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To Asa Gray   1 January [1857]

Summary

Thanks AG for 2d part of "Statistics [of the flora of the northern U. S.", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369–403].

Is glad AG concludes species of large genera are wide-ranging, but is "riled" that he thinks the line of connection of alpine plants is through Greenland. Mentions comparisons of ranges worth investigating.

Believes trees show a tendency toward separation of the sexes and wonders if U. S. species bear this out. Asks which genera are protean in U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  1 Jan [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2034

Matches: 16 hits

  • … topic after having first mentioned it in his letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . See …
  • … also letters to Asa Gray, 24 August [1856] and …
  • … 24 November [1856] , and letter from …
  • … Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . …
  • … Mason. Geneva: J. Kessmann. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … northern U. S." , Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369– …
  • … by the relationship to the letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . A.  Gray 1856–7 . In …
  • … his letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] , CD had asked Gray to examine the ranges of species …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 . See letters to J.  D. Hooker, 1 December [1856] and …
  • … 10 December [1856] , and letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . CD had continued to remind Gray about this …
  • … genera, as Mr. Darwin suggests’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  77). See Natural selection , pp.   …
  • … species of small genera do. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  77). Comparing the northward range …
  • … through the polar regions’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  73). CD, on the other hand, believed …
  • … the similar or related species’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , pp.  78–84), in which Gray described …

To T. H. Huxley   15 September [1857]

Summary

Thanks for three last lectures and the account of cirripedes.

Difficulty of classifying the higher groups.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  15 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 137)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2141

Matches: 7 hits

  • … 1: 145–7). Noel Huxley had been born on 31 December 1856 (L.  Huxley ed. 1900, 1: 151). …
  • … Royal School of Mines ( T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 ). The second part of lecture twelve covered …
  • … Press. 1985–. Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1856–7. Lectures on general natural history. Medical …
  • … has appeared in our time’ ( T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 , 15: 238). CD had previously forwarded …
  • … his copies of successive parts of T.  H. Huxley 1856–7  to John Lubbock (see …
  • … letter to John Lubbock, 23 September [1856] ). Huxley believed that the Cirripedia were …
  • … to the Branchiopoda ( T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 , 15: 241). CD believed that the resemblances …

To T. H. Huxley   16 December [1857]

Summary

THH’s catalogue [THH and R. Etheridge, A catalogue of the collection of fossils in the Museum of Practical Geology (1865), part published in 1857] best résumé he has seen of science of natural history. On classification he is not quite sure that he wholly goes along with THH. Encloses a few criticisms of THH’s preface.[enclosure survives as copy only].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  16 Dec [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 151); DAR 145: 178
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2185

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Bibliography Dufossé, Adolphe. 1856. De l’hermaphodisme chez certains vertébrés. Annales …
  • … 4th ser. 5: 295–332. Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1856–7. Lectures on general natural history. …
  • … a memoir by Adolphe Dufossé ( Dufossé 1856 ). Huxley, drawing upon Johannes Peter Müller’s …
  • … related to the annelids (see T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 , 13: 635–9, and Winsor 1976 , pp.  113– …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … Les métamorphoses. Revue des deux Mondes 10 (1855): 90–116, 275–314; 3 (1856): 496– 519, …
  • … 859- 83; 4 (1856): 55–82. Winsor, Mary Pickard. 1976. Starfish, jellyfish and the order of …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   18 May [1857]

Summary

Lists pigeons and poultry he is forwarding to WBT.

Wants details of WBT’s Poultry book [1856–7]

and is anxious to purchase his long-winged runt.

Thanks him for help and information on fowl crosses.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  18 May [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2093

Matches: 6 hits

  • … to WBT. Wants details of WBT’s Poultry book [1856–7] and is anxious to purchase his long- …
  • … runt from Mr Gulliver (see letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 21 September [1856] ). Tegetmeier …
  • … ed. 1856–7 was published in …
  • … parts, beginning in May 1856, by William S.  Orr and Co. , London. Tegetmeier’s Poultry …
  • … had first ordered the work from his booksellers in the spring of 1856 (see letter to W.   …
  • … B. Tegetmeier, 25 April [1856] ). Publication of Tegetmeier’s Poultry book ceased with …

To Asa Gray   9 May [1857]

Summary

Thanks for new part of "Statistics".

Interested in disjoined species; do they tend to belong to large or small genera, and are they generally members of small families?

Is glad AG will tackle introduced plants; has noticed that the proportion of a particular family to the whole flora tends to be similar in introduced and indigenous plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  9 May [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2089

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Company. London: John Chapman. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … s acknowledgment of the receipt of the third part of A.  Gray 1856–7 (see n.  2, below). …
  • … The third and final part of A.  Gray 1856–7  was published in the May 1857 issue of the …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … Asia, but are not European’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  387). Dividing this group into two …
  • … Gray added the following note ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  387 n. ), to which CD refers: Out of …
  • … to Asa Gray, 18 June [1857] . A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  400. See letter to Asa Gray, [after …

To Charles Lyell   13 April [1857]

Summary

CD returns a letter from Wollaston.

Although opposed to the Forbesian doctrine [of continental extension] as a general rule, CD would have no objection to its being proved in some cases. Does not think Wollaston has proved it; nor can anyone until more is known about the means of distribution of insects – but the identity of the two faunas is certainly interesting.

His health is very poor and his "everlasting species-Book" quite overwhelms him with work. It is beyond his powers, but he hopes to live to finish it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  13 Apr [1857]
Classmark:  Edinburgh University Library, Centre for Research Collections (Gen.109/702)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2077

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Charles Lyell, 17 June 1856 , and from T.   …
  • … V. Wollaston, [27 June 1856]. See …
  • … letter to Charles Lyell, 10 November [1856] , n.  4. CD left for Edward Wickstead Lane’s …
  • … for geographical distribution. See letters to Charles Lyell, 16 [June 1856] and …
  • … 25 June [1856] , and letters from …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   25 [June 1857]

Summary

Needs only one nearly-hatched chick.

Has all published numbers of Poultry book [1856–7].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  25 [June 1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2111

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Needs only one nearly-hatched chick. Has all published numbers of Poultry book [1856–7]. …
  • … Tegetmeier, 23 June [1857] . Tegetmeier ed. 1856–7. See letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 18  …

To Asa Gray   [after 15 March 1857]

Summary

Urges AG to generalise from his observations on the flora of the northern U. S.

Expected to find separation of sexes in trees because he believes all living beings require an occasional cross, and none is perpetually self-fertilising. The multitude of flowers of a tree would be an obstacle to cross-fertilisation unless the sexes tended to be separate.

The Leguminosae are CD’s greatest opposers; he cannot find that garden varieties ever cross. Could AG inquire of intelligent nurserymen on the subject?

Thanks AG for information on protean genera; much wants to know whether their great variability is due to their conditions of existence or is innate in them at all times and places.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  [After 15 Mar 1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2060

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Oxford University Press. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] . See letters to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] and …
  • … 30 November [1856] . See letter to Syms Covington, 22 February 1857 . William Macarthur …
  • … from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . A.  Gray 1856–7  was published in ‘Silliman’s Journal’, …
  • … 61–2, and Origin , pp.  99–100. See also letters to J.  D. Hooker, 1 December [1856] and …
  • … 10 December [1856] . CD refers to his anecdote about Louis Agassiz related in the letter …

To T. C. Eyton   9 June [1857]

Summary

Comments on TCE’s work [Catalogue of the species of birds in his collection (1856)].

Mentions African dog’s skin.

Asks about colours of horses

and about variation in tracheae of male birds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Campbell Eyton
Date:  9 June [1857]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.146)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2103

Matches: 4 hits

  • … of the species of birds in his collection (1856)]. Mentions African dog’s skin. Asks about …
  • … 1855]. Letter to T.  C. Eyton, 5 October [1856] . For CD’s interest in the colouring of …
  • … Press. 1985–. Eyton, Thomas Campbell. 1856. A catalogue of the species of birds in his …
  • … species of birds in his possession ( Eyton 1856 ), which was issued in parts. A copy of …

To J. D. Hooker   2 June [1857]

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Summary

Qualifications of John Lindley, Huxley, Albany Hancock, Joseph Prestwich, J. C. Ross, and Francis Beaufort for Royal Medal.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  2 June [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 199
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2099

Matches: 6 hits

  • … 1857] . John Richardson had received one of the Royal Medals in 1856. CD had supported …
  • … his nomination (see letter to Edward Sabine, 23 April [1856] ). …
  • … CD had retired from the council in November 1856. Balloting for the society’s awards took …
  • … for John Lindley for a number of years. In 1856, Hooker had suggested Lindley’ s name to …
  • … see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 8 April [1856]). The previous year, CD had supported Joseph …
  • … letter to Edward Sabine, 23 April [1856] ). See letter to William Sharpey, 2 June [1857] . …

From Asa Gray   1 June 1857

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Summary

Comments on species with disjoined ranges; does not feel, despite CD’s expectations, that they tend to belong to small families.

Gives the proportion of U. S. trees in which the sexes are separate [see Natural selection, p. 62].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 June 1857
Classmark:  DAR 8: 47bA
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2098

Matches: 3 hits

  • … some notes and a letter from Hewett Cottrell Watson. A.  Gray 1856–7 . See n.  2, above. …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …
  • … of the northern United States in A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  400. See letter to Asa Gray, 9  …

To T. H. Huxley   5 July [1857]

Summary

Asks THH’s opinion on embryological views of G. A. Brullé [Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 13 (1844): 484–6] and F. M. Barnéoud [Ann. des Sci. Nat. ser. 3, Bot. 6 (1846): 268–96] and on Milne-Edwards’ classification.

Has been reading John Goodsir ["On the morphological constitution of the skeleton of the vertebrate head", Edinburgh New Philos. J. 2d ser. 5 (1857): 123–78].

Has embryology of bats ever been worked out?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  5 July [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 67)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2118

Matches: 4 hits

  • … within the incubating pouch of the parent. ’ ( ’ (T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 , 14: 639). …
  • … Medical Times & Gazette ( T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 ). In Mysis , ‘the larva is inactive, and …
  • … Journal n.s. 5: 123–78. Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1856–7. Lectures on general natural history. …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …

To Alfred Russel Wallace   1 May 1857

Summary

Reports long preparation of work on how species and varieties differ. Agreement with Wallace’s conclusions as reported in Annals and Magazine of Natural History and in his letter to CD of 10 0ct [1856]. On distinction between domestic varieties and those in "a state of nature".

On mating of jaguars and leopards, the breeding of poultry, pigeons, etc.

Requests help for his experimenting on means of distribution of organic beings on oceanic islands.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  1 May 1857
Classmark:  The British Library (Add MS 46434)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2086

Matches: 5 hits

  • … and in his letter to CD of 10 0ct [1856]. On distinction between domestic varieties and …
  • … the letter. Wallace’s letter of 10 October 1856 has not been found. None of their earlier …
  • … letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 29 November [1856] and n.  4. Wallace 1855 . For CD’s notes …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … first approached Wallace in 1855 or early 1856 to request specimens of domestic and wild …

To J. D. Hooker   [after 20 January 1857]

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Summary

CD finds Alphonse de Candolle very useful, though JDH has low opinion.

CD argues for accidental introductions explaining some odd distributions, e.g., New Zealand vs Australian plants.

CD’s method.

Diverging affinities in isolated genera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [after 20 Jan 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 190
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2033

Matches: 6 hits

  • … 6–9 June 1855] ). Wollaston 1854  and 1856. As Thomas Vernon Wollaston remarked in the …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United …
  • … A.  de Candolle 1855 ) in his review of the work ([J.  D. Hooker] 1856). The review …
  • … had been discussed by CD and Hooker in 1856 (see letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 9 October [1856] ). In his letter to the Hookers (see n.  3, above), Gray had …
  • … the command of Matthew Flinders. A.  Gray 1856–7 . See letter to Asa Gray, 1 January [ …

To John Innes   [after 16 February 1857]

Summary

Recommends he read passages on bees by C. T. E. von Siebold [in On the true parthenogenesis in moths and bees (1857)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Brodie Innes
Date:  [after 16 Feb 1857]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.149)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2025

Matches: 3 hits

  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … 1975. Siebold, Karl Theodor Ernst von. 1856. Wahre Parthenogenesis bei Schmetterlingen und …
  • … s work on parthenogenesis ( Siebold 1856 ), an English translation of which ( Siebold …

From J. D. Dana   27 April 1857

Summary

In reply to CD’s query [see 2072], JDD describes what little is known about the crustacea of the Antarctic and southern lands.

Knows of no species of the cold temperate south identical with those of the cold temperate north.

Author:  James Dwight Dana
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 Apr 1857
Classmark:  DAR 162: 39
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2083

Matches: 6 hits

  • … The monograph he had been preparing since 1856 describing these and other specimens was …
  • … to the letter from J.  D. Dana, 8 December 1856 . In his letter to J.  D. Dana, 5 April [ …
  • … of Dr Kinahan, Jour. Roy. Dublin Soc. Oct. 1856), and no Crangon. More investigation will …
  • … did to the Arctic forms. Eights 1852 . Kinahan 1856 . Dana 1853 discusses the geographical …
  • … 2 (1833–52): 331–4. Kinahan, John Robert. 1856. Remarks on the habits and distribution of …
  • … of undescribed species and genera. Journal of the Royal Dublin Society 1 (1856–7): 111–34. …

To T. C. Eyton   22 [July 1857]

Summary

Sends TCE West African dog’s skin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Campbell Eyton
Date:  22 [July 1857]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.148)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2126

Matches: 1 hit

  • … animals and fowls from West Africa (see letter to T.   C. Eyton, 5 October [1856] ). …

To Asa Gray   20 July [1857]

Summary

Believes species have arisen, like domestic varieties, with much extinction, and that there are no such things as independently created species. Explains why he believes species of the same genus generally have a common or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants.

Discusses fertilisation in the bud and the insect pollination of papilionaceous flowers. His theory explains why, despite the risk of injury, cross-fertilisation is usual in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, even in hermaphrodites.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  20 July [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9b)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2125

Matches: 4 hits

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … chapter on geographical distribution (see letters to J.  D. Hooker, 30 July [1856] and [ …
  • … 16 October 1856] ). See letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 9 November 1856 . CD alluded to the cross-pollination of Fumaria by insects in …

From Asa Gray   [c. 24 May 1857]

Summary

Discusses difficulties involved in deciding which genera are protean in the light of some comments by H. C. Watson.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 24 May 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 97
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2104

Matches: 3 hits

  • … had sent CD the third part of A.  Gray 1856–7 (see letter to Asa Gray, 9 May [1857] ). CD …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …

To T. H. Huxley   9 July [1857]

Summary

Thanks THH for his cautionary response on Brullé, but departs from THH in thinking that Barnéoud, if true, would shed light on Milne-Edwards’ proposition that the wider apart classes of animals are the earlier they depart from common embryonic plan.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  9 July [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 50)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2122

Matches: 4 hits

  • … crossed, even if only occasionally (see letters to T.  H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] , 8  …
  • … July [1856] , and …
  • … 13 [December 1856] ). Such a case seemed to be presented by the freshwater Polyzoa …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s …
  • … Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by Hooker’s friend the American …
  • … only source of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed …
  • … might work in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no …
  • … remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … on plants. Expanding projects set up during 1855 and 1856 (see  Correspondence  vol. 5), he tried …
  • … first two chapters of his species book, completed by October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). …
  • … Gray, vary in the United States ( letter to Asa Gray, 2 May 1856 )? What about weeds? Did they …
  • … hermaphrodite’ ( letter to to T. H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] ), which became a source of amusement in …
  • … that Asa Gray and Hooker confirmed during the course of 1856. Science at home: the botanical …
  • … many different experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden …
  • … have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his ideas …
  • … trees (see letters to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 February 1856] and to Charles Lyell, 3 May …
  • … Waring Darwin, the sixth and last, was born on 6 December 1856) was a constant worry, particularly …
  • … in New South Wales ( letter to Syms Covington, 9 March 1856 ). Many other topics, …
  • … the geological phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into …
  • … visited the Darwins at Down House for several days in April 1856, and Darwin took this opportunity …
  • … made in a letter written by Lyell from London on 1–2 May 1856. Darwin took the suggestion seriously …
  • … him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). Darwin had also …
  • … At a second weekend party held at Down on 26 and 27 April 1856, he had discussed the question of …
  • … doctrine.’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 7 ). The excitement and intellectual …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of the …
  • … family duties (Darwin to W. B. Tegetmeier,  19 November [1856] ) made him unable to travel to many …
  • … his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal feelings …
  • … in this world.’ (Darwin to Syms Covington,  9 March 1856 ) In the late nineteenth century, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 21 JULY 1855 14  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 14 JULY 1856 15  A GRAY TO C DARWIN …
  • … 1855 23  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 9 NOVEMBER 1856 24  C DARWIN TO JD …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856 that he publish a short version of his …
  • … in persuading Darwin not to publish an abstract in 1856 , Darwin explained to whole affair to him …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …
  • … as Natural selection ). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by June 1858. At …
  • … 2 13 October 1856 [Variation under domestication] [2] …
  • … 11 13 October 1856 Geographical distribution (DAR 14; …
  • … 3 16 December 1856 On the possibility of all organic …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

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  • … research notes, including letters going back to at least 1856 . Among them were accounts of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *128: 160] Mansfield’s Paraguay [Mansfield 1856] } read Chesterton Prison Life …
  • … Hutchison Dog Breaking 3 d . Edit [Hutchinson 1856] new information on Pointer & Retriever …
  • … Annal des Sc. Nat. 4 th  Series. Bot. Vol 6 [Naudin 1856]. Read Notes to Jardine & …
  • … 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 1856–7] —— 27 th . Mem. de l’Acad. …
  • … Das Ganze der Landwirttschaft [Kirchhof 1835].— 1856. Jan 10 th  G. Colin Traite de …
  • … [Rudolphi 1812] [DAR 128: 16] 1856 Jan 21. Huc’s Chinese Empire [Huc …
  • … Mar 1 Veith Naturgeschichte Haussaugethiere [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R …
  • … 1741–55] d[itt]o [DAR 128: 17] 1856 . Jan 28. Watt’s Life by Muirhead …
  • … [Pepys 1848–9]— April 21 Sandwitt Kars [Sandwith 1856]. [DAR 128: 18] March …
  • … 1851–6] —— Wollaston on Variation [Wollaston 1856] F. Smith on Apidæ [F. Smith 1855] …
  • … 1835 [H. C. Watson 1835] [DAR 128: 20] 1856 June 26. Davis J. Barnard. …
  • … 1855] —— 19 Von Tschudi Alpine life [Tschudi 1856] 30. Brehm Handbuch Vogel …
  • … 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami [Andersson 1856] —— 26 Slightly skimmed Forbes …
  • … 1765] Oct. 23. Tracings of Iceland Chambers [Chambers 1856]. —— Mansfield Travels in …
  • … 2 vols July D r . Kane’s Arctic Voyage [Kane 1856] Sept. 12. Ch. Napiers Life …
  • … rubbish yet amusing Nov. 15. Tender & True [Spence] 1856]: H. Coverdale [Smedley [1854–6] …
  • … Travels I ever read) Sept. Froude Henry VIII [Froude 1856]. 4 vols very interesting. …
  • … —— 16 Zoologist [ Zoologist ]. up Vol. 14. 1856 May 9 th  Voyage au Pol. Sud. Consid. Gen …
  • … 1859 Feb. 28 Olmstead S. States [Olmsted 1856] (excellent) March 21. Mill on Liberty …
  • … The revised edition of Johnston’s  Physical atlas  (1856) included ‘Map of the distribution of …
  • … 113  The  Cottage Gardener  ceased publication in 1856. 114  CD marked this entry …
  • … vols. London.  119: 14a Andersson, Carl Johan. 1856.  Lake Ngami; or, explorations and   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 20a; *128: 173 ——. 1856.  Tracings of Iceland and the Faröe …
  • … [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of prison life;   …
  • … 128: 5 Davis, Joseph Barnard and Thurnam, John. 1856–65.  Crania   Britannica. …
  • … Three visits to Madagascar during   the years 1853, 1854, 1856 . London.  128: 24 …
  • … . Lundæ.  *119: 5v. Froude, James Anthony. 1856.  History of England from the   fall of …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856 ‘y ou continental extensionists …
  • … of his old friend, the geologist Charles Lyell, who, in May 1856, twenty months after Darwin had …
  • … urgency to publish and, following Lyell’s advice in May 1856, began to write a sketch his theory. ‘I …
  • … without full details. ’ Writing to his cousin Fox in June 1856, Darwin openly confessed his fears …
  • … work ’ he had ‘desisted’. By November 1856, he had both good and bad news to report to Lyell: ‘ …
  • … press. Although Darwin had decided in the autumn of 1856 to write only from the materials he …
  • … wrote ten and a half chapters of his Big Book between May 1856 and June 1858. With a total of …
  • … length ’, he had complained to Hooker in December 1856. By mid-1858, only the first chapter on …
  • … being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge University …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Owen, and Louis Agassiz (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May 1856 and 21 May 1856). But he considered …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist …
  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist Miles …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

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  • … it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855, Müller …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1979 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write up a ‘preliminary essay’ on his views in 1856, he went back to Fox to check his facts, …
  • … the African explorer and army surgeon William Daniell in 1856 was probably in reply to such a …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … `big book’,  Natural selection , begun in 1856.  Coming hard on the heels of  The descent of man …

Begins 'Natural Selection'

Summary

Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but later formed the basis for On the Origin of Species

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  • … Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

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  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Tenth child born

Summary

The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born

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  • … The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work preparing his ‘big book’ on species. Begun in May 1856 at the urging of Lyell, the manuscript …

The expression of emotions

Summary

Darwin’s work on emotional expression, from notes in his Beagle diary and observations of his own children, to questionnaires, and experiments with photographs, was an integral part of his broad research on human evolution. It provided one of the main…

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  • … his other children followed, and the record was kept through 1856. Darwin’s wife, Emma also recorded …
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