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From J. D. Hooker   [26 June or 3 July 1856]

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Summary

Can no longer make out story of NW. American plants; consulting Asa Gray.

Questionable validity of seed-salting experiments.

Aristolochia and Viscum seem to shed pollen before flower opens.

Ray Society should only do translations.

Thomas Thomson in India has rediscovered Aldrovanda, a rare relative of Drosera.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 June or 3 July] 1856
Classmark:  DAR 104: 197
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1911

Matches: 15 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [26 June or 3 July 1856] …
  • … DAR 104: 197 Joseph Dalton Hooker Kew 26 June 1856 3 …
  • … July 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … 1975. Siebold, Karl Theodor Ernst von. 1856. Wahre Parthenogenesis bei Schmetterlingen und …
  • … dates are the two Thursdays between the letters to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] and …
  • … 5 [July 1856] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] . CD was anxious to ascertain whether any of the plants that …
  • … Watson (letter from H.  C. Watson, 5 June 1856) whether these species were known to range …
  • … question (see letter to Asa Gray, 14 July [1856] ). Hooker was mistaken in his observation …
  • … and letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 ). Ludwig Radlkofer was an authority on both …
  • … Die Befruchtung der Phanerogamen (Leipzig, 1856). In 1857 and 1858  he published studies …
  • … s researches on parthenogenesis ( Siebold 1856 ). Siebold overturned Richard Owen’s …
  • … Farley 1982 , pp.  100–5. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] . See letter to T.   …
  • … H. Huxley, 4 May [1856] , in which the financial difficulties of the Ray Society were …

From J. S. Henslow   2 August 1856

Summary

One plant in self-sown patch of Aegilops has assumed a triticoidal character; JSH feels it may be an example of Aegilops passing to wheat.

Author:  John Stevens Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Aug 1856
Classmark:  DAR 166: 178
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1936

Matches: 12 hits

  • … From J.  S. Henslow   2 August 1856
  • … DAR 166: 178 John Stevens Henslow Hitcham 2 Aug 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … generation of Henslow’s experimental Aegilops in the spring of 1856 (see letter to J.   …
  • … S. Henslow, 6 August [1856] and n.  3). Scraps marked ‘3’ frequently concern cross- and …
  • … of Science meeting was held at Cheltenham, 6–13 August 1856. CD did not attend. Leonard …
  • … at the British Association meeting entitled ‘On the variation of species’ ( Jenyns 1856 ). …
  • … Described in Henslow 1856 , a paper delivered at the British Association meeting in …
  • … See also letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 . Charles Cardale Babington. See letter …
  • … from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856  and n.  6. CD had …
  • … Bibliography Henslow, John Stevens. 1856. On the triticoidal forms of Ægilops and on the …
  • … the sections, pp. 87–8. Jenyns, Leonard. 1856. On the variation of species. Report of the …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …

From J. D. Hooker   10 July 1856

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Summary

[T. Bell Salter’s?] "hybrid" Epilobium a false claim.

Admires Huxley’s response to Falconer [see 1904].

Tristan da Cunha plant list, requested by CD, supports JDH’s position [on continental extension?].

Chilean plants not exceptional.

JDH considers parallels between Australian Alps and European plants strong evidence for multiple creations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 96–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1923

Matches: 16 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   10 July 1856
  • … DAR 100: 96–9 Joseph Dalton Hooker Kew 10 July 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … D. Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] , and letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . CD had asked Hooker whether he could confirm Thomas Vernon …
  • … of the same point in the insect kingdom (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] ). …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Falconer, Hugh. 1856. On Prof. Huxley’s attempted refutation of …
  • … D. Hooker, 21 [May 1856] and 17– …
  • … 18 [June 1856]. T.  H. Huxley 1855. …
  • … See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 [July 1856] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 8 [July 1856] , n.  3. The list was annotated by Hooker, giving brief …
  • … of the colony. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . See letter from J.   …
  • … n.s. 17: 476–93. Henslow, John Stevens. 1856. On the triticoidal forms of Ægilops and on …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … letter from J.  D. Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] . John Stevens Henslow described his …
  • … of Science held in Cheltenham ( Henslow 1856 ). He had intended to test the claim made by …
  • … provinces. T.  H. Huxley 1856b, a response to Falconer 1856 . See letters to J.   …

From George Dickie   1 December 1856

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Summary

His observations on Subularia: has never seen it in flower in the air.

Author:  George Dickie
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Dec 1856
Classmark:  DAR 207: 16
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2009

Matches: 8 hits

  • … From George Dickie   1 December 1856
  • … DAR 207: 16 George Dickie Belfast 1 Dec 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … See the letters to J.  D. Hooker, [early December 1856] and from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, [early December 1856], and the letters from C.   …
  • … C. Babington, 22 November 1856, and from H.   …
  • … C. Watson, 26 November 1856. Dickie’s information was cited by CD in Natural selection , …
  • … Belfast Dec r . 1 st | 1856 Dear Sir, I have much pleasure in stating my own observations …

From George Howard Darwin   [28 November 1856]

Summary

Letter from school with instructions where to put away his belongings at home.

Author:  George Howard Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [28 Nov 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 251: 2222
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2003F

Matches: 14 hits

  • … From George Howard Darwin   [28 November 1856] …
  • … DAR 251: 2222 George Howard Darwin [28 Nov 1856] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … nose-bleed (letter from Emma Darwin to W.  E.  Darwin, [1 December 1856], DAR 219.1: 13). …
  • … aged 11, started attending Clapham Grammar School in August 1856 (J.  R.  Moore 1977, p.   …
  • … Mrs Morrey, who left Down at the end of 1856 (see n.  4, below), and by references in Emma …
  • … s diary (DAR 242). The only Thursday in 1856 on which Emma recorded in her diary George’s …
  • … had been ill while at home: for 25 November 1856 Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) records, ‘ …
  • … G.  very poorly’. Yonge 1856. Sarah Morrey had been cook to Sarah …
  • … and Emma’s aunt, who had died 6 November 1856 (Freeman 1978). The Darwin children, except …
  • … 6, letter to W.  E.  Darwin, 25 [November 1856] ). Henrietta Emma Darwin later wrote, ‘Mrs …
  • … and the servants departed in mid-December 1856 ( Correspondence vol.  6, letter to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, 25 [November 1856] ). Henry Hemmings had been a servant of Sarah Elizabeth …
  • … the letter to W.  E.  Darwin, 10 [December 1856] ( Correspondence vol.  6), CD wrote that …
  • … In a letter probably written on 17 December 1856, George wrote to William that he had met …

From Asa Gray   4 November 1856

Summary

Outlines the ranges of northern U. S. species common to Europe. Hopes to investigate the resemblances between the floras of the north-eastern U. S. and western Europe. Discusses routes by which alpine plants appear to have reached U. S.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1982

Matches: 13 hits

  • … From Asa Gray   4 November 1856
  • … DAR 165: 95 Asa Gray Cambridge Mass. 4 Nov 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … to [J.  D. Hooker] 1856, a review of A.  de Candolle 1855 . CD forwarded Gray’s letter to …
  • … Joseph Dalton Hooker with his own letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [1856] . …
  • … Mason. Geneva: J. Kessmann. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … Convallaria majalis .ramme Cambridge 4 th Nov. 1856. Dear Mr. Darwin Your welcome favor of …
  • … In his letter to Asa Gray, 24 August [1856] , CD had indicated that he considered the …
  • … see letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] ). When he received the figures given by Gray in …
  • … dele’. Letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , in which CD referred to the first part …
  • … of A.  Gray 1856–7 . CD had asked Gray for some indication of the …
  • … the introduced species belonged (see letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] ). A.  Gray …
  • … 1856a. See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , n.  6. Gray refers …

From J. D. Hooker   4 August 1856

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Summary

JDH’s arguments against transmutation: 1. Plants do not show the confusion he would expect; 2. Under clearly similar physical conditions we do not find same species.

JDH’s argument against migration: commonality of alpine species. Believes migration opposes facts of botanical distribution in Van Diemen’s Land and New Zealand; prefers continental extension theory.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Aug 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 100–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1937

Matches: 13 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   4 August 1856
  • … DAR 100: 100–4 Joseph Dalton Hooker unstated 4 Aug 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … delivered at the Royal Institution on 6 June 1856 ( …
  • … Tyndall 1856 ), John Tyndall discussed cleavage in rocks and other solids with the …
  • … 1985–. Godwin-Austen, Robert Alfred Cloyne. 1856. On the possible extension of the coal- …
  • … See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 30 July [1856] . …
  • … Godwin-Austen 1856  was read at a meeting of the Geological Society of London on 30 May …
  • … Aug 4 th . 1856 – Dear Darwin Thanks for Lyells letters which are very tough reading— I …
  • … in 1860 (J.  D. Hooker 1855[–60]). See letter from Charles Lyell, 17 June 1856 . See …
  • … letter to Charles Lyell, 5 July [1856] . An allusion to the transmutationist views …
  • … creation ( [Chambers] 1844 ). See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 30 July [1856] . In a lecture …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … University Press. 1975. Tyndall, John. 1856. Comparative view of the cleavage of crystals …

From J. D. Hooker   [16 November 1856]

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JDH not happy with CD’s explanation of the absence of north temperate forms in the Southern Hemisphere, given his explanation for the spread of sub-arctic forms to the south. [CD’s note is in response to JDH’s criticism.]

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [16 Nov 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 162–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1622

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [16 November 1856] …
  • … and animals. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [ 1856] , and J.  Browne 1983 . …
  • … DAR 100: 162–3 Joseph Dalton Hooker Kew [16 Nov 1856] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … The Sunday after the letter to J.  D. Hooker, 15 November [1856] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 15 November [1856] . This note follows the letter in DAR 100: 163. In Natural …

From T. V. Wollaston   [early November 1856]

Summary

Variability of certain features within insect genera.

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [early Nov 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 138
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2030

Matches: 8 hits

  • … From T.  V. Wollaston   [early November 1856] …
  • … DAR 181: 138 Thomas Vernon Wollaston unstated [early Nov 1856] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … John van Voorst. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …
  • … book, p.  17 (DAR 157a) on 30 November 1856. CD had apparently requested further details …
  • … characters of variation’, of Wollaston 1856 . The ‘opus diab[olicus]’ is Wollaston 1854 . …
  • … to be joined was discussed in Wollaston 1856 , pp.  96–7, and Natural selection , pp.   …
  • … from T.  V. Wollaston, [11 or 18 December 1856] . The ‘Q’ stands for quoted. CD used this …

From Richard Thomas Lowe   12 April 1856

Summary

Discusses the flora of Porto Santo in relation to that of Madeira. While these islands have some 20 endemic species in common, there are 7 or 8 species endemic to Porto Santo alone, and 25 common to Porto Santo and Europe that are not found on Madeira. Believes the great difference in soil and climate is enough to explain this: plants common on one island cannot be made to grow on the other. Believes J. D. Hooker has underestimated the number of species endemic to Madeira. There are some remarkable endemic species of common plants in the Dezertas.

The eel is the only freshwater fish on Porto Santo and Madeira.

Author:  Richard Thomas Lowe
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Apr 1856
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1852A

Matches: 9 hits

  • … From Richard Thomas Lowe    12 April 1856
  • … Kinnordy MS (private collection) Richard Thomas Lowe 12 Apr 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Chrysanthemum haematomma , described in Lowe 1856 , p.  296. It was distinguished from its …
  • … visited CD at Down House from 13 to 16 April 1856, and the ‘Migration of Plants & Shells’ …
  • … about Madeiran shells, dated 16 April 1856, are in DAR 205.3 (Letters). The date as given …
  • … Monizia by Lowe and described in Lowe 1856 , pp.  295–6. It comprised only one species, …
  • … the name Arthrochortus and described in Lowe 1856 , pp.  301–2. Lowe considered the single …
  • … 25, 265–86, 461–79. Lowe, Richard Thomas. 1856. Species Plantarum Maderensium quædam novæ, …
  • … of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany ( Lowe 1856 ). The list includes species from Porto …

From W. F. Daniell   14 November 1856

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Summary

Believes he can give CD information on Mammalia of St Thomas [São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea]. Quotes from a Portuguese history of the islands on unique species of monkeys and civet cats found there.

Author:  William Freeman Daniell
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 270, 271
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1988

Matches: 10 hits

  • … From W.  F. Daniell   14 November 1856
  • … 271 William Freeman Daniell London, Gt Russell St, 25 14 Nov 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … to explain by natural means. See also letter to J.  D. Hooker, 15 November [1856] . …
  • … Great Russel Street | Bloomsbury. Nov. 14. 1856. My dear Sir. I have just received your …
  • … from W.  F. Daniell, 8 October – 7 November 1856, has not been found. Charles Roderic and …
  • … directory 1857). HMS Scourge was serving off the west coast of Africa in 1856 ( Navy …
  • … list 1856). Edmund Gabriel was an anti-slave-trade commissioner in Luanda, Angola. See …
  • … CD memorandum, [December 1855]. See letters to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 19 November [1856] and …
  • … 29 November [1856] . ‘The only mammalian species found on these islands when they were …
  • … W.  F. Daniell, 8 October – 7 November 1856). The statistical work referred to is Lopes de …

From Charles Lyell   17 June 1856

Summary

CD forgets an author [CD himself in Coral reefs] "who, by means of atolls, contrived to submerge archipelagoes (or continents?), the mountains of which must originally have differed from each other in height 8,000 (or 10,000?) feet".

CL begins to think that all continents and oceans are chiefly post-Eocene, but he admits that it is questionable how far one is at liberty to call up continents "to convey a Helix from the United States to Europe in Miocene or Pliocene periods".

Will CD explain why the land and marine shells of Porto Santo and Madeira differ while the plants so nearly agree?

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 146: 475
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1905

Matches: 12 hits

  • … From Charles Lyell   17 June 1856
  • … 475 Charles Lyell, 1st baronet London, Harley St, 53 17 June 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … 53 Harley St. , Lond. , June 17, 1856. My dear Darwin I wonder you did not also mention …
  • … Sharpe 1856 , which had been read on 5 December 1855. …
  • … Daniel Sharpe had died on 31 May 1856. …
  • … Sharpe 1856 , pp.  118–23. The map given in the second volume of C.  Lyell 1830–3 , facing …
  • … 3 vols. London: John Murray. Sharpe, Daniel. 1856. On the last elevation of the Alps; with …
  • … see letter to Charles Lyell, 25 June [1856] ). McAndrew 1854. CD had corresponded with …
  • … See letter to Charles Lyell, 25 June [1856] . Lyell evidently considered his questions to …
  • … Irish Academy 6: 354–5. Haughton, Samuel. 1856. Discussion of tidal observations made by …
  • … is childish (see the Anniversary Address, 1856). But how far you are at liberty to call up …
  • … was entirely covered by shallow seas. Haughton 1856 , pp.  137–9, read on 24 April 1854. …

From Charles Lyell   1–2 May 1856

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Summary

Urges CD to publish his theory with small part of data.

Corrects names of land shells on list of shells picked up at Down.

Discusses transport of Ancylus from one river-bed to another by water-beetle.

"I hear that when you & Hooker & Huxley & Wollaston got together you made light of all Species & grew more & more unorthodox."

Mentions discussion of old Atlantis by Oswald Heer.

Comments on Helix and Nanina.

Mentions beetle discovered with small bag of eggs of water-spider under wing.

Madeira evidence favours single species birth-place theory.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1–2 May 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 282
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1862

Matches: 13 hits

  • … From Charles Lyell   1–2 May 1856
  • … DAR 205.3: 282 Charles Lyell, 1st baronet unstated 1–2 May 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … visited the Darwins from 13 to 16 April 1856 (Emma Darwin’s diary). Lyell’s list of shells …
  • … May 1. 1856. – My dear Darwin As I sent you a list of the land-shells picked up at Down …
  • … Mollusca, living and fossil’ in February 1856. Ancylus fluviatilis was included among the …
  • … see letter to T.  H. Huxley, 2 April [1856], n.  2). Lyell had evidently heard about the …
  • … pp.  56–7). In a letter of 30 April 1856 to Charles James Fox Bunbury, Lyell stated: ‘When …
  • … 2: 212). CD made notes, dated 28 April 1856, on his conversation with Wollaston. These …
  • … are preserved in DAR 197.2, together with further notes dated 8 May 1856. In …
  • … a letter to Lyell dated 12 May 1856 (F.  J. Bunbury ed. 1891–3, Middle life 2: 391–2), …
  • … CD recorded having read Heer 1855  on 7 August 1856 ( Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, …
  • … notes on this conversation, dated 16 April 1856 and headed ‘With Darwin: On the Formation …
  • … p.  54). In a letter to Bunbury, 30 April 1856 (see n.  7, above), Lyell again discussed …

From S. P. Woodward   15 July 1856

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Summary

Has reduced 20 Cyrena species to geographical varieties of one species, Cyrena fluminalis. Hooker is reducing Indian flora at the rate of 19 to 1.

Recommends W. H. Harvey’s Seaside book [1849] and Charles Pickering’s Races of man [1850].

Author:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 304
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1927

Matches: 10 hits

  • … From S.  P. Woodward   15 July 1856
  • … DAR 205.3: 304 Samuel Pickworth Woodward British Museum 15 July 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … of his copy, CD reread the work in October 1856. Louis Agassiz believed in the multiple …
  • … Brit. M. July 15 th 1856. Dear Sir Your question was answ d . almost by express …
  • … similar to that posed in the letters to H.  C. Watson, [after 10 June 1856] , and to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 22 June [1856], in which he asked whether species common to both Europe and …
  • … the Zoological Society of London on 8 July 1856. Woodward had attempted to ascertain which …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … See letter from S.  P. Woodward, [15 July 1856] . Gérard Paul Deshayes. Hugh Cuming owned …
  • … Magazine of Natural History 2d ser.  18 (1856): 74–5. Harvey 1854 , published by John Van …

From Asa Gray   23 September 1856

Summary

Plants that are social in the U. S. but are not so in the Old World.

Distribution of U. S. species common to Europe.

Gives Theodor Engelmann’s opinion on the relative variability of indigenous and introduced plants and notes the effects of man’s settlement on the numbers and distribution of indigenous plants.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 94
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1959

Matches: 10 hits

  • … From Asa Gray   23 September 1856
  • … DAR 165: 94 Asa Gray Cambridge, Mass. 23 Sept 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Humphrey Milford. 1928–95. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … Cambridge, Mass. Sept. 23 d . 1856. My Dear Mr. Darwin D r . Engelmann, of St. Louis, …
  • … DAB ). See letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . ‘Maruta=Anthemis’ was written in pencil in …
  • … Mountains to Oregon and California. In 1856 he was the Republican nominee in the American …
  • … presidential elections. A.  Gray 1856–7 , the first part …
  • … of which appeared in September 1856. CD’s annotated copy is in DAR 135 ( …
  • … 3). See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , for CD’s response to this information. …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …

From Bernard Peirce Brent    [after August 1856]

Summary

On his breeding of Jacobin pigeons. How reciprocal crosses to produce mules work among canaries, goldfinches, linnets, and green linnets.

Will soon forward copies of Cottage Gardener for June.

Author:  Bernard Peirce Brent
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after Aug 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 160.2: 298
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2850

Matches: 8 hits

  • … From Bernard Peirce Brent    [after August 1856] …
  • … DAR 160.2: 298 Bernard Peirce Brent unstated [after Aug 1856] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … gave birth to her tenth child on 6 December 1856. William Bernhard Tegetmeier was a mutual …
  • … journal between October 1855 and February 1856; his copies are in the Darwin Library–CUL. …
  • … vol.  6, letter to W.  D.  Fox,3 January [1856]). CD thanked him in Variation 1: 132 n.   …
  • … on the birds of Germany in July and August 1856 (see Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, …
  • … 128: 20; and vol.  6, letters to E.  W.  V. Harcourt, 19 August [1856] and …
  • … 23 August [1856] ). Pistor 1831b. CD owned a copy of C.  M.  Wilhelm Pistor’s manual of …

From T. V. Wollaston   [c. 27 June 1856]

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Summary

On the relationship of the loss of the powers of flight [in Coleoptera] to increase of bulk.

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 27 June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 300
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1912A

Matches: 7 hits

  • … From T.  V. Wollaston    [ c . 27 June 1856] …
  • … DAR 205.3: 300 Thomas Vernon Wollaston [c. 27 June 1856] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Bibliography Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …
  • … relationship to the letter from Wollaston, [27 June 1856] (see Calendar number 1912). In …
  • … queries that CD posed after reading Wollaston 1856 . Although the letters are incomplete, …
  • … was described in detail in Wollaston 1856 , pp.  80–92. He claimed that the ‘annihilation …
  • … On page 81 of his copy of Wollaston 1856 (Darwin Library–CUL), CD noted that Wollaston ‘ …

From S. P. Woodward   4 June 1856

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Summary

SPW and Waterhouse agree on island faunas; gives Australia and Tasmania as examples. The "stream of migration" from Asia to Tasmania.

Looks forward eagerly to the publication of CD’s "specific" researches.

Invites CD to send his memoranda [on Manual of Mollusca].

Author:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 303
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1889

Matches: 9 hits

  • … From S.  P. Woodward   4 June 1856
  • … DAR 205.3: 303 Samuel Pickworth Woodward British Museum 4 June 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … British Museum. June 4 th — 1856. Dear Sir I am sorry you are not coming to the Meeting …
  • … 1851–6 , 3: 389). See letter to S.  P. Woodward, [after 4 June 1856] . Letter to S.   …
  • … P. Woodward, 27 May 1856 . William Whewell was the master of Trinity College, Cambridge. …
  • … of the Geological Society on 4 June 1856. Daniel Sharpe, president of the Geological …
  • … Zoological Societies, had died on 31 May 1856 as a result of a fall from his horse on 20  …
  • … see letter from S.  P. Woodward, 2 May 1856). CD had been ‘inclined very much to dispute’ …
  • … see letter to S.  P. Woodward, 27 May 1856 ). Woodward had used information from CD’s …

From H. C. Watson   26 November 1856

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Summary

Responds to CD’s query on Subularia and Limosella. There are discrepancies among authorities on whether Subularia flowers out of water. Limosella certainly flowers out of water.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 207: 19
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2002

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From H.  C. Watson   26 November 1856
  • … DAR 207: 19 Hewett Cottrell Watson Thames Ditton 26 Nov 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … See letter from C.  C. Babington, 22 November 1856, n.  1. J.  E. Smith 1824–36 , W.  J. …
  • … British flora. Koch 1843–4 . See letter from C.  C. Babington, 22 November 1856, n.  2. …
  • … See letter from George Dickie, 1 December 1856 . George Dickie was professor of natural …
  • … Thames Ditton Nov r . 26. 1856 My dear Sir It is some score of years since I gathered the …

From J. D. Hooker   22 November 1856

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Summary

Continued debate on formation of species as a result of retreat from glaciers.

JDH suggests internal powers of species modification, which he knows CD abhors.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 111–12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1995

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   22 November 1856
  • … DAR 100: 111–12 Joseph Dalton Hooker unstated 22 Nov 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [1856] and n.  2. Thomas Thomson was superintendent …
  • … letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [1856] . CD did not communicate this information (see …
  • … letter to J.  D. Hooker, 23 November [1856] ). See …
  • … letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 , which CD had sent to Hooker to read. The remainder …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s …
  • … Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by Hooker’s friend the American …
  • … only source of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed …
  • … might work in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no …
  • … remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … on plants. Expanding projects set up during 1855 and 1856 (see  Correspondence  vol. 5), he tried …
  • … first two chapters of his species book, completed by October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). …
  • … Gray, vary in the United States ( letter to Asa Gray, 2 May 1856 )? What about weeds? Did they …
  • … hermaphrodite’ ( letter to to T. H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] ), which became a source of amusement in …
  • … that Asa Gray and Hooker confirmed during the course of 1856. Science at home: the botanical …
  • … many different experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden …
  • … have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his ideas …
  • … trees (see letters to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 February 1856] and to Charles Lyell, 3 May …
  • … Waring Darwin, the sixth and last, was born on 6 December 1856) was a constant worry, particularly …
  • … in New South Wales ( letter to Syms Covington, 9 March 1856 ). Many other topics, …
  • … the geological phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into …
  • … visited the Darwins at Down House for several days in April 1856, and Darwin took this opportunity …
  • … made in a letter written by Lyell from London on 1–2 May 1856. Darwin took the suggestion seriously …
  • … him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). Darwin had also …
  • … At a second weekend party held at Down on 26 and 27 April 1856, he had discussed the question of …
  • … doctrine.’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 7 ). The excitement and intellectual …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of the …
  • … family duties (Darwin to W. B. Tegetmeier,  19 November [1856] ) made him unable to travel to many …
  • … his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal feelings …
  • … in this world.’ (Darwin to Syms Covington,  9 March 1856 ) In the late nineteenth century, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 21 JULY 1855 14  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 14 JULY 1856 15  A GRAY TO C DARWIN …
  • … 1855 23  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 9 NOVEMBER 1856 24  C DARWIN TO JD …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856 that he publish a short version of his …
  • … in persuading Darwin not to publish an abstract in 1856 , Darwin explained to whole affair to him …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …
  • … as Natural selection ). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by June 1858. At …
  • … 2 13 October 1856 [Variation under domestication] [2] …
  • … 11 13 October 1856 Geographical distribution (DAR 14; …
  • … 3 16 December 1856 On the possibility of all organic …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … research notes, including letters going back to at least 1856 . Among them were accounts of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *128: 160] Mansfield’s Paraguay [Mansfield 1856] } read Chesterton Prison Life …
  • … Hutchison Dog Breaking 3 d . Edit [Hutchinson 1856] new information on Pointer & Retriever …
  • … Annal des Sc. Nat. 4 th  Series. Bot. Vol 6 [Naudin 1856]. Read Notes to Jardine & …
  • … 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 1856–7] —— 27 th . Mem. de l’Acad. …
  • … Das Ganze der Landwirttschaft [Kirchhof 1835].— 1856. Jan 10 th  G. Colin Traite de …
  • … [Rudolphi 1812] [DAR 128: 16] 1856 Jan 21. Huc’s Chinese Empire [Huc …
  • … Mar 1 Veith Naturgeschichte Haussaugethiere [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R …
  • … 1741–55] d[itt]o [DAR 128: 17] 1856 . Jan 28. Watt’s Life by Muirhead …
  • … [Pepys 1848–9]— April 21 Sandwitt Kars [Sandwith 1856]. [DAR 128: 18] March …
  • … 1851–6] —— Wollaston on Variation [Wollaston 1856] F. Smith on Apidæ [F. Smith 1855] …
  • … 1835 [H. C. Watson 1835] [DAR 128: 20] 1856 June 26. Davis J. Barnard. …
  • … 1855] —— 19 Von Tschudi Alpine life [Tschudi 1856] 30. Brehm Handbuch Vogel …
  • … 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami [Andersson 1856] —— 26 Slightly skimmed Forbes …
  • … 1765] Oct. 23. Tracings of Iceland Chambers [Chambers 1856]. —— Mansfield Travels in …
  • … 2 vols July D r . Kane’s Arctic Voyage [Kane 1856] Sept. 12. Ch. Napiers Life …
  • … rubbish yet amusing Nov. 15. Tender & True [Spence] 1856]: H. Coverdale [Smedley [1854–6] …
  • … Travels I ever read) Sept. Froude Henry VIII [Froude 1856]. 4 vols very interesting. …
  • … —— 16 Zoologist [ Zoologist ]. up Vol. 14. 1856 May 9 th  Voyage au Pol. Sud. Consid. Gen …
  • … 1859 Feb. 28 Olmstead S. States [Olmsted 1856] (excellent) March 21. Mill on Liberty …
  • … The revised edition of Johnston’s  Physical atlas  (1856) included ‘Map of the distribution of …
  • … 113  The  Cottage Gardener  ceased publication in 1856. 114  CD marked this entry …
  • … vols. London.  119: 14a Andersson, Carl Johan. 1856.  Lake Ngami; or, explorations and   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 20a; *128: 173 ——. 1856.  Tracings of Iceland and the Faröe …
  • … [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of prison life;   …
  • … 128: 5 Davis, Joseph Barnard and Thurnam, John. 1856–65.  Crania   Britannica. …
  • … Three visits to Madagascar during   the years 1853, 1854, 1856 . London.  128: 24 …
  • … . Lundæ.  *119: 5v. Froude, James Anthony. 1856.  History of England from the   fall of …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856 ‘y ou continental extensionists …
  • … of his old friend, the geologist Charles Lyell, who, in May 1856, twenty months after Darwin had …
  • … urgency to publish and, following Lyell’s advice in May 1856, began to write a sketch his theory. ‘I …
  • … without full details. ’ Writing to his cousin Fox in June 1856, Darwin openly confessed his fears …
  • … work ’ he had ‘desisted’. By November 1856, he had both good and bad news to report to Lyell: ‘ …
  • … press. Although Darwin had decided in the autumn of 1856 to write only from the materials he …
  • … wrote ten and a half chapters of his Big Book between May 1856 and June 1858. With a total of …
  • … length ’, he had complained to Hooker in December 1856. By mid-1858, only the first chapter on …
  • … being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge University …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Owen, and Louis Agassiz (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May 1856 and 21 May 1856). But he considered …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist …
  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist Miles …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855, Müller …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1979 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write up a ‘preliminary essay’ on his views in 1856, he went back to Fox to check his facts, …
  • … the African explorer and army surgeon William Daniell in 1856 was probably in reply to such a …

Begins 'Natural Selection'

Summary

Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but later formed the basis for On the Origin of Species

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Tenth child born

Summary

The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work preparing his ‘big book’ on species. Begun in May 1856 at the urging of Lyell, the manuscript …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … `big book’,  Natural selection , begun in 1856.  Coming hard on the heels of  The descent of man …

The expression of emotions

Summary

Darwin’s work on emotional expression, from notes in his Beagle diary and observations of his own children, to questionnaires, and experiments with photographs, was an integral part of his broad research on human evolution. It provided one of the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his other children followed, and the record was kept through 1856. Darwin’s wife, Emma also recorded …
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