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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To W. D. Fox   4 [September 1863]

Summary

His bad health has caused him to return to Malvern.

Emma cannot find the gravestone of their child, Anne. Asks WDF whether he can remember its location.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  4 [Sept 1863]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 140)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4292

Matches: 1 hit

  • … letter to W.  D.  Fox, 3 October [1856] . See also letter from W.  D. Fox, 7 September [ …

To Alphonse de Candolle   14 January [1863]

Summary

Thanks AdeC for his memoir ["Étude sur l’espèce", Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.) 4th ser. 18 (1862): 59–110].

CD astonished at the amount of variability in the oaks.

CD differs from most contemporaries in thinking that the vast continental extensions of Forbes, Heer, and others are not only advanced without sufficient evidence but are opposed to much weighty evidence.

AdeC’s comment on CD’s work [Origin] is generous.

CD is satisfied at the length AdeC goes with him and is not surprised at his prudent reservations. He remembers how many years it took him to change his old beliefs. The great point is to give up immutability. So long as species are thought immutable there can be no progress in "epiontology" [see ML 1: 234 n.]. CD is sure to be proved wrong in many points but the subject will have "a grand future".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alphonse de Candolle
Date:  14 Jan [1863]
Classmark:  Archives de la famille de Candolle (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3917

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 6). See especially Correspondence vol.  6, letters to Charles Lyell , 16 [June 1856] and …
  • … 25 June [1856] , and Origin , pp.  352–6. See also Correspondence vol.  10, letter to J.   …

From Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox   [29 September 1863]

Summary

Thanks to WDF’s directions, Anne’s tombstone has been found.

CD improved, but recovery is slow. She describes treatment.

Encloses paper she and CD have written [see 4294, which was wrongly addressed by ED and had not reached WDF].

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  [29 Sept 1863]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (Fox 141)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4312

Matches: 1 hit

  • … grave in 1856 and 1859, had sent specific directions for finding it (see letter to W.   …

From J. D. Hooker   [24 May 1863]

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Summary

Flora of Cameroons shakes JDH’s faith in ability to explain past or present migrations. Sees need for a major novel explanation such as natural selection, glacial cold, or continental connections.

Lyell in a bad way about feud with Falconer.

JDH’s opinion of Wallace, Bates, J. E. Gray, Owen, Asa Gray, Lubbock, and Bentham.

Bentham’s Linnean Society address [see 4118].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [24 May 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 101: 143–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4169

Matches: 2 hits

  • … J.  D.  Hooker, 4 August 1856 , Correspondence vol.  9, letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 28 [ …
  • 1856 (see Wade ed.  1983, pp.  2, 171–83). Wallace 1853 . The reference is to Alfred Russel Wallace and Henry Walter Bates , both of whom had published books on their travels to Amazonian South America ( Wallace 1853  and Bates 1863 ); CD considered Wallace’s book to be inferior to Bates’s as a work of natural history (see letter

To Francis Trevelyan Buckland   26 January [1863]

Summary

Asks FB’s help in identifying an article in The Field about the fins of fishes growing again after being cut off, and inquiring whether he has heard of the re-growth of organs in the mammalia or birds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Trevelyan (Frank) Buckland
Date:  26 Jan [1863]
Classmark:  Christie’s, London (dealers) (23 June 1993, lot 146)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3948F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Buckland , died in 1856 ( DNB ). The reference has not been identified. See letter to J.   …

To Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener   [before 3 February 1863]

Summary

Answers D. Beaton’s criticism of Gärtner’s work, defending his results in crossing experiments and vindicating the memory of "one of the most laborious lovers of truth who ever lived".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Journal of Horticulture
Date:  [before 3 Feb 1863]
Classmark:  Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener n.s. 4 (1863): 93
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3966

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 1855] , and Correspondence vol.  6, letter to M.  J.  Berkeley, 29 February [1856] ). …

To W. D. Fox   9 March [1863]

Summary

Has quoted WDF on crossing white and slate muscovy ducks [Variation 2: 40]. When not crossed, do these breed true?

Will also quote him on Mr Woodd’s white ewes that produced black lambs by a ram with only black spots [Variation 2: 30].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  9 Mar [1863]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 138)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4033

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter to W.  D.  Fox, 3 January [1856] , in which CD thanked Fox …

To J. D. Hooker   5 March [1863]

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Summary

Ill health.

At work on Variation.

Reading JDH on Welwitschia.

Letter from Lyell defends his position on species.

Anger at Owen.

John Lubbock’s lectures.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 Mar [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 184
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4024

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 9 November 1856 ). Instead, he …
  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 4 August 1856 ). For CD and Hooker’s …

From Charles and Emma Darwin to William Erasmus Darwin   [4 May 1863]

Summary

Glad to hear of the plant; CD instructs WED to make further observations. If it is a good case he will insist on WED’s sending a communication to the Linnean Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin; Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [4 May 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 219.1: 55
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4139F

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1856 ( DNB ). It was subsequently decided that George should return to school for another year (see letter

From Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker   26 December [1863]

Summary

CD would be pleased to sit for a bust by Thomas Woolner for JDH, but he is too ill now.

Emma’s views on slavery and the Civil War.

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  26 Dec [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 214
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4359

Matches: 2 hits

  • 1856  and 1857 (see Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, 128: 23 and 128: 25, and Correspondence vol.  9, letter
  • letter to Asa Gray, 23 February [1863] and n.  22). Frederick Law Olmsted wrote a number of accounts of the social and economic conditions of the southern states of America: A journey in the seaboard slave states ( Olmsted 1856 ), …

From Booth Bacon   10 June 1863

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Summary

On CD’s application to pay up at once his shares in the Penarth Harbour Dock and Railway; directors’ policy is to receive payment on only 50% of shares allotted.

Author:  Booth Bacon
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 June 1863
Classmark:  DAR 160: 12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4211

Matches: 1 hit

  • letter to Booth Bacon has not been found. The Penarth Harbour, Dock & Railway company was established in 1856  …

From Daniel Oliver   20 July 1863

Summary

Hildebrand’s paper is unsuitable for the Natural History Review.

Author:  Daniel Oliver
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 July 1863
Classmark:  DAR 173: 22
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4247

Matches: 2 hits

  • letter to Daniel Oliver, 18 July [1863] ). Joseph Dalton Hooker , Oliver’s colleague at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, was also an editor of the Natural History Review. Schacht 1856– …
  • letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 24 January 1863  and nn.  1 and 3. l.  c. : ‘ loco citato in the place cited’ ( Chambers ). Oliver refers to Schacht 1856– …

From Charles Lyell   11 March 1863

Summary

Defends position he takes on species [in Antiquity of man]. CD overestimates CL’s capacity to influence public. Will not dogmatise on descent of man; prepared to accept it, but it "takes away much of the charm from my speculations on the past". Cannot go to Huxley’s length with regard to natural selection. Responds to CD’s comments on Antiquity of man.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Mar 1863
Classmark:  K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 362–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4035

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter to S.  P.  Woodward, 18 July 1856 ). Although Woodward did …

To Armand de Quatrefages   [14 April 1863]

Summary

The niata is a very good case because the race is well established and must originate in South America. There is a description of the head by [Richard] Owen in the Descriptive catalogue of the osteological collection of the College of Surgeons.

Has observed modifications in the skeletons of rabbits, ducks, poultry, and pigeons. There is an extract about modifications in pigeons in the first chapter of Origin. Encloses a woodcut of crested or polish fowls; there is a change in the brain as well as in the exterior bones.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Jean Louis Armand (Armand de Quatrefages) Quatrefages de Bréau
Date:  [14 Apr 1863]
Classmark:  Bulletins de la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris 4 (1863): 378–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4094F

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1856, pp.  366–8). CD may have mentioned this Zoological Society report to Quatrefages in the missing portion of this letter; …

To Isaac Anderson-Henry   2 February [1863]

Summary

Suggests collecting seeds at different heights from British Columbia.

Describes experiment on seeds from short anthers.

C. V. Naudin writes he has discovered cause of hybrid sterility.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Isaac Anderson; Isaac Anderson Henry
Date:  2 Feb [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 145: 2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3964

Matches: 1 hit

  • letters. Edited by Francis Darwin and Albert Charles Seward. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1903. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural selection: being the second part of his big species book written from 1856

To Charles Victor Naudin   7 February 1863

Summary

Thanks for informative letter of 2 February. CD is glad to have CVN’s opinion on the crossing of varieties of melons,

has made use of his memoir on the Cucurbitaceae ["Cucurbitacées cultivées au Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle en 1862", Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.) 18 (1863): 159–208]

and anticipates with great interest his work on hybridisation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Victor Naudin
Date:  7 Feb 1863
Classmark:  Progressus rei botanicæ 4 (1913): 94
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3972

Matches: 1 hit

  • letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 24 January 1863 ). CD cited Naudin’s study of varieties of melon (Naudin 1859) in Variation 1: 359–60. CD’s notes on Naudin 1859 are preserved in DAR 205.7 (2): 146. CD cited additional information supplied by Naudin in Variation 2: 108. CD refers to Naudin 1856  …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s advice  writing …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Re: Design – performance version – 25 March 2007 – 1 Re: Design – Adaptation of the …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Observers |  Fieldwork |  Experimentation |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘ Our ancestor was an animal which breathed water, had a swim-bladder, a great swimming …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Friendship | Mentors | Class | Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …   Darwin made many changes to the text of Origin across different editions as he …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwin’s mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … When I was in spirits I sometimes fancied that my book w d  be successful; but I never even …
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