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To J. D. Hooker   11 May [1856]

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Summary

CD is unsure about JDH’s recommendation that he publish a separate "Preliminary Essay". It is unphilosophical to publish without full details.

CD will work for Huxley’s admission to Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 May [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 162
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1874

Matches: 19 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   11 May [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 162 Charles Robert Darwin Down 11 May [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … See letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 . On 14 May, CD followed Lyell’s advice and …
  • … by the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 May 1856 , and the letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] . Letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 7 May 1856 . The other one, now missing, was a response to the letter …
  • … to J.  D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] . See letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 7 May 1856 . Burlington House, Piccadilly. The Linnean Society had lobbied the …
  • … Smith, Elder & Co. 1842. Forbes, Edward. 1856. Map of the distribution of marine life, …
  • … vols. Edinburgh and London. Gosse, Philip Henry. 1856. Tenby: a sea-side holiday. London. …
  • … council with CD. CD probably refers to P.  H. Gosse 1856 , a guide to the seaside town of …
  • … Tenby, which had been published in April 1856 ( Publishers’ Circular , …
  • … 15 April 1856, p.  164). CD was planning a visit to …
  • … see letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 11 May [1856] ). CD had presented this paper, ‘On certain …
  • … by the Treasury in a letter, dated 22 May 1856, addressed to the president of the Royal …
  • … Richardson for a Royal Medal in June 1856 for his work in natural history and physical …
  • … medal in November (Royal Society council minutes). E.  Forbes 1856 . See letters to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 7 May 1856, n.   …
  • … 13, and 9 May [1856]. Philip de Malpas Grey-Egerton was a member of the Royal Society …

To J. D. Hooker   17–8 [June 1856]

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Summary

Comments on Huxley–Falconer dispute [see "On the method of palaeontology", Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 18 (1856): 43–54].

Wollaston’s On the variation of species [1856].

Has exploded to Lyell against the extension of continents.

Plants common to Europe and NW. America as result of temperate climate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  17–18 [June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 170
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1904

Matches: 17 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   17–8 [June 1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 170 Charles Robert Darwin Down 17–18 [June 1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … dispute [see "On the method of palaeontology", Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 18 (1856): 43–54]. …
  • … Wollaston’s On the variation of species [1856]. Has exploded to Lyell against the …
  • … books. London: Macmillan. Falconer, Hugh. 1856. On Prof. Huxley’s attempted refutation of …
  • … Dated by the reference to Falconer 1856 (see n.  2, below). …
  • … Falconer’s strongly worded defence ( Falconer 1856 ) of Georges Cuvier’s palaeontological …
  • … For CD’s first response to the argument, see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 21 [May 1856] . …
  • … CD’s copy of Falconer 1856  is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. Huxley had asked: ‘ …
  • … it is worth your reading. Letter from Charles Lyell, 17 June 1856 . The Philosophical Club …
  • … of the Royal Society met on 19 June 1856 ( Bonney 1919 ). CD was in London from 18 to 21  …
  • … Lovell Reeve. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …
  • … both placental and marsupial forms ( Falconer 1856 , pp.  91–2). Richard Owen was the most …
  • … pencil by an unidentified hand. Wollaston 1856 . This remark is not in an extant letter; …
  • … but see letter to T.  V. Wollaston, 6 June [1856] . CD refers to the introductory essay of …
  • … fixity of plant species. See letter to Charles Lyell, 16 [June 1856] . In a letter to T.   …
  • … H. Huxley dated ‘June? 1856’ in L.  Huxley ed. 1918, 1: 427, Hooker expressed his …

From J. D. Hooker   [26 June or 3 July 1856]

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Summary

Can no longer make out story of NW. American plants; consulting Asa Gray.

Questionable validity of seed-salting experiments.

Aristolochia and Viscum seem to shed pollen before flower opens.

Ray Society should only do translations.

Thomas Thomson in India has rediscovered Aldrovanda, a rare relative of Drosera.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 June or 3 July] 1856
Classmark:  DAR 104: 197
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1911

Matches: 15 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [26 June or 3 July 1856] …
  • … DAR 104: 197 Joseph Dalton Hooker Kew 26 June 1856 3 …
  • … July 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … 1975. Siebold, Karl Theodor Ernst von. 1856. Wahre Parthenogenesis bei Schmetterlingen und …
  • … dates are the two Thursdays between the letters to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] and …
  • … 5 [July 1856] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] . CD was anxious to ascertain whether any of the plants that …
  • … Watson (letter from H.  C. Watson, 5 June 1856) whether these species were known to range …
  • … question (see letter to Asa Gray, 14 July [1856] ). Hooker was mistaken in his observation …
  • … and letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 ). Ludwig Radlkofer was an authority on both …
  • … Die Befruchtung der Phanerogamen (Leipzig, 1856). In 1857 and 1858  he published studies …
  • … s researches on parthenogenesis ( Siebold 1856 ). Siebold overturned Richard Owen’s …
  • … Farley 1982 , pp.  100–5. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] . See letter to T.   …
  • … H. Huxley, 4 May [1856] , in which the financial difficulties of the Ray Society were …

To J. D. Hooker   5 July [1856]

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Troubled by JDH’s connection between Antarctic island flora and Fuegia, which CD sees as part of a general relation to southern circumpolar flora. Encloses list [not found] of plants from Tristan d’Acunha.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1919

Matches: 17 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   5 July [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 167 Charles Robert Darwin Down 5 July [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … the second written to J.  D. Hooker on 5 July 1856. CD states that his first letter was …
  • … Lyell (see letter to Charles Lyell, 5 July [1856] ). The original order of the letters has …
  • … Hooker’. A subscription was opened in June 1856 to pay the expenses for moving the Linnean …
  • … House MS) has an entry for this payment on 22 February 1857. Wollaston 1856 , pp.  105–6. …
  • … Hooker 1844–7 , 2: 210–11). See the first letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 [July 1856] . A.  de …
  • … Candolle 1855 . Letter to Charles Lyell, 25 June [1856] . …
  • … Letter from Charles Lyell, [1 July 1856] . See …
  • … letter to Charles Lyell, 5 July [1856] . CD reiterated this intention in his letter to …
  • … J.  D. Hooker, 13 July [1856] . It seems that Lyell did not forward the letter to Hooker, …
  • … it to Hooker, enclosed with his letter to J.  D. Hooker, 30 July [1856] . Letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] , n.  2. See letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] . See letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] , n.  8. A.  P. de Candolle 1820 , p.  406, in which …
  • … Lovell Reeve. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …

From J. D. Hooker   10 July 1856

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[T. Bell Salter’s?] "hybrid" Epilobium a false claim.

Admires Huxley’s response to Falconer [see 1904].

Tristan da Cunha plant list, requested by CD, supports JDH’s position [on continental extension?].

Chilean plants not exceptional.

JDH considers parallels between Australian Alps and European plants strong evidence for multiple creations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 96–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1923

Matches: 16 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   10 July 1856
  • … DAR 100: 96–9 Joseph Dalton Hooker Kew 10 July 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … D. Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] , and letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . CD had asked Hooker whether he could confirm Thomas Vernon …
  • … of the same point in the insect kingdom (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] ). …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Falconer, Hugh. 1856. On Prof. Huxley’s attempted refutation of …
  • … D. Hooker, 21 [May 1856] and 17– …
  • … 18 [June 1856]. T.  H. Huxley 1855. …
  • … See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 [July 1856] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 8 [July 1856] , n.  3. The list was annotated by Hooker, giving brief …
  • … of the colony. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . See letter from J.   …
  • … n.s. 17: 476–93. Henslow, John Stevens. 1856. On the triticoidal forms of Ægilops and on …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … letter from J.  D. Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] . John Stevens Henslow described his …
  • … of Science held in Cheltenham ( Henslow 1856 ). He had intended to test the claim made by …
  • … provinces. T.  H. Huxley 1856b, a response to Falconer 1856 . See letters to J.   …

To J. D. Hooker   9 October [1856]

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CD coming to London.

Read JDH’s review [Hooker’s Kew J. Bot. 8 (1856): 54–64 et seq.] of Alphonse de Candolle’s Géographie botanique raisonnée [1855] long ago.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  9 Oct [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 180
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1971

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   9 October [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 180 Charles Robert Darwin Down 9 Oct [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … with whom CD usually stayed when in London. [J.  D. Hooker] 1856. See letters to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 5 August [1856] and …
  • … 7 August [1856] . …
  • … JDH’s review [ Hooker’s Kew J. Bot. 8 (1856): 54–64 et seq. ] of Alphonse de Candolle’s …
  • … his experimental records. On 15 October 1856, Emma Darwin recorded in her diary: ‘Ch went …

To J. D. Hooker   21 [May 1856]

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Huxley’s "vehement" [Royal Institution?] Lectures make it difficult to propose him for Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  21 [May 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 163
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1876

Matches: 12 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   21 [May 1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 163 Charles Robert Darwin Down 21 [May 1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … books. London: Macmillan. Falconer, Hugh. 1856. On Prof. Huxley’s attempted refutation of …
  • … history’, published in the Medical Times & Gazette ( T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 ). The first two …
  • … printed in issues dated 3 May and 17 May 1856, deliberately attacked Richard Owen’s …
  • … of life ( Medical Times & Gazette 12 (1856): 430), Owen’ s apparent lack of reference to …
  • … London: Lovell Reeve. Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1856–7. Lectures on general natural history. …
  • … proposed for election to the Athenæum Club in 1856 but was elected in 1858 under Rule 2, …
  • … issue of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History ( Falconer 1856 ). See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 17–18 [June 1856] . The Philosophical Club of the Royal Society. CD …
  • … council of the Royal Society on Thursday, 30 May 1856 (Royal Society council minutes). The …
  • … on N.  Zealand Flora *In conversation May 1856 [ added pencil ]’, CD wrote: ‘The Casuarinæ …

To J. D. Hooker   10 December [1856]

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CD is convinced of relation between separation of sexes and tree-habit.

Recent hard blows against crossing theory.

CD long tormented by land molluscs on oceanic islands; found transport possible experimentally.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  10 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 186
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2018

Matches: 12 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   10 December [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 186 Charles Robert Darwin Down 10 Dec [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . Persoon 1805–7 . CD discussed this point …
  • … selection , pp.  61–2. See letter to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] , letter from H.   …
  • … C. Watson, 26 November 1856 , and letter to …
  • … George Bentham, 30 November [1856] . The difficulties that CD felt in relation to the …
  • … V. Wollaston, [11 or 18 December 1856] . …
  • … CD’s experiment, dated 3 December 1856, is recorded in his Experimental book, p.  17 (DAR …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … 35–91). It was completed on 16 December 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). See letter from …
  • … J.  D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . See letter to P.   …
  • … H. Gosse, 28 September 1856 , n.  4, and the letter from T.   …

To J. D. Hooker   1 December [1856]

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Questions JDH on separation of sexes in trees in New Zealand flora.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 185
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2008

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   1 December [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 185 Charles Robert Darwin Down 1 Dec [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 24 December [1856] ). Hooker had previously identified other …
  • … seeds from birds’ dung for CD (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 22 November 1856 ). …
  • … crossing of trees, also discussed in the letters to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] and …
  • … 30 November [1856] . See …
  • … letters to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] and …
  • … 30 November [1856] . CD addressed the question of the crossing of trees in Natural …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . CD’s results are given in Natural selection , …

From J. D. Hooker   4 August 1856

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JDH’s arguments against transmutation: 1. Plants do not show the confusion he would expect; 2. Under clearly similar physical conditions we do not find same species.

JDH’s argument against migration: commonality of alpine species. Believes migration opposes facts of botanical distribution in Van Diemen’s Land and New Zealand; prefers continental extension theory.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Aug 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 100–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1937

Matches: 13 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   4 August 1856
  • … DAR 100: 100–4 Joseph Dalton Hooker unstated 4 Aug 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … delivered at the Royal Institution on 6 June 1856 ( …
  • … Tyndall 1856 ), John Tyndall discussed cleavage in rocks and other solids with the …
  • … 1985–. Godwin-Austen, Robert Alfred Cloyne. 1856. On the possible extension of the coal- …
  • … See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 30 July [1856] . …
  • … Godwin-Austen 1856  was read at a meeting of the Geological Society of London on 30 May …
  • … Aug 4 th . 1856 – Dear Darwin Thanks for Lyells letters which are very tough reading— I …
  • … in 1860 (J.  D. Hooker 1855[–60]). See letter from Charles Lyell, 17 June 1856 . See …
  • … letter to Charles Lyell, 5 July [1856] . An allusion to the transmutationist views …
  • … creation ( [Chambers] 1844 ). See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 30 July [1856] . In a lecture …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … University Press. 1975. Tyndall, John. 1856. Comparative view of the cleavage of crystals …

To J. D. Hooker   7 August [1856]

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Antarctic plants most difficult to account for on any theory. Lyell’s iceberg transportal of seeds.

Are there more representative species of American origin in Tristan da Cunha than in Kerguelen land?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 Aug [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 174
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1940

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   7 August [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 174 Charles Robert Darwin Down 7 Aug [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … selection , p.  561). Hooker’s review of A.  de Candolle 1855 ([J.  D. Hooker] 1856). …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 , in which Hooker’s list of Tristan d’Acunha …
  • … referred to, and by the reference to [J.  D. Hooker] 1856 (see n.  6, below). See letter …
  • … to J.  D. Hooker, 5 [July 1856] , n.  4. For CD’s difficulties in interpreting the flora …
  • … see also letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . See Natural selection , pp.  560–5. See …

To J. D. Hooker   [early December 1856]

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Sends JDH part of MS for chapter 3 of Natural selection ["Possibility of all organic beings crossing"] to be corrected and returned.

JDH’s report of Podostemon flowering cleistogamously under water in Bengal.

[Copious revision by JDH.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [early Dec 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 205.5: 213
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1974

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   [early December 1856] …
  • … see Natural selection , p.  63. See letter to T.  H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] and n.  2. …
  • … DAR 205.5: 213 Charles Robert Darwin Down [early Dec 1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … flower under water. See letters from C.  C. Babington, 22 November 1856, and from H.   …
  • … C. Watson, 26 November 1856. CD referred to the crossing of these aquatic plants in …
  • … the chapter on crossing on 16 December 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). The following …
  • … from J.  D. Hooker, [early December 1856] ). CD put three reversed interrogation marks …

To J. D. Hooker   [16 October 1856]

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Note accompanying MS of part of chapter 11 ["Geographical distribution"] of Natural selection [1975].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [16 Oct 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 50: E9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1965

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker    [16 October 1856] …
  • … DAR 50: E9 Charles Robert Darwin Down [16 Oct 1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … manuscript had been completed on 13 October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II) and was read by …
  • … Hooker by 9 November (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 9 November 1856 ). …
  • … distribution for his book on species (see letters to J.  D. Hooker, 13 July [1856] and …
  • … 28 September [1856] ). The fair copy is now in DAR 14. The date of the letter is that of …
  • … letter to J.  D. Hooker, 28 September [1856] ). Although it is possible that CD sent the …

From J. D. Hooker   [16 November 1856]

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JDH not happy with CD’s explanation of the absence of north temperate forms in the Southern Hemisphere, given his explanation for the spread of sub-arctic forms to the south. [CD’s note is in response to JDH’s criticism.]

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [16 Nov 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 162–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1622

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [16 November 1856] …
  • … and animals. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [ 1856] , and J.  Browne 1983 . …
  • … DAR 100: 162–3 Joseph Dalton Hooker Kew [16 Nov 1856] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … The Sunday after the letter to J.  D. Hooker, 15 November [1856] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 15 November [1856] . This note follows the letter in DAR 100: 163. In Natural …

To J. D. Hooker   28 September [1856]

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Summary

Will send MS on one point of geographical distribution. It is "of infinite importance" that JDH see it, for CD has never felt such difficulty in deciding what to do.

Wants capsules of aquatic plants, to float in sea-water.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  28 Sept [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 177
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1963

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   28 September [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 177 Charles Robert Darwin Down 28 Sept [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] . Both Hooker and CD attended the 16 October meeting of the …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … distribution, which was completed in October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). The list has …
  • … in letter to J.  D. Hooker, 26 [July 1856] . The forty pages of manuscript relating to …
  • … CD wanted Hooker to read (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 13 July [1856] ). Letter to J.   …

To J. D. Hooker   8 September [1856]

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Whether or not there should be movement of particles according to Tyndall’s theory of glacial action ["Observations on glaciers", Not. Proc. R. Inst. G. B. 2: 54–8, 441–3].

CD subscribes to H. C. Sorby’s view of gneiss [Edinburgh New Philos. J. 55 (1853): 137–50].

Seed-salting.

Pigeons.

Significant differences in skeletons of domesticated rabbits.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  8 Sept [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 176
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1950

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   8 September [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 176 Charles Robert Darwin Down 8 Sept [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … month of pregnancy. Her last child, Charles Waring Darwin, was born on 6 December 1856. …
  • … 64, 66–86. [Vols. 5,6] Sorby, Henry Clifton. 1856. On the microscopical structure of mica- …
  • … ed. 1900, 1: 145, and Eve and Creasey 1945, p.  64). Tyndall 1856 . See letter to J.   …
  • … of the sections, p. 78. Tyndall, John. 1856. Comparative view of the cleavage of crystals …
  • … 8 . See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] . George Bentham. CD refers to the brief …
  • … 7. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] , n.  2. Hooker wrote the following note at …
  • … D. Hooker, 5 August [1856] . …
  • … Sorby 1856 . Henry Clifton Sorby proposed that cleavage took place when metamorphosed …

To J. D. Hooker   24 December [1856]

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On the variety of species definitions prevalent among naturalists.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  24 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 187
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2022

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   24 December [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 187 Charles Robert Darwin Down 24 Dec [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … identified some of the seeds for him (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 22 November 1856 ). …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … in Leguminosae, which extended through the autumn and winter of 1856 (see letter to …
  • … George Bentham, 26 November [1856] ). CD had tried to ascertain the probability …
  • … in the Leguminosae (see letter to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] , and letter to …
  • … George Bentham, 30 November [1856] ). No reference is made to Hooker in the discussion of …

To J. D. Hooker   13 July [1856]

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Summary

Has found no case of Huxley’s eternal hermaphrodites.

Cruelty and waste in nature.

CD does not believe in hybrids.

One proven case of multiple creations would smash CD’s theory.

Asks JDH to read MS on alpine and Arctic distribution.

Lyell’s "conversion" to mutability.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  13 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1924

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   13 July [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 169 Charles Robert Darwin Down 13 July [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … by the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 . See letter to T.   …
  • … H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] , n.  2. See letter to …
  • … T.  H. Huxley, 8 July [1856] . See the final paragraph of the letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker. 10 July 1856. Loiseleur Deslongchamps 1842–3 . …
  • … pp.  531, 534–66). See letter to Charles Lyell, 5 July [1856] and n.  7. See letter …
  • … to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . CD had previously met Philip Henry Stanhope at Stanhope’ …
  • … recorded having read this work on 5 April 1856 ( Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, 128: …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …

To J. D. Hooker   5 October [1856]

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Summary

Agrees with JDH that Cytisus report [presumably of a large change] not sound. CD pleased because, if true, species would change too quickly.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 Oct [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 178
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1969

Matches: 5 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   5 October [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 178 Charles Robert Darwin Down 5 Oct [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … the letter to J.  D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] . It is not clear from the correspondence …
  • … what seeds CD had requested. See letters to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] and …
  • … 8 September [1856] . …

To J. D. Hooker   18 November [1856]

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Summary

CD encloses letter from Asa Gray, although it is critical of JDH.

Role of struggle in forming species in retreat from advancing glaciers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  18 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 183
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1991

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   18 November [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 183 Charles Robert Darwin Down 18 Nov [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … relationship to the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 (see n.  2, below). A letter to …
  • … from Asa Gray, sent by Gray to CD enclosed in the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . …
  • … Letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . See letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, [16 November 1856] . This experiment was recorded in CD’s Experimental book, …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s …
  • … Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by Hooker’s friend the American …
  • … only source of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed …
  • … might work in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no …
  • … remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … on plants. Expanding projects set up during 1855 and 1856 (see  Correspondence  vol. 5), he tried …
  • … first two chapters of his species book, completed by October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). …
  • … Gray, vary in the United States ( letter to Asa Gray, 2 May 1856 )? What about weeds? Did they …
  • … hermaphrodite’ ( letter to to T. H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] ), which became a source of amusement in …
  • … that Asa Gray and Hooker confirmed during the course of 1856. Science at home: the botanical …
  • … many different experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden …
  • … have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his ideas …
  • … trees (see letters to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 February 1856] and to Charles Lyell, 3 May …
  • … Waring Darwin, the sixth and last, was born on 6 December 1856) was a constant worry, particularly …
  • … in New South Wales ( letter to Syms Covington, 9 March 1856 ). Many other topics, …
  • … the geological phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into …
  • … visited the Darwins at Down House for several days in April 1856, and Darwin took this opportunity …
  • … made in a letter written by Lyell from London on 1–2 May 1856. Darwin took the suggestion seriously …
  • … him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). Darwin had also …
  • … At a second weekend party held at Down on 26 and 27 April 1856, he had discussed the question of …
  • … doctrine.’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 7 ). The excitement and intellectual …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of the …
  • … family duties (Darwin to W. B. Tegetmeier,  19 November [1856] ) made him unable to travel to many …
  • … his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal feelings …
  • … in this world.’ (Darwin to Syms Covington,  9 March 1856 ) In the late nineteenth century, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 21 JULY 1855 14  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 14 JULY 1856 15  A GRAY TO C DARWIN …
  • … 1855 23  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 9 NOVEMBER 1856 24  C DARWIN TO JD …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856 that he publish a short version of his …
  • … in persuading Darwin not to publish an abstract in 1856 , Darwin explained to whole affair to him …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …
  • … as Natural selection ). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by June 1858. At …
  • … 2 13 October 1856 [Variation under domestication] [2] …
  • … 11 13 October 1856 Geographical distribution (DAR 14; …
  • … 3 16 December 1856 On the possibility of all organic …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … research notes, including letters going back to at least 1856 . Among them were accounts of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *128: 160] Mansfield’s Paraguay [Mansfield 1856] } read Chesterton Prison Life …
  • … Hutchison Dog Breaking 3 d . Edit [Hutchinson 1856] new information on Pointer & Retriever …
  • … Annal des Sc. Nat. 4 th  Series. Bot. Vol 6 [Naudin 1856]. Read Notes to Jardine & …
  • … 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 1856–7] —— 27 th . Mem. de l’Acad. …
  • … Das Ganze der Landwirttschaft [Kirchhof 1835].— 1856. Jan 10 th  G. Colin Traite de …
  • … [Rudolphi 1812] [DAR 128: 16] 1856 Jan 21. Huc’s Chinese Empire [Huc …
  • … Mar 1 Veith Naturgeschichte Haussaugethiere [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R …
  • … 1741–55] d[itt]o [DAR 128: 17] 1856 . Jan 28. Watt’s Life by Muirhead …
  • … [Pepys 1848–9]— April 21 Sandwitt Kars [Sandwith 1856]. [DAR 128: 18] March …
  • … 1851–6] —— Wollaston on Variation [Wollaston 1856] F. Smith on Apidæ [F. Smith 1855] …
  • … 1835 [H. C. Watson 1835] [DAR 128: 20] 1856 June 26. Davis J. Barnard. …
  • … 1855] —— 19 Von Tschudi Alpine life [Tschudi 1856] 30. Brehm Handbuch Vogel …
  • … 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami [Andersson 1856] —— 26 Slightly skimmed Forbes …
  • … 1765] Oct. 23. Tracings of Iceland Chambers [Chambers 1856]. —— Mansfield Travels in …
  • … 2 vols July D r . Kane’s Arctic Voyage [Kane 1856] Sept. 12. Ch. Napiers Life …
  • … rubbish yet amusing Nov. 15. Tender & True [Spence] 1856]: H. Coverdale [Smedley [1854–6] …
  • … Travels I ever read) Sept. Froude Henry VIII [Froude 1856]. 4 vols very interesting. …
  • … —— 16 Zoologist [ Zoologist ]. up Vol. 14. 1856 May 9 th  Voyage au Pol. Sud. Consid. Gen …
  • … 1859 Feb. 28 Olmstead S. States [Olmsted 1856] (excellent) March 21. Mill on Liberty …
  • … The revised edition of Johnston’s  Physical atlas  (1856) included ‘Map of the distribution of …
  • … 113  The  Cottage Gardener  ceased publication in 1856. 114  CD marked this entry …
  • … vols. London.  119: 14a Andersson, Carl Johan. 1856.  Lake Ngami; or, explorations and   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 20a; *128: 173 ——. 1856.  Tracings of Iceland and the Faröe …
  • … [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of prison life;   …
  • … 128: 5 Davis, Joseph Barnard and Thurnam, John. 1856–65.  Crania   Britannica. …
  • … Three visits to Madagascar during   the years 1853, 1854, 1856 . London.  128: 24 …
  • … . Lundæ.  *119: 5v. Froude, James Anthony. 1856.  History of England from the   fall of …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856 ‘y ou continental extensionists …
  • … of his old friend, the geologist Charles Lyell, who, in May 1856, twenty months after Darwin had …
  • … urgency to publish and, following Lyell’s advice in May 1856, began to write a sketch his theory. ‘I …
  • … without full details. ’ Writing to his cousin Fox in June 1856, Darwin openly confessed his fears …
  • … work ’ he had ‘desisted’. By November 1856, he had both good and bad news to report to Lyell: ‘ …
  • … press. Although Darwin had decided in the autumn of 1856 to write only from the materials he …
  • … wrote ten and a half chapters of his Big Book between May 1856 and June 1858. With a total of …
  • … length ’, he had complained to Hooker in December 1856. By mid-1858, only the first chapter on …
  • … being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge University …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Owen, and Louis Agassiz (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May 1856 and 21 May 1856). But he considered …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist …
  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist Miles …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855, Müller …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1979 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write up a ‘preliminary essay’ on his views in 1856, he went back to Fox to check his facts, …
  • … the African explorer and army surgeon William Daniell in 1856 was probably in reply to such a …

Begins 'Natural Selection'

Summary

Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but later formed the basis for On the Origin of Species

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Tenth child born

Summary

The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work preparing his ‘big book’ on species. Begun in May 1856 at the urging of Lyell, the manuscript …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … `big book’,  Natural selection , begun in 1856.  Coming hard on the heels of  The descent of man …

The expression of emotions

Summary

Darwin’s work on emotional expression, from notes in his Beagle diary and observations of his own children, to questionnaires, and experiments with photographs, was an integral part of his broad research on human evolution. It provided one of the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his other children followed, and the record was kept through 1856. Darwin’s wife, Emma also recorded …
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