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To Asa Gray   24 November [1856]

Summary

Variability of naturalised plants.

Distribution of Arctic/alpine plant species.

Limits to the northern range of plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  24 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (5)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1999

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To Asa Gray   24 November [1856] …
  • … See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] . See …
  • … letter from Asa Gray, 23 September 1856 . …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (5) Charles Robert Darwin Down 24 Nov [1856] Asa Gray …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …
  • … Dated by the reference to the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . …
  • … Letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . See …
  • … letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] and n.  5. See letter …
  • … to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [1856] . A.  Gray 1856a. There is a copy in …
  • … the Darwin Library–CUL. CD refers to the first part of A.  Gray 1856–7 . …

To Asa Gray   24 August [1856]

Summary

Rarity of intermediate varieties.

Variability of introduced plants.

Ranges of plants common to Europe and U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  24 Aug [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (36)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1944

Matches: 13 hits

  • … To Asa Gray   24 August [1856] …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (36) Charles Robert Darwin Down 24 Aug [1856] Asa Gray …
  • … the letter from Asa Gray, [early August 1856] . Gray addressed CD’s question in the second …
  • … part of his paper on the statistics of the flora of the United States ( A.  Gray 1856–7 ). …
  • … Letter from Asa Gray, [early August 1856] , which CD had marked ‘Received Aug …
  • … 20 th . /1856/’. Thomas Vernon Wollaston. …
  • … See letter to Asa Gray, 14 July [1856] . CD discussed the point in Natural selection , …
  • … as his sources. Letter from H.  C. Watson, 5 June 1856. Watson 1835 . Letter to H.   …
  • … C. Watson, [after 10 June 1856] . Letter from H.   …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … C. Watson, 20 June 1856 . Watson’s information was used in Natural selection , p.   …
  • … see letter from Asa Gray, 4 November [1856] ). The number 321 refers to the number of …

To Asa Gray   12 October [1856]

Summary

Thanks AG for the first part of his "Statistics [of the flora of the northern U. S.", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369–403]

and for information on social and varying plants.

Would like to know number of genera of introduced plants in U. S.

Is surprised at some affinities of northern U. S. flora and asks for any climatic explanations.

Asks what proportion of genera common to U. S. and Europe are mundane.

Is glad AG will work out the northern ranges of the European species and the ranges of species with regard to size of genera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  12 Oct [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (6)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1973

Matches: 15 hits

  • … To Asa Gray   12 October [1856] …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (6) Charles Robert Darwin Down 12 Oct [1856] Asa Gray …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United …
  • … northern U. S." , Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369– …
  • … Dated by the reference to A.  Gray 1856–7  and to the letter …
  • … from Asa Gray, 23 September 1856 . …
  • … Letter from Asa Gray, 23 September 1856 . A.   …
  • … Gray 1856–7 . CD’s annotated copy is in DAR 135 (3). J.  D. Hooker 1853–5 . CD had …
  • … and orders. In CD’s copy of A.  Gray 1856–7 , he added the correct page numbers in pencil …
  • … of his independently paginated reprint. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 9 October [1856] . …
  • … p.  232. See letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . See Correspondence vol.  5, letter to …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … See also letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . Gray did not give the desired figure …
  • … in the second part of A.  Gray 1856–7 . In A.  Gray 1856a, pp. xxv–xxviii, he had listed …
  • … excluding the number of genera, in A.  Gray 1856–7 , pp.  208–11. In CD’s copy of A.  Gray …

To Asa Gray   14 July [1856]

Summary

Asks whether Allegheny Mountains are sufficiently continuous so that plants could travel from north to south along them.

Hopes AG’s work on geographical distribution is progressing, as he has questions on plants common to Europe which do not range up to Arctic.

Are intermediate varieties less numerous in individuals than the varieties they connect?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  14 July [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1926

Matches: 11 hits

  • … To Asa Gray   14 July [1856] …
  • … in letter to J.   D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . …
  • … Letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . …
  • … Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 14 July [1856] Asa Gray …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . See …
  • … letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] , and the letters exchanged between Gray and CD in 1855 ( …
  • … the northern United States’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 ). See Natural selection , p.   537. William …
  • … A.  Gray 1856a). This point is made in Wollaston 1856 , pp.  105–6. See CD’s comments …
  • … 113-25; 3 (1844): 230–42. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … Press. 1975. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …

To Asa Gray   1 January [1857]

Summary

Thanks AG for 2d part of "Statistics [of the flora of the northern U. S.", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369–403].

Is glad AG concludes species of large genera are wide-ranging, but is "riled" that he thinks the line of connection of alpine plants is through Greenland. Mentions comparisons of ranges worth investigating.

Believes trees show a tendency toward separation of the sexes and wonders if U. S. species bear this out. Asks which genera are protean in U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  1 Jan [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2034

Matches: 16 hits

  • … topic after having first mentioned it in his letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . See …
  • … also letters to Asa Gray, 24 August [1856] and …
  • … 24 November [1856] , and letter from …
  • … Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . …
  • … Mason. Geneva: J. Kessmann. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … northern U. S." , Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369– …
  • … by the relationship to the letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . A.  Gray 1856–7 . In …
  • … his letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] , CD had asked Gray to examine the ranges of species …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 . See letters to J.  D. Hooker, 1 December [1856] and …
  • … 10 December [1856] , and letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . CD had continued to remind Gray about this …
  • … genera, as Mr. Darwin suggests’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  77). See Natural selection , pp.   …
  • … species of small genera do. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  77). Comparing the northward range …
  • … through the polar regions’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  73). CD, on the other hand, believed …
  • … the similar or related species’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , pp.  78–84), in which Gray described …

To Asa Gray   2 May [1856]

Summary

Suggests affinities of the U. S. flora that he considers would be worth investigating. Wants to know the ranges of species in large and small genera.

Questions AG on naturalised plants; whether any are social in U. S. which are not so elsewhere and how variable they are compared with indigenous species. Would like to know of any differences in the variability of species at different points of their ranges and also the physical states of plants at the extremes of their ranges.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  2 May [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1863

Matches: 15 hits

  • … To Asa Gray   2 May [1856] …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (4) Charles Robert Darwin Down 2 May [1856] Asa Gray …
  • … letter, which were incorporated into A.  Gray 1856–7 (see n.  3, below). Gray’s letter has …
  • … flora of the northern United States’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 ). In the published version, Gray …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United …
  • … of flora I was occupied with. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  204). Gray generally followed this …
  • … alpine flora of the United States ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , pp.  62–76). A.  de Candolle 1855 , …
  • … into the comparison ‘seriously vitiates our conclusions’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  212). …
  • … This information is tabulated in A.  Gray 1856–7 , pp.  215, 217–24, and 226–9. Gray …
  • … to any common standard. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  78). Gray stated that he found this …
  • … species in the three classes ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , pp.  80–3). A.   de Candolle 1855 . Bound …
  • … 1: pp.  528–9, is a note, dated 1 May 1856, made by CD when studying Alphonse de Candolle’ …
  • … the species of small genera do. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  77). For the most part, Gray’s …
  • … does not tell in the same way’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  381). Gray addressed this question …
  • … articles into a treatise. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  389). CD had explained his interest in …

To Asa Gray   9 May [1857]

Summary

Thanks for new part of "Statistics".

Interested in disjoined species; do they tend to belong to large or small genera, and are they generally members of small families?

Is glad AG will tackle introduced plants; has noticed that the proportion of a particular family to the whole flora tends to be similar in introduced and indigenous plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  9 May [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2089

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Company. London: John Chapman. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … s acknowledgment of the receipt of the third part of A.  Gray 1856–7 (see n.  2, below). …
  • … The third and final part of A.  Gray 1856–7  was published in the May 1857 issue of the …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … Asia, but are not European’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  387). Dividing this group into two …
  • … Gray added the following note ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  387 n. ), to which CD refers: Out of …
  • … to Asa Gray, 18 June [1857] . A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  400. See letter to Asa Gray, [after …

To Asa Gray   [after 15 March 1857]

Summary

Urges AG to generalise from his observations on the flora of the northern U. S.

Expected to find separation of sexes in trees because he believes all living beings require an occasional cross, and none is perpetually self-fertilising. The multitude of flowers of a tree would be an obstacle to cross-fertilisation unless the sexes tended to be separate.

The Leguminosae are CD’s greatest opposers; he cannot find that garden varieties ever cross. Could AG inquire of intelligent nurserymen on the subject?

Thanks AG for information on protean genera; much wants to know whether their great variability is due to their conditions of existence or is innate in them at all times and places.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  [After 15 Mar 1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2060

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Oxford University Press. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] . See letters to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] and …
  • … 30 November [1856] . See letter to Syms Covington, 22 February 1857 . William Macarthur …
  • … from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . A.  Gray 1856–7  was published in ‘Silliman’s Journal’, …
  • … 61–2, and Origin , pp.  99–100. See also letters to J.  D. Hooker, 1 December [1856] and …
  • … 10 December [1856] . CD refers to his anecdote about Louis Agassiz related in the letter …

To Asa Gray   20 July [1857]

Summary

Believes species have arisen, like domestic varieties, with much extinction, and that there are no such things as independently created species. Explains why he believes species of the same genus generally have a common or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants.

Discusses fertilisation in the bud and the insect pollination of papilionaceous flowers. His theory explains why, despite the risk of injury, cross-fertilisation is usual in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, even in hermaphrodites.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  20 July [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9b)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2125

Matches: 4 hits

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … chapter on geographical distribution (see letters to J.  D. Hooker, 30 July [1856] and [ …
  • … 16 October 1856] ). See letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 9 November 1856 . CD alluded to the cross-pollination of Fumaria by insects in …

To Asa Gray   21 July [1855]

Summary

Geographical distribution. "Close" species. Hopes AG will write an essay on species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  21 July [1855]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (3)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1725

Matches: 2 hits

  • … from Asa Gray, 30 June 1855 . A.  Gray 1856–7 . See letter from Asa Gray, 22 May 1855 . …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …

From H. C. Watson to Asa Gray   13 March 1857

Summary

Describes problems of classifying species in highly variable genera. Lists highly variable genera. Comments on the list of Asa Gray. Says species may be made to appear more or less variable according to whether a genus is divided into few or many species.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  13 Mar 1857
Classmark:  DAR 181: 36
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2065

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Bibliography Backhouse, James. 1856. A monograph of the British Hieracia. York: William …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … 10 March 1857 . Hudson 1762 . Backhouse 1856 . See letter from Asa Gray, 16 February …

To Asa Gray   24 August [1855]

Summary

"Close" species in large and small genera.

Alphonse de Candolle on geographical distribution [Géographie botanique raisonnée (1855)].

Species variability.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  24 Aug [1855]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (10)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1749

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … s Journal of Botany ( J.  D. Hooker 1856 ). George Robert Waterhouse had first formulated …
  • … Vols. 5,7] Hooker, Joseph Dalton. 1856. Review of Géographie botanique raisonnée . . . par …

To Asa Gray   5 September [1857]

Summary

Encloses an abstract of his ideas on natural selection and the principle of divergence; the "means by which nature makes her species".

Discusses varieties and close species in large and small genera, finding some data from AG in conflict with his expectations.

Has been observing the action of bees in fertilising kidney beans and Lobelia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  5 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (48)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2136

Matches: 4 hits

  • … in De Beer ed. 1958. ] Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … of the northern United States’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 ), but CD continued to think (perhaps …
  • … him in the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 ) that he had not received a further part …

To Asa Gray   18 June [1857]

Summary

Thanks for AG’s remarks on disjoined species. CD’s notions are based on belief that disjoined species have suffered much extinction, which is the common cause of small genera and disjoined ranges.

Discusses out-crossing in plants.

Has failed to meet with a detailed account of regular and normal impregnation in the bud. Podostemon, Subularia, and underwater Leguminosae are the strongest cases against him.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  18 June [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2109

Matches: 3 hits

  • … CD a new and corrected copy of A.  Gray 1856–7 , the third part of his ‘Statistics of the …
  • … Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …

To Asa Gray   26 November [1860]

Summary

Has reread AG’s third Atlantic Monthly article. It is admirable, but CD cannot go as far as AG on design.

Mentions other opinions and reviews of Origin.

Relates some experiments on Drosera showing its extreme sensitivity; requests some observations on orchids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  26 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (27)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2998

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Harvard University. Olmsted, Frederick Law. 1856. A journey in the seaboard slave states, …
  • … great interest, remarking that Olmsted 1856  was ‘excellent’ ( Correspondence vol.  4, …
  • … s copy is in the Darwin Library–CUL. Gray 1856, p.  350. CD remembered the plant growing …

To Asa Gray   8 June [1855]

Summary

Suggests AG append ranges to the species in the new edition of his Manual.

Is interested in comparing the flora of U. S. with that of Britain and wishes to know the proportions to the whole of the great leading families and the numbers of species within genera. Would welcome information on which species AG considers to be "close" in the U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  8 June [1855]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (2)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1695

Matches: 3 hits

  • … second edition of the Manual (A.  Gray 1856). See letter to Asa Gray, 25 April [1855] . …
  • … the northern United States’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 ). The Yenisei River divides western Siberia …
  • … Company. London: John Chapman. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …

To Asa Gray   17 September [1861]

Summary

U. S. politics and relations with England.

Wants examples of dimorphism similar to Primula.

Structure and function of Spiranthes flower.

Observations and experiments on Drosera.

CD’s views on design.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  17 Sept [1861]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (72)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3256

Matches: 4 hits

  • … University Press. Olmsted, Frederick Law. 1856. A journey in the seaboard slave states, …
  • … the southern slave states ( Olmsted 1856 , 1857, and 1860) CD had read. See Correspondence …
  • … s Journeys in the Slave States [ Olmsted 1856 ], a book he had lately been reading; and in …
  • … Asa Gray, 16 September [1861] . A.  Gray 1856, p.  80. The passage is marked in CD’s copy …

From Charles Wright to Asa Gray   20, 25, and 26 March and 1 April 1864

Summary

Describes the flower and mode of action of a particular orchid.

Has been examining Spiranthes and is experimenting to see whether insects are necessary for its fertilisation.

It seems that Oncidium is designed so as not to be fertilised.

Author:  Charles Wright
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  20, 25 and 26 Mar 1864 and 1 Apr 1864
Classmark:  DAR 181: 163
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4433

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Richard A. 1988. Charles Wright in Cuba 1856–1867. Alexandria, Virginia: Chadwyck-Healey. …
  • … Church property and the Mexican reform 1856–1910. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University …
  • … had been collecting plants in Cuba since 1856. In March 1864, he was living at Retiro, a …

To Asa Gray   18 November [1858]

Summary

Wishes to know whether differences in constitution (such as disease susceptibility) are related to differences in complexion. "Liability to such a disease as yellow fever would answer my question in the best possible way."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  18 Nov [1858]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (19)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2364

Matches: 2 hits

  • … a statement made by William Freeman Daniell in 1856 that ‘a sanguineous or choleric, or …
  • … W.  F. Daniell, 8 October – 7 November 1856 ). See also Descent 1: 244–5. See letter to …

To Asa Gray   29 November [1857]

Summary

Thanks AG for his criticisms of CD’s views; finds it difficult to avoid using the term "natural selection" as an agent.

Discusses crossing in Fumaria and barnacles.

Has received a naturally crossed kidney bean in which the seed-coat has been affected by the pollen of the fertilising plant.

Finds the rule of large genera having most varieties holds good and regards it as most important for his "principle of divergence".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  29 Nov [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (18)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2176

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … to M.  J. Berkeley, 29 February [1856]). CD described this case in Living Cirripedia ( …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s …
  • … Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by Hooker’s friend the American …
  • … only source of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed …
  • … might work in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no …
  • … remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … on plants. Expanding projects set up during 1855 and 1856 (see  Correspondence  vol. 5), he tried …
  • … first two chapters of his species book, completed by October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). …
  • … Gray, vary in the United States ( letter to Asa Gray, 2 May 1856 )? What about weeds? Did they …
  • … hermaphrodite’ ( letter to to T. H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] ), which became a source of amusement in …
  • … that Asa Gray and Hooker confirmed during the course of 1856. Science at home: the botanical …
  • … many different experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden …
  • … have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his ideas …
  • … trees (see letters to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 February 1856] and to Charles Lyell, 3 May …
  • … Waring Darwin, the sixth and last, was born on 6 December 1856) was a constant worry, particularly …
  • … in New South Wales ( letter to Syms Covington, 9 March 1856 ). Many other topics, …
  • … the geological phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into …
  • … visited the Darwins at Down House for several days in April 1856, and Darwin took this opportunity …
  • … made in a letter written by Lyell from London on 1–2 May 1856. Darwin took the suggestion seriously …
  • … him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). Darwin had also …
  • … At a second weekend party held at Down on 26 and 27 April 1856, he had discussed the question of …
  • … doctrine.’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 7 ). The excitement and intellectual …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of the …
  • … family duties (Darwin to W. B. Tegetmeier,  19 November [1856] ) made him unable to travel to many …
  • … his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal feelings …
  • … in this world.’ (Darwin to Syms Covington,  9 March 1856 ) In the late nineteenth century, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 21 JULY 1855 14  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 14 JULY 1856 15  A GRAY TO C DARWIN …
  • … 1855 23  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 9 NOVEMBER 1856 24  C DARWIN TO JD …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856 that he publish a short version of his …
  • … in persuading Darwin not to publish an abstract in 1856 , Darwin explained to whole affair to him …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …
  • … as Natural selection ). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by June 1858. At …
  • … 2 13 October 1856 [Variation under domestication] [2] …
  • … 11 13 October 1856 Geographical distribution (DAR 14; …
  • … 3 16 December 1856 On the possibility of all organic …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … research notes, including letters going back to at least 1856 . Among them were accounts of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *128: 160] Mansfield’s Paraguay [Mansfield 1856] } read Chesterton Prison Life …
  • … Hutchison Dog Breaking 3 d . Edit [Hutchinson 1856] new information on Pointer & Retriever …
  • … Annal des Sc. Nat. 4 th  Series. Bot. Vol 6 [Naudin 1856]. Read Notes to Jardine & …
  • … 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 1856–7] —— 27 th . Mem. de l’Acad. …
  • … Das Ganze der Landwirttschaft [Kirchhof 1835].— 1856. Jan 10 th  G. Colin Traite de …
  • … [Rudolphi 1812] [DAR 128: 16] 1856 Jan 21. Huc’s Chinese Empire [Huc …
  • … Mar 1 Veith Naturgeschichte Haussaugethiere [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R …
  • … 1741–55] d[itt]o [DAR 128: 17] 1856 . Jan 28. Watt’s Life by Muirhead …
  • … [Pepys 1848–9]— April 21 Sandwitt Kars [Sandwith 1856]. [DAR 128: 18] March …
  • … 1851–6] —— Wollaston on Variation [Wollaston 1856] F. Smith on Apidæ [F. Smith 1855] …
  • … 1835 [H. C. Watson 1835] [DAR 128: 20] 1856 June 26. Davis J. Barnard. …
  • … 1855] —— 19 Von Tschudi Alpine life [Tschudi 1856] 30. Brehm Handbuch Vogel …
  • … 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami [Andersson 1856] —— 26 Slightly skimmed Forbes …
  • … 1765] Oct. 23. Tracings of Iceland Chambers [Chambers 1856]. —— Mansfield Travels in …
  • … 2 vols July D r . Kane’s Arctic Voyage [Kane 1856] Sept. 12. Ch. Napiers Life …
  • … rubbish yet amusing Nov. 15. Tender & True [Spence] 1856]: H. Coverdale [Smedley [1854–6] …
  • … Travels I ever read) Sept. Froude Henry VIII [Froude 1856]. 4 vols very interesting. …
  • … —— 16 Zoologist [ Zoologist ]. up Vol. 14. 1856 May 9 th  Voyage au Pol. Sud. Consid. Gen …
  • … 1859 Feb. 28 Olmstead S. States [Olmsted 1856] (excellent) March 21. Mill on Liberty …
  • … The revised edition of Johnston’s  Physical atlas  (1856) included ‘Map of the distribution of …
  • … 113  The  Cottage Gardener  ceased publication in 1856. 114  CD marked this entry …
  • … vols. London.  119: 14a Andersson, Carl Johan. 1856.  Lake Ngami; or, explorations and   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 20a; *128: 173 ——. 1856.  Tracings of Iceland and the Faröe …
  • … [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of prison life;   …
  • … 128: 5 Davis, Joseph Barnard and Thurnam, John. 1856–65.  Crania   Britannica. …
  • … Three visits to Madagascar during   the years 1853, 1854, 1856 . London.  128: 24 …
  • … . Lundæ.  *119: 5v. Froude, James Anthony. 1856.  History of England from the   fall of …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856 ‘y ou continental extensionists …
  • … of his old friend, the geologist Charles Lyell, who, in May 1856, twenty months after Darwin had …
  • … urgency to publish and, following Lyell’s advice in May 1856, began to write a sketch his theory. ‘I …
  • … without full details. ’ Writing to his cousin Fox in June 1856, Darwin openly confessed his fears …
  • … work ’ he had ‘desisted’. By November 1856, he had both good and bad news to report to Lyell: ‘ …
  • … press. Although Darwin had decided in the autumn of 1856 to write only from the materials he …
  • … wrote ten and a half chapters of his Big Book between May 1856 and June 1858. With a total of …
  • … length ’, he had complained to Hooker in December 1856. By mid-1858, only the first chapter on …
  • … being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge University …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Owen, and Louis Agassiz (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May 1856 and 21 May 1856). But he considered …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist …
  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist Miles …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855, Müller …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1979 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write up a ‘preliminary essay’ on his views in 1856, he went back to Fox to check his facts, …
  • … the African explorer and army surgeon William Daniell in 1856 was probably in reply to such a …

Begins 'Natural Selection'

Summary

Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but later formed the basis for On the Origin of Species

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Tenth child born

Summary

The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work preparing his ‘big book’ on species. Begun in May 1856 at the urging of Lyell, the manuscript …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … `big book’,  Natural selection , begun in 1856.  Coming hard on the heels of  The descent of man …

The expression of emotions

Summary

Darwin’s work on emotional expression, from notes in his Beagle diary and observations of his own children, to questionnaires, and experiments with photographs, was an integral part of his broad research on human evolution. It provided one of the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his other children followed, and the record was kept through 1856. Darwin’s wife, Emma also recorded …
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