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To John Davy   25 March [1855]

Summary

Will forward JD’s paper to the Royal Society ["On the ova of salmon", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 146 (1856): 21–9].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Davy
Date:  25 Mar [1855]
Classmark:  Royal Institution of Great Britain (Box XVII, 210)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1653

Matches: 5 hits

  • … the Royal Society ["On the ova of salmon", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 146 (1856): 21–9]. …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Davy, John. 1856. On the vitality of the ova of the Salmonidæ of …
  • … to Charles Darwin, Esq. , M.A. , V.P.R.S. &c. [Read 7 February 1856. ] Proceedings …
  • … of the Royal Society of London 8 (1856–7): 27–33. …
  • … Society. It was later published as Davy 1856 . The paper was written in epistolary style …

To William and Julius Fairbeard   [October 1855 – May 1856]

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Summary

Five questions on variability in peas.

W & JF recommended to CD by Mr Cattell.

CD planted an experimental pea garden this summer.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William & Julius Fairbeard
Date:  [Oct 1855 – May 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 206: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1467

Matches: 4 hits

  • … To William and Julius Fairbeard    [October 1855 – May 1856] …
  • … 206: 38 Charles Robert Darwin unstated [Oct 1855 – May 1856] William & Julius Fairbeard …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … of 1855 or the months preceding spring 1856. For CD’s experimental work on peas, see …

From John Davy   30 January 1855

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Summary

Responds to CD’s letter. The ova of Salmonidae exposed to air, if kept moist, will stay alive up to 72 hours.

Author:  John Davy
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Jan 1855
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 227
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1634

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Edinburgh 3 (1850–7): 267–8. Davy, John. 1856. On the vitality of the ova of the Salmonidæ …
  • … to Charles Darwin, Esq. , M.A. , V.P.R.S. &c. [Read 7 February 1856. ] Proceedings …
  • … of the Royal Society of London 8 (1856–7): 27–33. …
  • … from John Davy, 21 March 1855 , and Davy 1856 . CD’s portfolio 18 contained notes on …

To the Council of the Royal Society   18 August 1855

Summary

Recommends publication of W. B. Carpenter’s paper on Orbitolites [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 146 (1856): 181–236]. Discusses style and the cost of the plates.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Council of the Royal Society
Date:  18 Aug 1855
Classmark:  The Royal Society (RR3: 38)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1744

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Orbitolites [ Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 146 (1856): 181–236]. Discusses style and the …
  • … Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 146 (1856): 181–236. …
  • … 1855 and printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London in 1856. …

From John Davy   21 March 1855

Summary

On the ova of the salmon in relation to the distribution of species.

Author:  John Davy
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 Mar 1855
Classmark:  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 146 (1856): 21–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1651A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society 146 (1856): 21–9 John Davy 21 Mar 1855 Charles Robert …
  • … in the Philosophical Transactions (Davy 1856). Experiments on impregnated ova of salmon …

To John Davy   26 March [1855]

Summary

Discusses JD’s paper ["On ova of salmon"]. His experiments are of particular value regarding power of dispersal and geographical distribution and would make of them a very different subject. Hopes JD can test again the tenacity of life of non-developed ova being less than that of those fully developed – a result which surprised CD.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Davy
Date:  26 Mar [1855]
Classmark:  Royal Institution of Great Britain (Box XVII, 210)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1654

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Bibliography Davy, John. 1856. On the vitality of the ova of the Salmonidæ of different …
  • … to Charles Darwin, Esq. , M.A. , V.P.R.S. &c. [Read 7 February 1856. ] Proceedings …
  • … of the Royal Society of London 8 (1856–7): 27–33. …
  • … Davy 1856  was received by the Royal Society on 27 March and read on 26 April 1855 ( …
  • … as usual in the Dee breeding-beds ( Davy 1856 , p.  22). Davy ascribed their death to the …

To Henry Tibbats Stainton   20 October [1855]

Summary

Would be useless to insert CD’s name [on masthead of Entomologists’ Annual] since he does not work on insects.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Tibbats Stainton
Date:  20 Oct [1855]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum, Library and Archives (General Special Collections MSS DAR 15)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1767

Matches: 3 hits

  • … third volume of the Entomologist’s Annual (1856), of which Stainton was the editor (see …
  • … third volume of the Entomologist’s Annual (1856), in which he intended to include a list …
  • … CD’s name was not included in the list ( Entomologist’s Annual 3 (1856): 14–25). …

From Francis Galton to Charles John Andersson   [after 22 February 1855]

Summary

Sends on CD’s list of enquiries about native breeds of animals in South Africa.

Author:  Francis Galton
Addressee:  Charles John (Carl Johann) Andersson
Date:  [after 22 Feb 1855]
Classmark:  National Library of South Africa, Cape Town
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1554G

Matches: 4 hits

  • … expeditions between 1850 and 1854 (Andersson 1856). Galton enclosed CD’s letter to him of …
  • … Bechuana, and Namaqua cattle in Andersson 1856, pp.  315–36. The Colony is Cape Colony, …
  • … sheep they kept in Africa, see Galton 1853, pp.  242–3, and Andersson 1856, p.  232. …
  • … descriptions of Namaqua dogs, see Andersson 1856, pp.  284–5. Galton’s letter has not been …

From Arthur Edward Knox   [c. March 1855–7?]

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Summary

CD has suggested an explanation of how pike were introduced to a remote lake in Ireland by cormorants [carrying pike spawn on their feet or in their gullets].

Author:  Arthur Edward Knox
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  Mar 1855-7
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 243
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1624

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Edward Knox unstated [c. Mar 1855? ] [c. Mar 1856? ] [c. Mar 1857? ] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …

To John Lubbock   19 [July 1855]

Summary

Congratulations to JL on finding musk-ox fossil.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  19 [July 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 1 (EH 88206446)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1720

Matches: 3 hits

  • … close to the former cold period ( R.  Owen 1856 , p.  130). See letter to John Lubbock, …
  • … vols. London: Macmillan. Owen, Richard. 1856. Description of a fossil cranium of the musk- …
  • … fossil skull was described in R.  Owen 1856 . The discovery of the remains of this Arctic …

To Asa Gray   21 July [1855]

Summary

Geographical distribution. "Close" species. Hopes AG will write an essay on species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  21 July [1855]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (3)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1725

Matches: 2 hits

  • … from Asa Gray, 30 June 1855 . A.  Gray 1856–7 . See letter from Asa Gray, 22 May 1855 . …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …

To W. E. Darwin   29 [November 1855]

Summary

Is sorry to hear that WED has been ill.

Discusses pigeons and his pigeon work.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  29 [Nov 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1689

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Bibliography Brent, Bernard Peirce. 1856. Classification of pigeons. Cottage Gardener and …
  • … fancier and contributor to the Cottage Gardener . In 1856 he published a short article …
  • … on the classification of pigeons ( Brent 1856 ). Robert Mackintosh, Fanny Mackintosh …

To J. D. Hooker   11 May [1855]

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Summary

JDH to be appointed Assistant Director at Kew.

On where to publish seed-salting paper. Floating problem perhaps more important than germination.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 May [1855]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 131
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1680

Matches: 3 hits

  • … J.  D. Hooker, 25 August 1854 . Binney was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1856. …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … report at the Linnean Society on 6 May 1856 (see Collected papers 1: 264–73). See letter …

CD memorandum   [December 1855]

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Summary

Requests skins of domestic breeds or races of poultry, pigeons, rabbits, cats, and dogs from any unfrequented region. [Attached is a list of people to whom CD has written for pigeon and poultry skins.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  [Dec 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 206: 34–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1812

Matches: 3 hits

  • … vol.  6, letter from Peter Wallace, 10 September 1856 . See Correspondence vol.   …
  • … 6, letter to Walter Elliot, 23 January 1856 . …
  • … William Freeman Daniell, 8 October – 7 November 1856 . Nathan Davis. See letter to Charles …

To ?   7 December [1855–7?]

Summary

Concerning specimens he wants collected in the Azores.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  7 Dec [1855-7]
Classmark:  DAR 249: 93 (photocopy)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13867A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 249: 93 (photocopy) Charles Robert Darwin 7 Dec 1855 7 Dec 1856 7 Dec 1857 Unidentified …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   [2 December 1855]

Summary

Raises queries resulting from their meeting. "All fish come to my net in regard to variation."

Is acquiring pigeons and poultry and would be particularly grateful for any of the rarer breeds that WBT could supply.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  [2 Dec 1855]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1788

Matches: 3 hits

  • … the skulls of Polish fowl at the 25  November 1856 meeting of the Zoological Society, …
  • … reported in the Proceedings ( Tegetmeier 1856 ). As CD described in Variation 1: 266, the …
  • … 1802–1967. Tegetmeier, William Bernhard. 1856. On the remarkable peculiarities existing in …

To Asa Gray   24 August [1855]

Summary

"Close" species in large and small genera.

Alphonse de Candolle on geographical distribution [Géographie botanique raisonnée (1855)].

Species variability.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  24 Aug [1855]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (10)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1749

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … s Journal of Botany ( J.  D. Hooker 1856 ). George Robert Waterhouse had first formulated …
  • … Vols. 5,7] Hooker, Joseph Dalton. 1856. Review of Géographie botanique raisonnée . . . par …

To G. R. Waterhouse   4 March [1855]

Summary

A page of [unspecified] text is missing from a parcel of material received from GRW.

CD "hopes and expects to live to see Carboniferous, & perhaps even Silurian, mammifers!"

Has several questions to ask whenever they meet.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Robert Waterhouse
Date:  4 Mar [1855]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum, Library and Archives (Archives DF PAL/100/7/29)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1641

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of natural phenomena (A.  K. Johnston ed. 1856). CD’s copy of the text of Waterhouse’s …
  • … 93). In the revised edition (A.  K. Johnston ed. 1856, p.  91) the remarks are unaltered. …
  • … 38–43). Probably a copy of A.  K. Johnston ed. 1856. CD refers to the form of the cusps on …

To T. H. Huxley   3 [September 1855]

Summary

Approves drawing. No one who cannot draw should attempt to be a naturalist. Suggests corrections to [Lepas?] drawing. Comments on position of ganglia, cement glands, and stomach.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  3 [Sept 1855]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 18)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1759

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and, according to an announcement in the Athenæum , 16 February 1856, commenced on …
  • … 20 February 1856. Some of the diagrams prepared at Tenby in 1855 appeared …
  • … printed in the Medical Times and Gazette during 1856 and 1857), and the cirripede drawings …

To T. C. Eyton   9 December [1855]

Summary

Vexed he cannot find head of [Chinese] dog.

First took up skeletonising to see how much young pigeons and poultry differed from the old.

Wishes to ascertain differences in skeletons of pigeons, poultry, covey birds, and rabbits. William Yarrell has shown CD breastbones. W. B. Tegetmeier has shown him skulls of fowls.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Campbell Eyton
Date:  9 Dec [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.117)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1793

Matches: 2 hits

  • … the second edition ( Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, *119: 13v. ). Tegetmeier 1856 . …
  • … Press. 1985–. Tegetmeier, William Bernhard. 1856. On the remarkable peculiarities existing …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s …
  • … Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by Hooker’s friend the American …
  • … only source of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed …
  • … might work in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no …
  • … remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … on plants. Expanding projects set up during 1855 and 1856 (see  Correspondence  vol. 5), he tried …
  • … first two chapters of his species book, completed by October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). …
  • … Gray, vary in the United States ( letter to Asa Gray, 2 May 1856 )? What about weeds? Did they …
  • … hermaphrodite’ ( letter to to T. H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] ), which became a source of amusement in …
  • … that Asa Gray and Hooker confirmed during the course of 1856. Science at home: the botanical …
  • … many different experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden …
  • … have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his ideas …
  • … trees (see letters to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 February 1856] and to Charles Lyell, 3 May …
  • … Waring Darwin, the sixth and last, was born on 6 December 1856) was a constant worry, particularly …
  • … in New South Wales ( letter to Syms Covington, 9 March 1856 ). Many other topics, …
  • … the geological phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into …
  • … visited the Darwins at Down House for several days in April 1856, and Darwin took this opportunity …
  • … made in a letter written by Lyell from London on 1–2 May 1856. Darwin took the suggestion seriously …
  • … him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). Darwin had also …
  • … At a second weekend party held at Down on 26 and 27 April 1856, he had discussed the question of …
  • … doctrine.’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 7 ). The excitement and intellectual …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of the …
  • … family duties (Darwin to W. B. Tegetmeier,  19 November [1856] ) made him unable to travel to many …
  • … his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal feelings …
  • … in this world.’ (Darwin to Syms Covington,  9 March 1856 ) In the late nineteenth century, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 21 JULY 1855 14  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 14 JULY 1856 15  A GRAY TO C DARWIN …
  • … 1855 23  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 9 NOVEMBER 1856 24  C DARWIN TO JD …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856 that he publish a short version of his …
  • … in persuading Darwin not to publish an abstract in 1856 , Darwin explained to whole affair to him …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …
  • … as Natural selection ). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by June 1858. At …
  • … 2 13 October 1856 [Variation under domestication] [2] …
  • … 11 13 October 1856 Geographical distribution (DAR 14; …
  • … 3 16 December 1856 On the possibility of all organic …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … research notes, including letters going back to at least 1856 . Among them were accounts of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *128: 160] Mansfield’s Paraguay [Mansfield 1856] } read Chesterton Prison Life …
  • … Hutchison Dog Breaking 3 d . Edit [Hutchinson 1856] new information on Pointer & Retriever …
  • … Annal des Sc. Nat. 4 th  Series. Bot. Vol 6 [Naudin 1856]. Read Notes to Jardine & …
  • … 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 1856–7] —— 27 th . Mem. de l’Acad. …
  • … Das Ganze der Landwirttschaft [Kirchhof 1835].— 1856. Jan 10 th  G. Colin Traite de …
  • … [Rudolphi 1812] [DAR 128: 16] 1856 Jan 21. Huc’s Chinese Empire [Huc …
  • … Mar 1 Veith Naturgeschichte Haussaugethiere [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R …
  • … 1741–55] d[itt]o [DAR 128: 17] 1856 . Jan 28. Watt’s Life by Muirhead …
  • … [Pepys 1848–9]— April 21 Sandwitt Kars [Sandwith 1856]. [DAR 128: 18] March …
  • … 1851–6] —— Wollaston on Variation [Wollaston 1856] F. Smith on Apidæ [F. Smith 1855] …
  • … 1835 [H. C. Watson 1835] [DAR 128: 20] 1856 June 26. Davis J. Barnard. …
  • … 1855] —— 19 Von Tschudi Alpine life [Tschudi 1856] 30. Brehm Handbuch Vogel …
  • … 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami [Andersson 1856] —— 26 Slightly skimmed Forbes …
  • … 1765] Oct. 23. Tracings of Iceland Chambers [Chambers 1856]. —— Mansfield Travels in …
  • … 2 vols July D r . Kane’s Arctic Voyage [Kane 1856] Sept. 12. Ch. Napiers Life …
  • … rubbish yet amusing Nov. 15. Tender & True [Spence] 1856]: H. Coverdale [Smedley [1854–6] …
  • … Travels I ever read) Sept. Froude Henry VIII [Froude 1856]. 4 vols very interesting. …
  • … —— 16 Zoologist [ Zoologist ]. up Vol. 14. 1856 May 9 th  Voyage au Pol. Sud. Consid. Gen …
  • … 1859 Feb. 28 Olmstead S. States [Olmsted 1856] (excellent) March 21. Mill on Liberty …
  • … The revised edition of Johnston’s  Physical atlas  (1856) included ‘Map of the distribution of …
  • … 113  The  Cottage Gardener  ceased publication in 1856. 114  CD marked this entry …
  • … vols. London.  119: 14a Andersson, Carl Johan. 1856.  Lake Ngami; or, explorations and   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 20a; *128: 173 ——. 1856.  Tracings of Iceland and the Faröe …
  • … [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of prison life;   …
  • … 128: 5 Davis, Joseph Barnard and Thurnam, John. 1856–65.  Crania   Britannica. …
  • … Three visits to Madagascar during   the years 1853, 1854, 1856 . London.  128: 24 …
  • … . Lundæ.  *119: 5v. Froude, James Anthony. 1856.  History of England from the   fall of …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856 ‘y ou continental extensionists …
  • … of his old friend, the geologist Charles Lyell, who, in May 1856, twenty months after Darwin had …
  • … urgency to publish and, following Lyell’s advice in May 1856, began to write a sketch his theory. ‘I …
  • … without full details. ’ Writing to his cousin Fox in June 1856, Darwin openly confessed his fears …
  • … work ’ he had ‘desisted’. By November 1856, he had both good and bad news to report to Lyell: ‘ …
  • … press. Although Darwin had decided in the autumn of 1856 to write only from the materials he …
  • … wrote ten and a half chapters of his Big Book between May 1856 and June 1858. With a total of …
  • … length ’, he had complained to Hooker in December 1856. By mid-1858, only the first chapter on …
  • … being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge University …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Owen, and Louis Agassiz (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May 1856 and 21 May 1856). But he considered …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist …
  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist Miles …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855, Müller …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1979 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

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  • … to write up a ‘preliminary essay’ on his views in 1856, he went back to Fox to check his facts, …
  • … the African explorer and army surgeon William Daniell in 1856 was probably in reply to such a …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

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  • … `big book’,  Natural selection , begun in 1856.  Coming hard on the heels of  The descent of man …

Begins 'Natural Selection'

Summary

Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but later formed the basis for On the Origin of Species

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  • … Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

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  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Tenth child born

Summary

The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born

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  • … The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

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  • … work preparing his ‘big book’ on species. Begun in May 1856 at the urging of Lyell, the manuscript …

The expression of emotions

Summary

Darwin’s work on emotional expression, from notes in his Beagle diary and observations of his own children, to questionnaires, and experiments with photographs, was an integral part of his broad research on human evolution. It provided one of the main…

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  • … his other children followed, and the record was kept through 1856. Darwin’s wife, Emma also recorded …
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