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To Leonard Jenyns   [28 April 1858]

Summary

Returns MS [of "Variation of species"]; several facts were new to him, especially interested in wagtails.

Wishes he could swallow Florent Prévost on sparrows ["Du régime alimentaire des oiseaux", C. R. Hebd. Acad. Sci. 46 (1858): 136–8].

LJ’s facts seem to bear out CD’s conclusion that secondary sexual characters were most variable of all.

Explains how he intends to deal with variation, and general facts in natural history in the light of species theory. Can only afford one chapter on variation in nature. It seems more important to make out variation in domestic animals.

Asks for facts on birds’ nests for his chapter on instincts.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Leonard Jenyns; Leonard Blomefield
Date:  [28 Apr 1858]
Classmark:  Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2264

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Bibliography Jenyns, Leonard. 1856. On the variation of species. Report of the 26th …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … this case, without citing Prévost, in Jenyns 1856 , p.  103. See Natural selection , pp.   …
  • … a remark by John Gould, given in Wollaston 1856 , that Maltese swallows were slightly …
  • … different from British ones ( Jenyns 1856 , p.  104). See Natural selection , pp.  498– …
  • … Press. 1975. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …
  • … after receipt. The manuscript of Jenyns 1856 , which CD had asked to see in his letter to …
  • … to Leonard Jenyns, 18 April [1858] ). CD’s notes about Jenyns 1856  are in DAR 45: 25–8. …
  • … Jenyns 1856 , p.  103. CD copied out most of Jenyns’s remarks about the difficulties of …

To Leonard Jenyns   9 April [1858]

Summary

Asks LJ to lend him a copy of his paper ["Variation of species", Rep. BAAS 26 (1856): 101–5] and any notes or references he has. Although CD has a large accumulation of facts, it is impossible to see and consider too many.

His health is poor.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Leonard Jenyns; Leonard Blomefield
Date:  9 Apr [1858]
Classmark:  Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2253

Matches: 7 hits

  • … paper ["Variation of species", Rep. BAAS 26 (1856): 101–5] and any notes or references he …
  • … Cirencester, had also delivered a paper at the 1856 British Association meeting on the …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Jenyns, Leonard. 1856. On the variation of species. Report of the …
  • … to a forthcoming trip to Moor Park (see n.  3, below). The Athenæum , 16 August 1856, p.   …
  • … 1032, carried a brief account of Jenyns 1856 , a paper on variation …
  • … in animals read at the 1856 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of …
  • … vol.  6, letter from J.  S. Henslow, 2 August 1856 ). CD went to Moor Park hydropathic …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   [21 April 1858]

Summary

"Excessively" interested in theory of bees’ cell formation.

Fears few of his pigeons will be of any use to WBT.

Hopes WBT will describe foreign poultry breeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  [21 Apr 1858]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2260

Matches: 7 hits

  • … 1985–. Siebold, Karl Theodor Ernst von. 1856. Wahre Parthenogenesis bei Schmetterlingen …
  • … 14 June 1858 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). During 1856 and 1857, CD had systematically crossed …
  • … to him (see Correspondence vol.  6, letters to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 29 November [1856] and …
  • … 4 December [1856] ). Tegetmeier had twice exhibited specimens of CD’s poultry skins at …
  • … ibid . , letters to W.  B. Tegetmeier, [July 1856] and 11 February [1857] ). George Robert …
  • … it are in DAR 71: 6–19. CD refers to the 1856 issue of Bienen-Zeitung , the organ of the …
  • … Theodor Ernst von Siebold ( Siebold 1856 ) of the production of drones from unfertilised …

From Leonard Jenyns   [before 18 April 1858]

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Summary

[Copy of some rough notes.] References about species. Variations within species.

Author:  Leonard Jenyns; Leonard Blomefield
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 18 Apr 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 45: 20–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2250

Matches: 8 hits

  • … 9 April [1858] ). The ‘paper’ is Jenyns 1856 . Gould 1837b. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1840 . …
  • … the sea. ( Ann. & Mag. N.  H. June 1856. vol 17. p.  510. ) See a paper by Alfred Wallace …
  • … History 2d ser. 15: 430–8. Jenyns, Leonard. 1856. On the variation of species. Report of …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … was cited on another point in Jenyns 1856 . Drummond 1843 . The paper was a list of birds …
  • … Harcourt about the birds of Madeira in 1856 (see Correspondence vol.  6, letter from E.   …
  • … W. V. Harcourt, 31 May 1856). The information, as given in the letter, was printed in a …
  • … Magazine of Natural History 2d ser.  17 (1856): 510–11). Wallace 1855 . CD’s notes on this …

To Joseph Dalton Hooker   12 January [1858]

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Summary

On papilionaceous flowers and CD’s theory that there are no eternal hermaphrodites. Connects this theory to absence of small-flowered legumes in New Zealand and the absence of small bees as pollinators.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  12 Jan [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 220
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2201

Matches: 5 hits

  • … must occasionally cross-fertilise. In 1856 he had asked Thomas Henry Huxley whether there …
  • … in-vertebrates ( Correspondence vol.  6, letters to T.  H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] and …
  • … 8 July [1856] ) and had discussed the problem of the apparent self-fertilisation of …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … village, who acted as CD’s copyist. In 1856 and 1857, Norman compiled lists of species …

From J. D. Hooker   18 March 1858

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Summary

Continued objections to methods and conclusions of CD’s survey.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Mar 1858
Classmark:  DAR 100: 115e–f
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2243

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Bibliography Weddell, Hugh Algernon. 1856. Monographie de la famille des Urticés. Paris. …
  • … Weddell 1856 . See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 10 [March 1858] . Hooker’s tabulation and some …

To William Bernhard Tegetmeier   17 January [1858]

Summary

Has received Burmese fowls’ skins from Walter Elliot.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  17 Jan [1858]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2205

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Madras, to send him skins of domestic pigeons and poultry in 1856 ( Correspondence vol.   …
  • … 6, letter to Walter Elliot, 23 January 1856 ). CD received one consignment that year and …
  • … 6, letters to W.  B.Tegetmeier, 3 November [1856] and to J.  D. Hooker, 22 August [1857]). …

From J. D. Hooker   [26 December 1858]

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Summary

JDH cannot abide CD’s connection of wide-ranging species and "highness". Australian flora contradicts this in many ways.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 Dec 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 125–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2385

Matches: 4 hits

  • … June 1854] ). He published these views in 1856 (see n.   4, below). For Asa Gray’s opinion …
  • … vol.  6, letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . Hooker’s review of Alphonse de Candolle’s …
  • … was published in Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany in 1856. The passage …
  • … to which he refers is in [Hooker] 1856, pp.  252–5. CD’s copy of the separately paginated …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   24 December [1858]

Summary

Thanks for some poultry breeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  24 Dec [1858]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2383

Matches: 2 hits

  • … descriptions of all the breeds of fancy pigeons to the Cottage Gardener in 1856 and 1857. …
  • … in the Poultry book (Tegetmeier ed. 1856–7) was precluded when the venture ceased after …

From H. C. Watson   [after 23 March 1858]

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Summary

Extracts from MS of vol. 4 of HCW’s Cybele Britannica [1847–59] showing the diversity of views on species among botanists.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 23 Mar 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 45: 16–17
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1808

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Lindley 1835 ; and Babington 1843  and 1856. The references to ‘Hooker 1835’ and ‘Hooker …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … 1818 1821 1828 1835 1835 1842 1843 1850 1856 Rubus. 6 5 7 7 8 8 14 13 21 14 24 5 41 Salix …
  • … 33 27 14 9 11 7 2 2 5 8 8 1 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 1856 41 31 33 17 9 12 12 5 2 5 8 8 1 4 3 4 3 3 2 …
  • … of the Manual, dated in 1843, 1847, 1851, 1856; and from these I select a score of the …

To J. D. Hooker   11 March [1858]

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Summary

JDH’s "objection" that small local genera do not vary and mundane ones do, is exactly CD’s point. Local floras useful to test idea that varieties are incipient species. Same genus in different countries cannot be lumped.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 Mar [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 228
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2239

Matches: 4 hits

  • … to this letter. CD refers to Hooker’s calculations on Weddell 1856 (see letter to J.  D. …
  • … Hooker, 10 [March 1858] ). Weddell 1856  is a monograph on the Urticeae or Urticaceae. …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … Press. 1975. Weddell, Hugh Algernon. 1856. Monographie de la famille des Urticés. Paris. …

To Charles Lyell   [25 June 1858]

Summary

Everything in Wallace’s sketch also appears in CD’s sketch of 1844. A year ago CD sent a short sketch of his views to Asa Gray. Can CD honourably publish his sketch now that Wallace has sent outline of his views? "I would far rather burn my whole book than that he or any man shd. think that I had behaved in a paltry spirit." Does not believe Wallace originated his views from anything CD wrote to him.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [25 June 1858]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.153)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2294

Matches: 4 hits

  • … publish a brief account of his views in 1856, CD had given up the idea of a short sketch …
  • … work (see Correspondence vol.  6, letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 , and letter to …
  • … Charles Lyell, 3 May [1856] ). See Correspondence vol.   …
  • … 6, letter to Charles Lyell, 3 May [1856] . See letter to A.  R. Wallace, 6 April 1859 . …

To J. D. Hooker   16 [March 1858]

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Summary

Thanks JDH for his objections; will respond by sending fair copy of MS when written.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  16 [Mar 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 229
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2242

Matches: 3 hits

  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … Press. 1975. Weddell, Hugh Algernon. 1856. Monographie de la famille des Urticés. Paris. …
  • … Hooker’s calculations, drawn from Weddell 1856 , in a table in Natural selection , p.   …

To J. D. Hooker   9[–10] November [1858]

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Summary

Lyell receives Copley Medal; CD to write notes for JDH’s éloge of Lyell.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  9[–10] Nov [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 253
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2355

Matches: 4 hits

  • … 6, letter to Edward Sabine, 23 April [1856] . CD’s notes have not been found. The Darwin …
  • … Huxley, 31 March [1858]; and vol.  6, letters to J.  D. Hooker, 8 April [1856], to Edward …
  • … Sabine, 23 April [1856], and to J.  D. Hooker, 2 June [1857]). In 1858, Hancock was …
  • … John Richardson for Royal Medals in 1855 and 1856, respectively. See Correspondence vol.   …

To J. D. Hooker   6 May [1858]

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Summary

Sends MS on large and small genera.

Observed slave-making ants at Moor Park.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  6 May [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 234
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2269

Matches: 3 hits

  • … selection , p.  153. CD refers to Weddell 1856  and Candolle and Candolle 1824–73 . See …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … Press. 1975. Weddell, Hugh Algernon. 1856. Monographie de la famille des Urticés. Paris. …

To John Lubbock   30 [March? 1858]

Summary

Comments and criticisms on JL’s paper [possibly: "On the development of Chloëon dimidiatum", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 24 (1863): 61–78].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  30 [Mar? 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 23 (EH 88206472)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2397

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Press. 1985–. Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1856–7. Lectures on general natural history. Medical …
  • … general natural history’ ( T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 ) (see Correspondence vol.  6, letter to …
  • … J.  D. Hooker, 21 [May 1856] ). Huxley, attempting to point out deficiencies in Owen’s …

From J. D. Hooker   [14 March 1858]

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Summary

Summary of JDH’s objections to CD’s survey of floras and conclusion that large genera vary more than small.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [14 Mar 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 182–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2240

Matches: 3 hits

  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … Press. 1975. Weddell, Hugh Algernon. 1856. Monographie de la famille des Urticés. Paris. …
  • … D. Hooker, 10 [March 1858] ). Weddell 1856 . See the postscript to the preceding letter. …

To Leonard Jenyns   1 April [1858]

Summary

Thanks LJ for his book [Observations in meteorology (1858)].

CD has been working on his species book [Natural selection].

Has become dreadfully heterodox on immutability of species.

His work on pigeons: variation under domestication throws the greatest light on variation in a state of nature.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Leonard Jenyns; Leonard Blomefield
Date:  1 Apr [1858]
Classmark:  Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2251

Matches: 4 hits

  • … London: John Van Voorst. Jenyns, Leonard. 1856. On the variation of species. Report of the …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … subject at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1856 ( …
  • … Jenyns 1856 ). Jenyns and his wife Jane had settled near Bath in 1850 after Benjamin …

To J. D. Hooker   15 January [1858]

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Summary

CD has never doubted probability of Bering Strait land connection.

Family illness.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  15 Jan [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 221
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2203

Matches: 4 hits

  • … see Correspondence vol.  6, especially letters to J.  D. Hooker, 19 July [1856] and …
  • … 30 July [1856] , and letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 4 August 1856 ). See Correspondence vol.  6, letter …
  • … from J.  D. Hooker, 9  November 1856 . The Philosophical Club of the Royal Society, of …

To J. D. Hooker   [29 June 1858]

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Summary

Death of Charles Waring Darwin [1856–8] from scarlet fever.

JDH’s and Lyell’s kindness [presumably about A. R. Wallace’s letter]. CD can provide a copy of his letter to Asa Gray [about CD’s species theory].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [29 June 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 239
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2297

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Death of Charles Waring Darwin [1856–8] from scarlet fever. JDH’s and Lyell’s kindness [ …
  • … children. He had been born on 6 December 1856. According to Henrietta Emma Darwin, ‘The …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s …
  • … Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by Hooker’s friend the American …
  • … only source of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed …
  • … might work in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no …
  • … remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … on plants. Expanding projects set up during 1855 and 1856 (see  Correspondence  vol. 5), he tried …
  • … first two chapters of his species book, completed by October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). …
  • … Gray, vary in the United States ( letter to Asa Gray, 2 May 1856 )? What about weeds? Did they …
  • … hermaphrodite’ ( letter to to T. H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] ), which became a source of amusement in …
  • … that Asa Gray and Hooker confirmed during the course of 1856. Science at home: the botanical …
  • … many different experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden …
  • … have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his ideas …
  • … trees (see letters to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 February 1856] and to Charles Lyell, 3 May …
  • … Waring Darwin, the sixth and last, was born on 6 December 1856) was a constant worry, particularly …
  • … in New South Wales ( letter to Syms Covington, 9 March 1856 ). Many other topics, …
  • … the geological phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into …
  • … visited the Darwins at Down House for several days in April 1856, and Darwin took this opportunity …
  • … made in a letter written by Lyell from London on 1–2 May 1856. Darwin took the suggestion seriously …
  • … him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). Darwin had also …
  • … At a second weekend party held at Down on 26 and 27 April 1856, he had discussed the question of …
  • … doctrine.’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 7 ). The excitement and intellectual …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of the …
  • … family duties (Darwin to W. B. Tegetmeier,  19 November [1856] ) made him unable to travel to many …
  • … his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal feelings …
  • … in this world.’ (Darwin to Syms Covington,  9 March 1856 ) In the late nineteenth century, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 21 JULY 1855 14  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 14 JULY 1856 15  A GRAY TO C DARWIN …
  • … 1855 23  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 9 NOVEMBER 1856 24  C DARWIN TO JD …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856 that he publish a short version of his …
  • … in persuading Darwin not to publish an abstract in 1856 , Darwin explained to whole affair to him …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …
  • … as Natural selection ). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by June 1858. At …
  • … 2 13 October 1856 [Variation under domestication] [2] …
  • … 11 13 October 1856 Geographical distribution (DAR 14; …
  • … 3 16 December 1856 On the possibility of all organic …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … research notes, including letters going back to at least 1856 . Among them were accounts of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *128: 160] Mansfield’s Paraguay [Mansfield 1856] } read Chesterton Prison Life …
  • … Hutchison Dog Breaking 3 d . Edit [Hutchinson 1856] new information on Pointer & Retriever …
  • … Annal des Sc. Nat. 4 th  Series. Bot. Vol 6 [Naudin 1856]. Read Notes to Jardine & …
  • … 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 1856–7] —— 27 th . Mem. de l’Acad. …
  • … Das Ganze der Landwirttschaft [Kirchhof 1835].— 1856. Jan 10 th  G. Colin Traite de …
  • … [Rudolphi 1812] [DAR 128: 16] 1856 Jan 21. Huc’s Chinese Empire [Huc …
  • … Mar 1 Veith Naturgeschichte Haussaugethiere [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R …
  • … 1741–55] d[itt]o [DAR 128: 17] 1856 . Jan 28. Watt’s Life by Muirhead …
  • … [Pepys 1848–9]— April 21 Sandwitt Kars [Sandwith 1856]. [DAR 128: 18] March …
  • … 1851–6] —— Wollaston on Variation [Wollaston 1856] F. Smith on Apidæ [F. Smith 1855] …
  • … 1835 [H. C. Watson 1835] [DAR 128: 20] 1856 June 26. Davis J. Barnard. …
  • … 1855] —— 19 Von Tschudi Alpine life [Tschudi 1856] 30. Brehm Handbuch Vogel …
  • … 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami [Andersson 1856] —— 26 Slightly skimmed Forbes …
  • … 1765] Oct. 23. Tracings of Iceland Chambers [Chambers 1856]. —— Mansfield Travels in …
  • … 2 vols July D r . Kane’s Arctic Voyage [Kane 1856] Sept. 12. Ch. Napiers Life …
  • … rubbish yet amusing Nov. 15. Tender & True [Spence] 1856]: H. Coverdale [Smedley [1854–6] …
  • … Travels I ever read) Sept. Froude Henry VIII [Froude 1856]. 4 vols very interesting. …
  • … —— 16 Zoologist [ Zoologist ]. up Vol. 14. 1856 May 9 th  Voyage au Pol. Sud. Consid. Gen …
  • … 1859 Feb. 28 Olmstead S. States [Olmsted 1856] (excellent) March 21. Mill on Liberty …
  • … The revised edition of Johnston’s  Physical atlas  (1856) included ‘Map of the distribution of …
  • … 113  The  Cottage Gardener  ceased publication in 1856. 114  CD marked this entry …
  • … vols. London.  119: 14a Andersson, Carl Johan. 1856.  Lake Ngami; or, explorations and   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 20a; *128: 173 ——. 1856.  Tracings of Iceland and the Faröe …
  • … [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of prison life;   …
  • … 128: 5 Davis, Joseph Barnard and Thurnam, John. 1856–65.  Crania   Britannica. …
  • … Three visits to Madagascar during   the years 1853, 1854, 1856 . London.  128: 24 …
  • … . Lundæ.  *119: 5v. Froude, James Anthony. 1856.  History of England from the   fall of …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856 ‘y ou continental extensionists …
  • … of his old friend, the geologist Charles Lyell, who, in May 1856, twenty months after Darwin had …
  • … urgency to publish and, following Lyell’s advice in May 1856, began to write a sketch his theory. ‘I …
  • … without full details. ’ Writing to his cousin Fox in June 1856, Darwin openly confessed his fears …
  • … work ’ he had ‘desisted’. By November 1856, he had both good and bad news to report to Lyell: ‘ …
  • … press. Although Darwin had decided in the autumn of 1856 to write only from the materials he …
  • … wrote ten and a half chapters of his Big Book between May 1856 and June 1858. With a total of …
  • … length ’, he had complained to Hooker in December 1856. By mid-1858, only the first chapter on …
  • … being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge University …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Owen, and Louis Agassiz (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May 1856 and 21 May 1856). But he considered …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist …
  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist Miles …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855, Müller …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1979 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write up a ‘preliminary essay’ on his views in 1856, he went back to Fox to check his facts, …
  • … the African explorer and army surgeon William Daniell in 1856 was probably in reply to such a …

Begins 'Natural Selection'

Summary

Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but later formed the basis for On the Origin of Species

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Tenth child born

Summary

The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work preparing his ‘big book’ on species. Begun in May 1856 at the urging of Lyell, the manuscript …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … `big book’,  Natural selection , begun in 1856.  Coming hard on the heels of  The descent of man …

The expression of emotions

Summary

Darwin’s work on emotional expression, from notes in his Beagle diary and observations of his own children, to questionnaires, and experiments with photographs, was an integral part of his broad research on human evolution. It provided one of the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his other children followed, and the record was kept through 1856. Darwin’s wife, Emma also recorded …
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