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To Asa Gray   24 August [1856]

Summary

Rarity of intermediate varieties.

Variability of introduced plants.

Ranges of plants common to Europe and U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  24 Aug [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (36)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1944

Matches: 6 hits

  • Letter from Asa Gray, [early August 1856] , which CD had marked ‘Received Aug 20 th . / …
  • … Thomas Vernon Wollaston . See letter to Asa Gray, 14 July [1856] . CD discussed the point …
  • … supplied by Gray (see letter from Asa Gray, 4 November [1856] ). The number 321 refers to …
  • … to CD enclosed in the letter from Asa Gray, [early August 1856] . Gray addressed CD’s …
  • … Watson, [after 10 June 1856] . Letter from H.  C. Watson, 20 June 1856 . Watson’s …
  • … as his sources. Letter from H.  C. Watson, 5 June 1856 . Watson 1835 . Letter to H.  C. …

From Asa Gray   4 November 1856

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Summary

Outlines the ranges of northern U. S. species common to Europe. Hopes to investigate the resemblances between the floras of the north-eastern U. S. and western Europe. Discusses routes by which alpine plants appear to have reached U. S.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1982

Matches: 7 hits

  • … In his letter to Asa Gray, 24 August [1856] , CD had indicated that he considered the …
  • … to range northwards (see letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] ). When he received the …
  • … in the margin, ‘dele’. Letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , in which CD referred to the …
  • … which the introduced species belonged (see letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] ). A.   …
  • … Gray 1856a. See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , n.  6. Gray refers …
  • … Dalton Hooker with his own letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [1856] . …
  • … D. Hooker] 1856, a review of A.  de Candolle 1855 . CD forwarded Gray’s letter to Joseph …

To Laurence Edmondston   11 September [1856]

Summary

Requests observations on pigeons.

Knew LE’s son [Thomas] and deplores his fate [accidental death in 1846].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Laurence Edmondston
Date:  11 Sept [1856]
Classmark:  L. D. Edmondston (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1954

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Dated by the relationship to the letter to Laurence Edmondston, 3 May [1856] . …
  • … See letter to Laurence Edmondston, 3 May [1856] , n.   …
  • … 5. See letter to Laurence Edmondston, 3 May [1856] and n.   …
  • … Vernon Wollaston (see letter from T.  V. Wollaston, [February 1856] ). Thomas Edmondston …
  • … 3. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] . Measurements of a wild rabbit from …

From George Dickie   1 December 1856

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Summary

His observations on Subularia: has never seen it in flower in the air.

Author:  George Dickie
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Dec 1856
Classmark:  DAR 207: 16
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2009

Matches: 2 hits

  • … D. Hooker, [early December 1856], and the letters from C.  C. Babington, 22 November …
  • … See the letters to J.  D. Hooker, [early December 1856] and from J.   …

To C. J. F. Bunbury   21 April [1856]

Summary

CD writes on geographical distribution – "a grand game of chess with the world for a board".

Gives his hypothetical explanation why zoology of Cape [of Good Hope] is not so peculiar as its botany: it was once a group of islands – later united.

Tries hard to set forth the difficulties of his [species] theory.

Tells CJFB in confidence of his theory of the glacial epoch and its effect on plant distribution, such as identical species being found on summits of mountains in the tropics. Invites him to attack his "doctrine".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles James Fox Bunbury, 8th baronet
Date:  21 Apr [1856]
Classmark:  Suffolk Record Office, Bury St Edmunds (Bunbury Family Papers E18/700/1/9/6)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1856

Matches: 5 hits

  • … the relationship to the letter from C.  J. F. Bunbury, 16 April 1856 . Letter from C.  J. …
  • … F. Bunbury, 16 April 1856 . See letters from C.  J. F. …
  • … 1856  and 16 April 1856 . Lowe 1856 . See letter from R.  T. Lowe, 12 April 1856 . Richard …
  • … 1847] . No further letters from Bunbury about CD’s theories in 1856 have been found, but …
  • 1856, when CD visited Bunbury in London (F.  J. Bunbury ed. 1891–3, Middle Life 2: 413–14). With reference to the topics discussed in this letter, …

To Charles Lyell   20 November [1860]

Summary

Admires Edward Forbes’s theory of continental extensions, but it will discourage investigation of distribution.

Mentions Oswald Heer’s proposed map of Atlantis.

Discusses extinction of plants caused by the glacial era. Migration of plants and animals during glacial period.

Encourages CL’s work [on Antiquity of man (1863)].

Comments on unfriendly reviews. Asks CL’s opinion about including a reply to reviewers in next edition of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.233)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2989

Matches: 4 hits

  • … from J.  D.  Hooker, 4 August 1856 , and letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 5 August [1856] . …
  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter to Charles Lyell, 25 June [1856] . Heer 1855 . Lyell was …
  • … E.  Forbes 1846 . See preceding letter. In 1856, when he was composing his species …
  • … See Correspondence vol.  6, letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 . See, for example, …

To Thomas Davidson   30 April 1861

Summary

Thanks TD for his letter. Difficulties with CD’s theory are many and great, but CD thinks the reason is that we underestimate our ignorance. The imperfection of the geological record counts heavily for CD. His greatest trouble is weighing "the direct effects … of changed conditions of life without any selection, with the action of selection on mere accidental (so to speak) variability. I oscillate much on this head, but generally return to my belief that the direct [effects] … have not been great."

Is surprised that any one, like W. B. Carpenter, can go as far as to believe all birds may have descended from one parent, but will not go further and include all the members of the same great division. Such beliefs make "Divine mockeries" of morphology and embryology, the most important of all subjects.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Davidson
Date:  30 Apr 1861
Classmark:  DAR 143: 373
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3131

Matches: 2 hits

  • … vol.  6, letter to Thomas Davidson, 23 December [1856] , and letter from Thomas …
  • … Davidson, 29 December 1856 . See letter from Thomas Davidson, 3 May 1861 . The remarks …

To John Lubbock   [29 July 1856]

Summary

Regrets he cannot help JL; the point [unspecified] was always a trouble to CD also.

Has been to a poultry show.

Asks for the return of a lens.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  [29 July 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 13 (EH 88206462)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1620

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Sydenham, Kent, held from Tuesday, 29 July to Friday, 1 August 1856 (see letters to W.  B. …
  • … so-called ‘ephippial’ eggs (Lubbock 1857). See letter to John Lubbock, 27 October [1856] . …
  • 1856] ). The reference is to lenses, probably for the Smith and Beck simple dissecting microscopes that both CD and Lubbock owned, and for their compound microscopes (see Correspondence vol.  4, letter

To W. B. Tegetmeier   23 August [1856]

Summary

Instructions for delivering pigeons to Down.

Has Scandaroons for WBT.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  23 Aug [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1943

Matches: 3 hits

  • … W.  B. Tegetmeier, [15–22 August 1856] . See letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 24 June [1856] . …
  • … 22 August 1856] . Tegetmeier’s letter has not been found. He had apparently told CD that …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letters to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 14 August [1856] and [15– …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   [15–22 August 1856]

Summary

Is collecting only pigeons that differ in proportions, so declines some birds offered by WBT.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  [15–22 Aug 1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1935

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 14 August [1856] and to the letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 23 August [ …
  • … are discussed in Variation 1: 142–4. See letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 14 August [1856] . …

To J. D. Hooker   9 May [1856]

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Summary

Lyell urges CD to publish a sketch of species theory; CD asks JDH’s opinion on best course.

Concerned about opposition, particularly by Owen, to Huxley’s admission to Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  9 May [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 161
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1870

Matches: 3 hits

  • … letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 , and letter to Charles Lyell, 3 May [1856] ). A …
  • … by the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 May 1856 . John Rice Crowe was …
  • … to the Athenæum (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 May 1856 ). John Crawfurd , Paul Edmund …

From Charles Cardale Babington   22 November 1856

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Summary

He is not sure whether he has seen Subularia flowering above the water, but thinks it probably is an aerial flowerer, at least sometimes.

Has been unable to find an anonymous book on pigeons in the University Library.

Author:  Charles Cardale Babington
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 207: 15
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1996

Matches: 1 hit

  • … letter from H.  C. Watson, 26 November 1856 , and letter to J.  D. Hooker, [early December …

To J. D. Hooker   1 December [1856]

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Summary

Questions JDH on separation of sexes in trees in New Zealand flora.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 185
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2008

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of trees, also discussed in the letters to George Bentham , 26 November [1856] and …
  • … 30 November [1856] . See letters to George Bentham , 26 November [1856] and 30 November [ …
  • … lost the seed (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 24 December [1856] ). Hooker had previously …
  • … other seeds from birds’ dung for CD (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 22 November 1856 ). …
  • … the Darwin Library–CUL. See letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . CD’s results are …

To Samuel Birch   6 February [1856]

Summary

Is grateful for SB’s note and assistance. Will call upon him in London in a fortnight.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Birch
Date:  6 Feb [1856]
Classmark:  British Museum (Department of the Middle East, correspondence 1826–67: 1492)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1829A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … letter to J.  E. Gray, 14 January [1856] ). See letter to Samuel Birch, [12 March 1856] . …
  • … by the relationship to the letter to J.  E. Gray, 14 January [1856] . CD had asked Birch, …

To John Murray   20 November [1856–7]

Summary

Thanks for gift [of books requested in 1026]. Sale is a good deal more than he had anticipated.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  20 Nov [1856-7]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42153 ff.54–55)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1028

Matches: 4 hits

  • … of this letter and the letter to John Murray, 17 November [1856–7] , is based on the ‘Down …
  • … carrier, as requested in letter to John Murray, 17 November [1856–7] , they would have …
  • … See letter to John Murray, 17 November [1856–7] . …
  • 1856 or Thursday, 19 November 1857. Either possibility would fit well with both letters. …

To S. P. Woodward   27 May [1856]

Summary

Thanks for answer to query. "I see … that there is no hope of comparing the same genus at two different periods, and seeing whether the tendency to vary is greater at one period in such genus than at another period."

Inclined to dispute SPW’s doctrine that islands are generally ancient. Doubts that they are remnants of continents.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  27 May [1856]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum, Library and Archives (General Special Collections DC AL 1/5)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1879

Matches: 3 hits

  • … letter to S.  P. Woodward, 15 May [1856] ). See letter to S.  P. Woodward, [after 4 June …
  • … P. Woodward, 2 May 1856 , even though CD had written an additional letter in the interim ( …
  • … of continents in the letter from S.  P. Woodward, 2 May 1856 . He gave a fuller discussion …

To Charles Lyell   16 [June 1856]

Summary

Condemns theory of Edward Forbes and others that many islands were formerly connected to South America by now submerged continents.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  16 [June 1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.131)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1902

Matches: 3 hits

  • … in letter to S.  P. Woodward, 27 May 1856 . See also letter from S.  P. Woodward, 4  …
  • … 1836–50; Heer 1855 (see letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 ); and Maury 1855a. …
  • … by Lyell’s reply (see letter from Charles Lyell, 17 June 1856 ). E.  Forbes 1846 , pp.   …

To J. D. Hooker   13 July [1856]

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Summary

Has found no case of Huxley’s eternal hermaphrodites.

Cruelty and waste in nature.

CD does not believe in hybrids.

One proven case of multiple creations would smash CD’s theory.

Asks JDH to read MS on alpine and Arctic distribution.

Lyell’s "conversion" to mutability.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  13 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1924

Matches: 5 hits

  • … by the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 . See letter to T.  H. …
  • … Natural selection , pp.  531, 534–66). See letter to Charles Lyell, 5 July [1856] and n.   …
  • … Huxley, 8 July [1856] . See the final paragraph of the letter from J.  D. Hooker. 10 July …
  • … Huxley, 1 July [1856] , n.  2. See letter to T.  H. …
  • … 7. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . CD had previously met Philip Henry …

To Charles Lyell   3 May [1856]

Summary

Discusses possibility of publishing a sketch of his views.

Comments on CL’s letter [1862].

Mentions various geological topics.

Asks to borrow publication by Heer.

Mentions flight of Colymbetes over ocean.

Recalls visit by Wollaston.

Notes views of Hooker and Huxley on species.

Mentions ability of ducks to transport plant seeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  3 May [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.127)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1866

Matches: 5 hits

  • … letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 . See letter to Charles Lyell, 21 April [1856] . …
  • … Heer 1855 . See letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 . CD mentioned this case in …
  • … more & more unorthodox’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856  and n.  7). CD further …
  • … with J.  D. Hooker (see letters to J.  D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] and 11 May [1856] ) before …
  • … in tree roots (see letter to W.  E. Darwin, [26 February 1856] ). The case referred to …

To J. D. Hooker   11 March [1858]

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Summary

JDH’s "objection" that small local genera do not vary and mundane ones do, is exactly CD’s point. Local floras useful to test idea that varieties are incipient species. Same genus in different countries cannot be lumped.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 Mar [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 228
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2239

Matches: 1 hit

  • … to Hooker’s calculations on Weddell 1856 (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 10 [March 1858] ). …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s advice  writing …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Re: Design – performance version – 25 March 2007 – 1 Re: Design – Adaptation of the …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Observers |  Fieldwork |  Experimentation |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘ Our ancestor was an animal which breathed water, had a swim-bladder, a great swimming …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Friendship | Mentors | Class | Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …   Darwin made many changes to the text of Origin across different editions as he …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwin’s mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … When I was in spirits I sometimes fancied that my book w d  be successful; but I never even …
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