 340). In Variation 1: 132 n.  2, CD recorded that: ‘Mr. Haynes and Mr. …
  • … See letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 24 June [1856] . Tegetmeier was a regular contributor to …
  • … see letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 3 November [1856] ). In Variation 1: 156, finnikins and …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   [July 1856]

Summary

His laughers are well, and he has heard them emit an odd note.

Thinks there is an extra vertebra in the neck of the Scandaroon, but is not certain and may have blundered.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  [July 1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1913

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To W.  B. Tegetmeier   [July 1856] …
  • … Finney Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down [July 1856] William Bernhard Tegetmeier …
  • … Bibliography Tegetmeier, William Bernhard. 1856. On the remarkable peculiarities existing …
  • … the letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 24 June [1856] , and by CD’s reference to the poultry and …
  • … See letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 24 June [1856] . In Variation 1: 165 n.  36, CD remarked …
  • … 1: 142–3. Samuel C.  or Charles N.  Baker. The 1856 poultry show at Anerley Gardens, near …
  • … from 29 July to 1 August. A report of the show is in Cottage Gardener , 16 (1856): 338–40. …
  • … Tegetmeier 1856  was read at the …
  • … meeting of 25 November 1856. …

To J. D. Hooker   28 September [1856]

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Summary

Will send MS on one point of geographical distribution. It is "of infinite importance" that JDH see it, for CD has never felt such difficulty in deciding what to do.

Wants capsules of aquatic plants, to float in sea-water.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  28 Sept [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 177
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1963

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   28 September [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 177 Charles Robert Darwin Down 28 Sept [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] . Both Hooker and CD attended the 16 October meeting of the …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … distribution, which was completed in October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). The list has …
  • … in letter to J.  D. Hooker, 26 [July 1856] . The forty pages of manuscript relating to …
  • … CD wanted Hooker to read (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 13 July [1856] ). Letter to J.   …

To S. P. Woodward   3 June [1856]

Summary

Comments on SPW’s book [Manual of Mollusca (1851–6)].

Mentions questions he has for SPW [see 1890].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  3 June [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.129)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1886

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To S.  P. Woodward   3 June [1856] …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.129) Charles Robert Darwin Down 3 June [1856] Samuel Pickworth Woodward …
  • … recorded having read this work on 5 June 1856 ( Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, 128: …
  • … 18). See letter to S.  P. Woodward, 15 May [1856] . Probably letter to S.   …
  • … P. Woodward, [after 4 June 1856] . Emma Darwin’s diary …
  • … indicates that CD was in London on 12 June 1856 and again from 18 to 21 June. …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   24 June [1856]

Summary

Now has 89 pigeons. The laughing pigeons are safe at Down. Can WBT spare a pair of Mr Gulliver’s runts?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  24 June [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1909

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To W.  B. Tegetmeier   24 June [1856] …
  • … Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 24 June [1856] William Bernhard Tegetmeier …
  • … 1: 142–3. See letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 21 September [1856] . See letter to W.   …
  • … D. Fox, 3 January [1856], n.  4. …
  • … to the letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 25 April [1856] , in which laughing pigeons and the …
  • … CD had been in London from 18 to 21 June 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). The pigeons were …
  • … in letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 25 April [1856] . For CD’s description and history of this …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   29 November [1856]

Summary

Has received some poultry from various parts of the world.

CD is glad that WBT is describing the birds that he acquires.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  29 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2004

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To W.  B. Tegetmeier   29 November [1856] …
  • … Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 29 Nov [1856] William Bernhard Tegetmeier …
  • … letter from W.  F. Daniell, 14 November 1856 . CD had asked Charles Augustus Murray for …
  • … 1855). These pigeons were mentioned in letters to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 3 November [1856] and …
  • … 19 November [1856] . …
  • … On 25 November 1856, CD recorded a payment in his Account book (Down House MS): ‘ …
  • … to a letter from Wallace, dated 10 October 1856, when he wrote to Wallace in May 1857 (see …
  • … letter from W.  F. Daniell, 14 November 1856 . Alfred Russel Wallace had left England to …
  • … 5, CD memorandum, [December 1855]). In 1856 Wallace visited the islands of Bali and Lombok …
  • … From there, in a letter dated 21 August 1856 ( Cambridge University Library (Add. MS. …

To S. P. Woodward   18 July 1856

Summary

Thanks for information about variability in shells.

Comments on Harvey’s Seaside book [1849].

"I am growing as bad as the worst about species and hardly have a vestige of belief in the permanence of species left in me".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  18 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 148: 378
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1931

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To S.  P. Woodward   18 July 1856
  • … DAR 148: 378 Charles Robert Darwin Down 18 July 1856 Samuel Pickworth Woodward …
  • … but Farnborough was occasionally used. Letters from S.  P. Woodward, 15 July 1856  and [ …
  • … 15 July 1856] . See letter from S.   …
  • … P. Woodward, [15 July 1856] . In the copy of this letter, Francis Darwin substituted ‘ …
  • … Down. | Farnborough Kent. July 18 th (1856. ) My dear Sir Very many thanks for your …

To J. D. Hooker   8 September [1856]

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Summary

Whether or not there should be movement of particles according to Tyndall’s theory of glacial action ["Observations on glaciers", Not. Proc. R. Inst. G. B. 2: 54–8, 441–3].

CD subscribes to H. C. Sorby’s view of gneiss [Edinburgh New Philos. J. 55 (1853): 137–50].

Seed-salting.

Pigeons.

Significant differences in skeletons of domesticated rabbits.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  8 Sept [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 176
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1950

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   8 September [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 176 Charles Robert Darwin Down 8 Sept [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … month of pregnancy. Her last child, Charles Waring Darwin, was born on 6 December 1856. …
  • … 64, 66–86. [Vols. 5,6] Sorby, Henry Clifton. 1856. On the microscopical structure of mica- …
  • … ed. 1900, 1: 145, and Eve and Creasey 1945, p.  64). Tyndall 1856 . See letter to J.   …
  • … of the sections, p. 78. Tyndall, John. 1856. Comparative view of the cleavage of crystals …
  • … 8 . See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] . George Bentham. CD refers to the brief …
  • … 7. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] , n.  2. Hooker wrote the following note at …
  • … D. Hooker, 5 August [1856] . …
  • … Sorby 1856 . Henry Clifton Sorby proposed that cleavage took place when metamorphosed …

To J. D. Hooker   24 December [1856]

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Summary

On the variety of species definitions prevalent among naturalists.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  24 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 187
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2022

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   24 December [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 187 Charles Robert Darwin Down 24 Dec [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … identified some of the seeds for him (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 22 November 1856 ). …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … in Leguminosae, which extended through the autumn and winter of 1856 (see letter to …
  • … George Bentham, 26 November [1856] ). CD had tried to ascertain the probability …
  • … in the Leguminosae (see letter to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] , and letter to …
  • … George Bentham, 30 November [1856] ). No reference is made to Hooker in the discussion of …

To J. D. Hooker   13 July [1856]

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Summary

Has found no case of Huxley’s eternal hermaphrodites.

Cruelty and waste in nature.

CD does not believe in hybrids.

One proven case of multiple creations would smash CD’s theory.

Asks JDH to read MS on alpine and Arctic distribution.

Lyell’s "conversion" to mutability.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  13 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1924

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   13 July [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 169 Charles Robert Darwin Down 13 July [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … by the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 . See letter to T.   …
  • … H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] , n.  2. See letter to …
  • … T.  H. Huxley, 8 July [1856] . See the final paragraph of the letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker. 10 July 1856. Loiseleur Deslongchamps 1842–3 . …
  • … pp.  531, 534–66). See letter to Charles Lyell, 5 July [1856] and n.  7. See letter …
  • … to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . CD had previously met Philip Henry Stanhope at Stanhope’ …
  • … recorded having read this work on 5 April 1856 ( Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, 128: …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …

To Asa Gray   2 May [1856]

Summary

Suggests affinities of the U. S. flora that he considers would be worth investigating. Wants to know the ranges of species in large and small genera.

Questions AG on naturalised plants; whether any are social in U. S. which are not so elsewhere and how variable they are compared with indigenous species. Would like to know of any differences in the variability of species at different points of their ranges and also the physical states of plants at the extremes of their ranges.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  2 May [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1863

Matches: 15 hits

  • … To Asa Gray   2 May [1856] …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (4) Charles Robert Darwin Down 2 May [1856] Asa Gray …
  • … letter, which were incorporated into A.  Gray 1856–7 (see n.  3, below). Gray’s letter has …
  • … flora of the northern United States’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 ). In the published version, Gray …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United …
  • … of flora I was occupied with. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  204). Gray generally followed this …
  • … alpine flora of the United States ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , pp.  62–76). A.  de Candolle 1855 , …
  • … into the comparison ‘seriously vitiates our conclusions’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  212). …
  • … This information is tabulated in A.  Gray 1856–7 , pp.  215, 217–24, and 226–9. Gray …
  • … to any common standard. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  78). Gray stated that he found this …
  • … species in the three classes ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , pp.  80–3). A.   de Candolle 1855 . Bound …
  • … 1: pp.  528–9, is a note, dated 1 May 1856, made by CD when studying Alphonse de Candolle’ …
  • … the species of small genera do. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  77). For the most part, Gray’s …
  • … does not tell in the same way’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  381). Gray addressed this question …
  • … articles into a treatise. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  389). CD had explained his interest in …

To ?   9 October [1856]

Summary

Thanks for offer of Helix for experiment. Asks for assistance. Mentions failure of his own experiment involving Helix pomatia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  9 Oct [1856]
Classmark:  Houghton Library, Harvard University (Autograph File, D)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1972

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To ?    9 October [1856] …
  • … University (Autograph File, D) Charles Robert Darwin Down 9 Oct [1856] Unidentified …
  • … molluscs, as expressed in the letters to P.  H. Gosse, 28 September 1856 , and to J.   …
  • … D. Dana, 29 September [1856]. CD had probably requested eggs of land molluscs (see letter …
  • … to W.  D. Fox, 3 October [1856] ). His experiments on the possible means of transport of …
  • … Mollusca in salt water, begun in October 1856, are recorded in his Experimental book (DAR …

To Walter Baldock Durrant Mantell   3 April [1856]

Summary

Reminds WBDM of his promise of information about the quartz boulders and an iceberg with fragment of rock seen in southern ocean.

Sends other questions [on separate sheet (missing)] which WBDM will think ridiculous, but all bear on plants and animals under domestication.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Walter Baldock Durrant Mantell
Date:  3 Apr [1856]
Classmark:  Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand (MS-Papers-0083-268)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1848

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To Walter Baldock Durrant Mantell   3 April [1856] …
  • … MS-Papers-0083-268) Charles Robert Darwin Down 3 Apr [1856] Walter Baldock Durrant Mantell …
  • … letter to C.  J. F. Bunbury, 21 April [1856] . CD’s questions and Mantell’s answers have …
  • … letter to W.  B. D. Mantell, 10 April [1856] . In Variation 2: 161 n.  65, CD stated: ‘the …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … letter to W.  B. D. Mantell, 10 April [1856] , was included in the chapter on geographical …
  • … the first draft of which was completed in July 1856 (see Natural selection , pp.  532– …
  • … 4). Mantell was in England between 1856 and 1859. See Correspondence vol.  5, letter to …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   23 August [1856]

Summary

Instructions for delivering pigeons to Down.

Has Scandaroons for WBT.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  23 Aug [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1943

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To W.  B. Tegetmeier   23 August [1856] …
  • … Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 23 Aug [1856] William Bernhard Tegetmeier …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letters to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 14 August [1856] and [15– …
  • … 22 August 1856] . Tegetmeier’s letter has not been found. He had apparently told CD that …
  • … to him. See letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, [15–22 August 1856] . See letter to W.   …
  • … B. Tegetmeier, 24 June [1856] . …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s …
  • … Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by Hooker’s friend the American …
  • … only source of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed …
  • … might work in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no …
  • … remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … on plants. Expanding projects set up during 1855 and 1856 (see  Correspondence  vol. 5), he tried …
  • … first two chapters of his species book, completed by October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). …
  • … Gray, vary in the United States ( letter to Asa Gray, 2 May 1856 )? What about weeds? Did they …
  • … hermaphrodite’ ( letter to to T. H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] ), which became a source of amusement in …
  • … that Asa Gray and Hooker confirmed during the course of 1856. Science at home: the botanical …
  • … many different experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden …
  • … have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his ideas …
  • … trees (see letters to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 February 1856] and to Charles Lyell, 3 May …
  • … Waring Darwin, the sixth and last, was born on 6 December 1856) was a constant worry, particularly …
  • … in New South Wales ( letter to Syms Covington, 9 March 1856 ). Many other topics, …
  • … the geological phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into …
  • … visited the Darwins at Down House for several days in April 1856, and Darwin took this opportunity …
  • … made in a letter written by Lyell from London on 1–2 May 1856. Darwin took the suggestion seriously …
  • … him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). Darwin had also …
  • … At a second weekend party held at Down on 26 and 27 April 1856, he had discussed the question of …
  • … doctrine.’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 7 ). The excitement and intellectual …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of the …
  • … family duties (Darwin to W. B. Tegetmeier,  19 November [1856] ) made him unable to travel to many …
  • … his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal feelings …
  • … in this world.’ (Darwin to Syms Covington,  9 March 1856 ) In the late nineteenth century, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 21 JULY 1855 14  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 14 JULY 1856 15  A GRAY TO C DARWIN …
  • … 1855 23  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 9 NOVEMBER 1856 24  C DARWIN TO JD …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856 that he publish a short version of his …
  • … in persuading Darwin not to publish an abstract in 1856 , Darwin explained to whole affair to him …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …
  • … as Natural selection ). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by June 1858. At …
  • … 2 13 October 1856 [Variation under domestication] [2] …
  • … 11 13 October 1856 Geographical distribution (DAR 14; …
  • … 3 16 December 1856 On the possibility of all organic …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … research notes, including letters going back to at least 1856 . Among them were accounts of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *128: 160] Mansfield’s Paraguay [Mansfield 1856] } read Chesterton Prison Life …
  • … Hutchison Dog Breaking 3 d . Edit [Hutchinson 1856] new information on Pointer & Retriever …
  • … Annal des Sc. Nat. 4 th  Series. Bot. Vol 6 [Naudin 1856]. Read Notes to Jardine & …
  • … 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 1856–7] —— 27 th . Mem. de l’Acad. …
  • … Das Ganze der Landwirttschaft [Kirchhof 1835].— 1856. Jan 10 th  G. Colin Traite de …
  • … [Rudolphi 1812] [DAR 128: 16] 1856 Jan 21. Huc’s Chinese Empire [Huc …
  • … Mar 1 Veith Naturgeschichte Haussaugethiere [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R …
  • … 1741–55] d[itt]o [DAR 128: 17] 1856 . Jan 28. Watt’s Life by Muirhead …
  • … [Pepys 1848–9]— April 21 Sandwitt Kars [Sandwith 1856]. [DAR 128: 18] March …
  • … 1851–6] —— Wollaston on Variation [Wollaston 1856] F. Smith on Apidæ [F. Smith 1855] …
  • … 1835 [H. C. Watson 1835] [DAR 128: 20] 1856 June 26. Davis J. Barnard. …
  • … 1855] —— 19 Von Tschudi Alpine life [Tschudi 1856] 30. Brehm Handbuch Vogel …
  • … 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami [Andersson 1856] —— 26 Slightly skimmed Forbes …
  • … 1765] Oct. 23. Tracings of Iceland Chambers [Chambers 1856]. —— Mansfield Travels in …
  • … 2 vols July D r . Kane’s Arctic Voyage [Kane 1856] Sept. 12. Ch. Napiers Life …
  • … rubbish yet amusing Nov. 15. Tender & True [Spence] 1856]: H. Coverdale [Smedley [1854–6] …
  • … Travels I ever read) Sept. Froude Henry VIII [Froude 1856]. 4 vols very interesting. …
  • … —— 16 Zoologist [ Zoologist ]. up Vol. 14. 1856 May 9 th  Voyage au Pol. Sud. Consid. Gen …
  • … 1859 Feb. 28 Olmstead S. States [Olmsted 1856] (excellent) March 21. Mill on Liberty …
  • … The revised edition of Johnston’s  Physical atlas  (1856) included ‘Map of the distribution of …
  • … 113  The  Cottage Gardener  ceased publication in 1856. 114  CD marked this entry …
  • … vols. London.  119: 14a Andersson, Carl Johan. 1856.  Lake Ngami; or, explorations and   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 20a; *128: 173 ——. 1856.  Tracings of Iceland and the Faröe …
  • … [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of prison life;   …
  • … 128: 5 Davis, Joseph Barnard and Thurnam, John. 1856–65.  Crania   Britannica. …
  • … Three visits to Madagascar during   the years 1853, 1854, 1856 . London.  128: 24 …
  • … . Lundæ.  *119: 5v. Froude, James Anthony. 1856.  History of England from the   fall of …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856 ‘y ou continental extensionists …
  • … of his old friend, the geologist Charles Lyell, who, in May 1856, twenty months after Darwin had …
  • … urgency to publish and, following Lyell’s advice in May 1856, began to write a sketch his theory. ‘I …
  • … without full details. ’ Writing to his cousin Fox in June 1856, Darwin openly confessed his fears …
  • … work ’ he had ‘desisted’. By November 1856, he had both good and bad news to report to Lyell: ‘ …
  • … press. Although Darwin had decided in the autumn of 1856 to write only from the materials he …
  • … wrote ten and a half chapters of his Big Book between May 1856 and June 1858. With a total of …
  • … length ’, he had complained to Hooker in December 1856. By mid-1858, only the first chapter on …
  • … being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge University …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Owen, and Louis Agassiz (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May 1856 and 21 May 1856). But he considered …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist …
  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist Miles …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855, Müller …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1979 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write up a ‘preliminary essay’ on his views in 1856, he went back to Fox to check his facts, …
  • … the African explorer and army surgeon William Daniell in 1856 was probably in reply to such a …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … `big book’,  Natural selection , begun in 1856.  Coming hard on the heels of  The descent of man …

Begins 'Natural Selection'

Summary

Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but later formed the basis for On the Origin of Species

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Tenth child born

Summary

The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work preparing his ‘big book’ on species. Begun in May 1856 at the urging of Lyell, the manuscript …

The expression of emotions

Summary

Darwin’s work on emotional expression, from notes in his Beagle diary and observations of his own children, to questionnaires, and experiments with photographs, was an integral part of his broad research on human evolution. It provided one of the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his other children followed, and the record was kept through 1856. Darwin’s wife, Emma also recorded …
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