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From Charles Shaw   3 October 1865

Summary

Admiral FitzRoy’s daughters by his first marriage have been left without means. The largest subscription to the fund has been £100.

Author:  Charles Shaw
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Oct 1865
Classmark:  DAR 177: 147
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4908

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Henrietta O’Brien . Emily-Unah died in 1856 (see letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 2 May 1865   …

From J. D. Hooker   [23] December 1865

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Summary

No one believes in Karsten.

Surprised by CD’s observations that illegitimate crosses within a species produce hybrid-like offspring.

JDH’s scepticism of Scott’s observations.

On proposing James Hector vs Julius von Haast for Royal Society; on learned society honours.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [23] Dec 1865
Classmark:  DAR 102: 47–50
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4954

Matches: 3 hits

  • … p.  324). Hooker visited Vienna in 1856 ( Correspondence vol.  6, letter to J.  D.   …
  • 1856  appeared in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles ( Botanique ) 7 (1857): 229–46. See letter
  • 1856 and Radlkofer 1857 , pp.  250–1). Hooker had visited Naudin and Decaisne in Paris in 1863 (see Correspondence vol.  11, letter

To W. B. Tegetmeier   2 June [1865]

Summary

Has lost time through illness.

Suggests an experiment to see whether the progeny of a pigeon cross are affected by a previous impregnation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  2 June [1865]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4848

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of Wingfield and Johnson 1856–7, if CD thought fit (see letter from W.  B. Tegetmeier, [ …
  • letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, [7 April 1865] . A notice of Tegetmeier’s presentation of living specimens and preparations of skulls of Polish fowl at the 25 November 1856  …
  • 1856–7 and in Variation. Owing to the delay in publishing Variation , CD was able to use Tegetmeier 1867  in all his references to poultry, including information from Hewitt and Ballance. Tegetmeier 1867  was originally published in fifteen instalments in 1866 and 1867. CD’s unbound annotated parts are in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia 1: 800–3). See also Correspondence vol.  14, letter

From George Henslow   1 November 1865

Summary

Has made observations on pollination mechanism in Medicago sativa [J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 9 (1867): 327–9], which his brother-in-law [J. D. Hooker] would accept. Wants to check that CD has not already made them.

Also sends interpretation of Salvia.

His observations come from following CD’s generalisation in Origin [p. 79] on necessity of out-crossing.

Author:  George Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Nov 1865
Classmark:  DAR 166: 150
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4928

Matches: 1 hit

  • … see Correspondence vol.  6, letter to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] and n.  2). He …

To Charles Lyell   21 February [1865]

Summary

Belated thanks to CL for copy of Elements. Praises CL’s work. Notes especially Atlantic continents, the Weald, the Purbeck beds, glacial action, and the formation of lake-basins.

Also mentions account of Heer’s work

and CD’s disagreement with J. D. Forbes.

Suggests that CL have Murray print a two-volume edition [of the Elements].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  21 Feb [1865]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.306)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4775

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 13 March 1846] , and Correspondence vol.  6, letters to Charles Lyell , 16 [June 1856] and …
  • 1856] . For CD’s earlier discussions of Heer’s hypothesised continent once connecting Europe and the Americas, see Correspondence vol.  8, letter

To B. D. Walsh   9 July [1865]

Summary

Thanks BDW for his interesting letter [4839] and for the case of Panagaeus, a genus almost sacred to him since Cambridge days.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Benjamin Dann Walsh
Date:  9 July [1865]
Classmark:  Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Walsh 4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4867

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter to John Lubbock, 27 October [1856] ). CD did not publish on …

To A. D. Bartlett   14 February [1865]

Summary

CD sends thanks for feather of the Gallus.

The rabbit arrived safely, but unfortunately the entrails had been removed; if ADB catches the other one, CD would like it sent unmutilated.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Abraham Dee Bartlett
Date:  14 Feb [1865]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4771

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter to W.  D.  Fox, 8 [June 1856] ; see also Variation 1: 116, …

To Abraham Dee Bartlett   30 January [1865]

Summary

Orders that one of CD’s Porto Santo rabbits be killed and sent to him.

Asks whether ADB has got young from mating these with females of other breeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Abraham Dee Bartlett
Date:  30 Jan [1865]
Classmark:  Yale University Library: Manuscripts and Archives (Joseph Bradley Murray Collection (MS 363) Box 1, folder 4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4758

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter from T.  V. Wollaston, [February 1856] . CD had received …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   14 March [1865]

Summary

Asks for WBT’s help in arranging for woodcuts to illustrate pigeon chapters of Variation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  14 Mar [1865]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4786

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter to W.  B.  Tegetmeier, 15 March [1856] , and Variation 1: …
  • 1856–7 is in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia 1: 798–800). Weir had also designed the illustrations for Wingfield and Johnson 1853. According to CD’s Classed account book (Down House MS), CD made a payment of £3 3 s. to Tegetmeier for ‘wood cuts’ on 24 January 1866. See also letter

From J. D. Hooker   24 December 1865

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Summary

Oliver says H. E. Baillon found stamens on female flowers of Coelebogyne, but JDH and many botanists have never found any stamens.

Lyell wants to propose JDH for Copley Medal.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Dec 1865
Classmark:  DAR 102: 51–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4955

Matches: 3 hits

  • … n.  7. See letter from J.  D.  Hooker, [23] December 1865  and n.  5. In his 1856 paper on …
  • 1856 , p.  327, and n.  7, below). Robert Brown had collected specimens of Coelebogyne ilicifolia at Keppel Bay, on the east coast of Australia, in 1802 (J. Smith 1839, p.  509). Joseph Decaisne . See letter
  • 1856 , pp.  327–33). In a subsequent paper on polyembryony in C.  ilicifolia , Braun commented that, as no contrary evidence had yet been provided, the prevailing view that the plant was parthenogenetic must stand (see Braun 1859 , p.  117). CD had suggested this procedure in his letter

To J. D. Hooker   27 [or 28 September 1865]

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Summary

Agrees with JDH on difference in grief over loss of father and of child. His love of his father.

The Reader.

Politics and science.

Health improved by Bence Jones’s diet.

[Dated "Thursday 27th" by CD.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [27 or 28] Sept 1865
Classmark:  DAR 115: 275
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4901

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Bullard 1856 . Palgrave 1865 . For Hooker’s opinion of the book, see the letter from J.   …

From J. D. Hooker   1 January 1865

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Summary

Forwards H. T. Stainton letter for reply.

Finds many Cucurbita have tendrils with sticking ends.

The "potentiality of so many organs in plants to play so many parts is one of the most wonderful of your discoveries . . . one day it will itself play a prodigious part in the interpretation of both morphological and physiological facts".

Is disgusted with Sabine’s address [see 4708] because of its mutilation of what JDH wrote.

THH’s slashing leader in Reader ["Science and ""Church policy"" ", 4 (1864): 821] – as usual he destroys all in his path.

Encloses letter from G. H. K. Thwaites with a message for CD [see encl].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Jan 1865
Classmark:  DAR 102: 1–3; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Directors’ Correspondence 162: 224
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4734

Matches: 1 hit

  • … and Correspondence vol.  6, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 9 November 1856 ). Hooker is cited …

To J. D. Hooker   22 and 28 [October 1865]

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Summary

Thinks Royal Society’s failure to honour W. J. Hooker may be due to small number of botanists on Council.

Interest in H. J. Carter’s papers in Annals and Magazine of Natural History on lower organisms.

On Wallace; anthropology.

H. H. Travers’ paper on Chatham Islands [J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 9 (1865): 135–44].

W. C. Wells’s paper of 1813 ["Essay on dew", Two Essays (1818)] anticipates discovery of natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  22 and 28 Oct 1865
Classmark:  DAR 115: 277
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4921

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 8 April [1856] , and Record of the Royal …
  • letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 27 [or 28 September 1865] , n.  12. Most of CD’s copies of the journal for the years 1856  …

To A. R. Wallace   22 September [1865]

Summary

Crests as inherited variations; domesticated birds.

Belief in value of travel journals.

Current reading.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  22 Sept [1865]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add. MS 46434 f. 56)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4896

Matches: 1 hit

  • … History in 1856 (A.  R.  Wallace 1856a, 1856b, and 1856c; see also letter to J.  D.   …

From W. B. Tegetmeier   [29 March – 7 April 1865]

Summary

WBT’s eye is getting on very well.

Enclosure comments on a note to folio 1 [of CD’s MS on variation], WBT thinks his works not worth citing: his edition of the Poultry book was never completed and Profitable poultry is out of print.

Author:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [29 Mar – 7 Apr 1865]
Classmark:  DAR 178: 62, 66
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4803

Matches: 1 hit

  • letter may be one of the slips referred to. Tegetmeier refers to a note on the first folio of CD’s manuscript chapter on fowls. The note contained CD’s acknowledgment of Tegetmeier’s assistance (see Variation 1: 225, n.  1). Tegetmeier refers to Wingfield and Johnson 1856– …

From William Duppa Crotch   10 April 1865

Summary

Supports Atlantis hypothesis.

Author:  William Duppa Crotch
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Apr 1865
Classmark:  DAR 161: 274
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4811

Matches: 1 hit

  • letter to Charles Lyell, 21 February [1865] and nn.  3–5. The transatlantic cable, making telegraphic communication between Britain and North America possible, was laid on the sea-bed plateau between Ireland and Newfoundland, Canada, in 1856 ( …

From A. R. Wallace   2 October 1865

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Summary

Information concerning improvements in the Reader under new sponsorship.

Current reading and work [on pigeons for Ibis 1 (1865): 365–400, and catalogue of his collection of birds].

Book of travels postponed indefinitely.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Oct 1865
Classmark:  DAR 106: B27–30
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4906

Matches: 1 hit

  • letter from F.  H. Hooker, 6 September [1865] , n.  7. The Anthropological Society of London had been founded by James Hunt in January 1863. Hunt had been a member of the Ethnological Society of London from 1856  …

To Asa Gray   19 April [1865]

Summary

Congratulates AG on the "grand news of Richmond".

Still interested in dimorphism and would welcome new cases.

Working on Variation

and correcting proofs of Climbing plants.

Would like seed of AG’s dimorphic Plantago.

Cannot understand how the wind could fertilise reciprocally dimorphic flowers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  19 Apr [1865]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (77)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4467

Matches: 2 hits

  • 1856 in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia 1: 348–51). CD discussed the pollination mechanisms of Plantago with Gray on several occasions (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter
  • letter from John Scott, 10 April 1865  and n.  13. At the end of his notice of Scott’s paper, Gray wrote: ‘We may here append the remark that the Thymelæaceous genus Leucosmia is dimorphous, and some species of Drymispermum exhibit one if not both of the two forms’ (A.  Gray 1865a, p.  104). CD probably refers to four North American species of heterostyled Plantago discussed in A.  Gray 1856, …

To J. D. Hooker   19 January [1865]

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Summary

"Climbing plants" sent off.

Encourages JDH to include notes on gradation of important characters in Genera plantarum or to write a paper on the subject. Has given prominence to gradation of unimportant characters in climbing plants. Believes that it is common for the same part in an individual plant to be in different states. Same may be true of important parts – for example position of ovule may differ.

Two articles in last Natural History Review interested him; "Colonial floras" [n.s. 5 (1865): 46–63]

and "Sexuality of cryptogams" [n.s. 5 (1865): 64–79].

Fact of similarity of orders in tropics is extremely curious. Thinks it may be connected with glacial destruction.

Leo Lesquereux says he is a convert for the curious reason that CD’s books make birth of Christ and redemption by grace so clear to him!

"Not one question [for JDH] in this letter!"

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  19 Jan [1865]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 258a–c
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4748

Matches: 1 hit

  • letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 5 April [1864] and n.  8. James Dwight Dana had corresponded with CD about the geographical distribution of Crustacea in 1856  …

From Fritz Müller   5 November 1865

Summary

Thanks CD for the copy of Orchids and papers on Linum and Lythrum [Collected papers 2: 93–105; 106–31].

Intends to travel to the River Itajahy and will make observations on climbing plants. Is not sure whether Dalbergia is a winding plant.

CD has changed FM’s whole perception of nature.

CD has helped him to understand distribution of coastal flora.

The vegetation on Desterro is changing.

Louis Agassiz is seeking evidence against transmutation in the distribution of the fish in the Amazon.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Nov 1865
Classmark:  Möller 1915–21, 2: 76–7.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4929A

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1856 in which he immersed seeds and fruits in salt water ( Correspondence vols.  5 and 6); he discussed the theory with Hooker over several years (see letter
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s advice  writing …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Re: Design – performance version – 25 March 2007 – 1 Re: Design – Adaptation of the …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Observers |  Fieldwork |  Experimentation |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘ Our ancestor was an animal which breathed water, had a swim-bladder, a great swimming …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Friendship | Mentors | Class | Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …   Darwin made many changes to the text of Origin across different editions as he …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwin’s mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … When I was in spirits I sometimes fancied that my book w d  be successful; but I never even …
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