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To J. D. Hooker   10 December [1856]

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Summary

CD is convinced of relation between separation of sexes and tree-habit.

Recent hard blows against crossing theory.

CD long tormented by land molluscs on oceanic islands; found transport possible experimentally.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  10 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 186
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2018

Matches: 7 hits

  • … pp.  61–2. See letter to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] , letter from H.  C. …
  • … Watson, 26 November 1856 , and letter to George Bentham, 30 November [1856] . The …
  • … Hooker, 7 December 1856 . See letter to P.  H. …
  • … 91). It was completed on 16 December 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). See letter from J.  D. …
  • … Gosse, 28 September 1856 , n.  4, and the letter from T.  V. Wollaston, [11  …
  • … the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . Persoon 1805–7 . CD …
  • 1856, is recorded in his Experimental book, p.  17 (DAR 157a). CD’s experiment was entered in his Experimental book, pp.  16–17 (DAR 157a). CD mentioned Francis Darwin’s suggestion in Origin , p.  361, where he proposed the floating carcases of birds as one of a number of ‘occasional’ means of dispersal. William Henry Harvey was an expert on Algae. CD had sent him Algae specimens from the Beagle voyage ( Correspondence vol.  4, letter

To J. D. Hooker   5 July [1856]

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Summary

Troubled by JDH’s connection between Antarctic island flora and Fuegia, which CD sees as part of a general relation to southern circumpolar flora. Encloses list [not found] of plants from Tristan d’Acunha.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1919

Matches: 11 hits

  • … to Charles Lyell (see letter to Charles Lyell, 5 July [1856] ). The original order of the …
  • … Candolle 1855 . Letter to Charles Lyell, 25 June [1856] . Letter from Charles …
  • … to Hooker, enclosed with his letter to J.  D. Hooker, 30 July [1856] . Letter from J.  D. …
  • … Lyell, [1 July 1856] . See letter to Charles …
  • … Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] . See letter to J.  D. …
  • … Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] . See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [26 June or 3 July …
  • … J.  D. Hooker on 5 July 1856. CD states that his first letter was written in the morning …
  • … Lyell, 5 July [1856] . CD reiterated this intention in his letter to J.  D. …
  • … Hooker, 13 July [1856] . It seems that Lyell did not forward the letter to Hooker, for CD …
  • … Hooker, 22 June [1856] , n.  2. See letter from J.  D. …
  • … Hooker 1844–7 , 2: 210–11). See the first letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 [July 1856] . A.  de …

To J. D. Hooker   11 May [1856]

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Summary

CD is unsure about JDH’s recommendation that he publish a separate "Preliminary Essay". It is unphilosophical to publish without full details.

CD will work for Huxley’s admission to Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 May [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 162
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1874

Matches: 8 hits

  • … the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 May 1856 , and the letter to J.  D. …
  • … Coral reefs in 1842. See letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 . On 14 May, CD followed …
  • … Hooker, 9 May [1856] . Letter from J.  D. …
  • … Hooker, 9 May [1856] . See letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 May 1856 . Burlington House, …
  • … was granted by the Treasury in a letter, dated 22 May 1856, addressed to the president of …
  • … Society council minutes). E.  Forbes 1856 . See letters to J.  D. Hooker, 7 May 1856 , …
  • … Hooker, 7 May 1856 . The other one, now missing, was a response to the letter to J.  D. …
  • … a visit to Tenby (see letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 11 May [1856] ). CD had presented this …

To J. D. Hooker   24 December [1856]

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Summary

On the variety of species definitions prevalent among naturalists.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  24 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 187
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2022

Matches: 5 hits

  • … in Leguminosae, which extended through the autumn and winter of 1856 (see letter to George …
  • … to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] , and letter to George …
  • … identified some of the seeds for him (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 22 November 1856 ). …
  • 1856] ). CD had tried to ascertain the probability of cross-fertilisation in the Leguminosae (see letter
  • 1856] ). No reference is made to Hooker in the discussion of Leguminosae in Natural selection , pp.  68–71. Christian Konrad Sprengel maintained that fertilisation of Campanulaceae takes place after the flower is opened ( Sprengel 1793 , p.  117). An annotated copy of Sprengel 1793  is in the Darwin Library–CUL. Joseph Ellison Portlock was inspector of studies at Woolwich. It is not known to what letter

To J. D. Hooker   18 November [1856]

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Summary

CD encloses letter from Asa Gray, although it is critical of JDH.

Role of struggle in forming species in retreat from advancing glaciers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  18 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 183
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1991

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sent by Gray to CD enclosed in the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . Letter from Asa …
  • … the relationship to the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 (see n.  2, below). A letter …
  • … Gray, 4 November 1856 . See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [16 November 1856] . This …

From J. D. Hooker   10 July 1856

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Summary

[T. Bell Salter’s?] "hybrid" Epilobium a false claim.

Admires Huxley’s response to Falconer [see 1904].

Tristan da Cunha plant list, requested by CD, supports JDH’s position [on continental extension?].

Chilean plants not exceptional.

JDH considers parallels between Australian Alps and European plants strong evidence for multiple creations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 96–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1923

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] , and letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . …
  • … Hooker, 5 [July 1856] . See letter to J.  D. …
  • … to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . See letter from J.  D. …
  • … provinces. T.  H. Huxley 1856b, a response to Falconer 1856 . See letters to J.  D. …
  • … of the same point in the insect kingdom (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] ). …
  • … Hooker, 21 [May 1856] and 17–18 [June 1856]. T.  H. Huxley 1855. See letter to J.  D. …
  • … and Arnott 1855. See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [26 June or 3 July 1856] . John Stevens …
  • 1856] , n.  3. The list was annotated by Hooker, giving brief descriptions of the localities inhabited by the twelve species. At the bottom, CD wrote: ‘These genera, Hooker says are not particularly wide rangers; but species with restricted ranges. — Nothing particular in short. —’ CD used Hooker’s information in Natural selection , pp.  553–4. Ferdinand Jakob Heinrich von Mueller was the government botanist in Melbourne, Australia. From 1853, he issued annual reports on the vegetation of the colony. See letter

To J. D. Hooker   9 May [1856]

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Lyell urges CD to publish a sketch of species theory; CD asks JDH’s opinion on best course.

Concerned about opposition, particularly by Owen, to Huxley’s admission to Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  9 May [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 161
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1870

Matches: 3 hits

  • … letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 , and letter to Charles Lyell, 3 May [1856] ). A …
  • … by the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 May 1856 . John Rice Crowe was …
  • … to the Athenæum (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 May 1856 ). John Crawfurd , Paul Edmund …

To J. D. Hooker   1 December [1856]

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Summary

Questions JDH on separation of sexes in trees in New Zealand flora.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 185
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2008

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of trees, also discussed in the letters to George Bentham , 26 November [1856] and …
  • … 30 November [1856] . See letters to George Bentham , 26 November [1856] and 30 November [ …
  • … lost the seed (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 24 December [1856] ). Hooker had previously …
  • … other seeds from birds’ dung for CD (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 22 November 1856 ). …
  • … the Darwin Library–CUL. See letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . CD’s results are …

To J. D. Hooker   13 July [1856]

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Summary

Has found no case of Huxley’s eternal hermaphrodites.

Cruelty and waste in nature.

CD does not believe in hybrids.

One proven case of multiple creations would smash CD’s theory.

Asks JDH to read MS on alpine and Arctic distribution.

Lyell’s "conversion" to mutability.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  13 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1924

Matches: 5 hits

  • … by the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 . See letter to T.  H. …
  • … Natural selection , pp.  531, 534–66). See letter to Charles Lyell, 5 July [1856] and n.   …
  • … Huxley, 8 July [1856] . See the final paragraph of the letter from J.  D. Hooker. 10 July …
  • … Huxley, 1 July [1856] , n.  2. See letter to T.  H. …
  • … 7. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . CD had previously met Philip Henry …

To J. D. Hooker   11 March [1858]

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JDH’s "objection" that small local genera do not vary and mundane ones do, is exactly CD’s point. Local floras useful to test idea that varieties are incipient species. Same genus in different countries cannot be lumped.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 Mar [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 228
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2239

Matches: 1 hit

  • … to Hooker’s calculations on Weddell 1856 (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 10 [March 1858] ). …

To J. D. Hooker   [21 May 1867]

Summary

Glad to hear Wallace is contender for Gold Medal. Has highest esteem for his extraordinary talents.

Thanks for H. Barkly’s letter from Mauritius.

Glad to see HB takes same view as CD about bones of deer [see 5395].

Objections to continental extension theory.

Progress [on Variation] very slow.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [21 May 1867]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 26–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5543

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter to Charles Lyell, 25 June [1856] , and letters to J.  D.   …
  • 1856] and n.  3, and Origin , pp.  357–8. Hooker and CD had disagreed on the subject: see, for example, Correspondence vol.  11, letter

To J. D. Hooker   22 August [1857]

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Tabulation of varieties goes on; very important as it shows the branching of forms. Mentions his principle of divergence.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  22 Aug [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 208
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2134

Matches: 3 hits

  • … A consignment had reached CD in November 1856 ( letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 3 November [ …
  • letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter. Edited by Francis Darwin. 3 vols. London: John Murray. 1887–8. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural selection: being the second part of his big species book written from 1856
  • 1856. There are numerous subsequent entries. Koch 1843–4 . Webb and Berthelot 1836–50. Ledebour 1842–53 . Grisebach 1843–4  is a catalogue of the flora of Rumelia, a Turkish possession in the Balkans that includes present-day Bulgaria. A.  Gray 1856a and Henslow 1835 . See Correspondence vol.  5, letter

From J. D. Hooker   [26 June or 3 July 1856]

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Can no longer make out story of NW. American plants; consulting Asa Gray.

Questionable validity of seed-salting experiments.

Aristolochia and Viscum seem to shed pollen before flower opens.

Ray Society should only do translations.

Thomas Thomson in India has rediscovered Aldrovanda, a rare relative of Drosera.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 June or 3 July] 1856
Classmark:  DAR 104: 197
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1911

Matches: 7 hits

  • … 5 [July 1856] . See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] . CD was anxious to ascertain …
  • … asking the same question (see letter to Asa Gray, 14 July [1856] ). Hooker was mistaken in …
  • … to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] . See letter to T.  H. Huxley, 4 May [1856] , in which …
  • … dates are the two Thursdays between the letters to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] and …
  • … and Hewett Cottrell Watson ( letter from H.  C. Watson, 5 June 1856) whether these species …
  • … annotations, above, and letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 ). Ludwig Radlkofer was an …
  • 1856 ). Siebold overturned Richard Owen’s definition of parthenogenesis (Owen 1849) by showing that the cells from which new organisms developed were true ova and not simply pre-existing ‘germinal’ cells contained within the parent’s body. Siebold demonstrated that these ova were capable of development without fertilisation. See Farley 1982 , pp.  100–5. See letter

To J. D. Hooker   11–12 November [1856]

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Summary

CD relieved by JDH’s positive response to his MS.

CD continues observations on means of transport.

JDH’s Raoul Island paper [J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 22 (1857): 133–41], showing continuity of vegetation with New Zealand, best evidence yet of continental extension.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11–12 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 181
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1986

Matches: 4 hits

  • … by the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 9 November 1856 . Letter from J.  D. …
  • … Hooker, 9 November 1856 . See letter from J.  D. …
  • … and W.  E. Darwin, 13 [November 1856] ). See letter to J.  D. Hooker, [19 October 1856] …
  • 1856 , in which Hooker invited CD to dinner on Wednesday, 12 November, to meet John Lindley and John Stevens Henslow , or on Friday 14 November, to meet John Tyndall and Henslow. CD attended neither dinner but did go up to London on 13 November (see letter

From J. D. Hooker   22 November 1856

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Summary

Continued debate on formation of species as a result of retreat from glaciers.

JDH suggests internal powers of species modification, which he knows CD abhors.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 111–12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1995

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Hooker, 23 November [1856] ). See letter from Asa …
  • … Hooker, 18 November [1856] . CD did not communicate this information (see letter to J.  D. …
  • … See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [1856] and n.  2. Thomas Thomson was …
  • … 4 November 1856 , which CD had sent to Hooker to read. The remainder of the letter is …

To J. D. Hooker   15 January [1858]

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CD has never doubted probability of Bering Strait land connection.

Family illness.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  15 Jan [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 221
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2203

Matches: 4 hits

  • … 30 July [1856] , and letter from J.  D. …
  • … Hooker, 4 August 1856 ). See Correspondence vol.  6, letter from J.  D. …
  • … see Correspondence vol.  6, especially letters to J.  D. Hooker, 19 July [1856] and …
  • 1856 . The Philosophical Club of the Royal Society, of which both CD and Hooker were members, met monthly. A meeting was held on 21 January 1858 ( Bonney 1919 , p.  137). Leonard Darwin , who had just turned 8, had experienced a breakdown in his health in 1857 (see Correspondence vol.  6, letter

To J. D. Hooker   7 March [1855]

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Latitude overrules everything in distribution. Alpine distributions are like insular. Tabulating proportions.

T. V. Wollaston’s Madeira insects: many flightless, thus not blown to sea. TVW’s insects do not confirm Forbes’s Atlantis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 Mar [1855]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 126
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1643

Matches: 2 hits

  • … March 1855] , n.  2. A.  K. Johnston ed. 1856 (see letter to G.  R. Waterhouse, 4 March [ …
  • 1856, plate 24) and collaborated with Alexander Keith Johnston on the ‘Map of geographical distribution of indigenous vegetation’, which also contains a ‘Map of Schouw’s phyto-geographic regions’. A.  Gray 1848 . Darlington 1837 , a second edition of William Darlington’s account of the native and naturalised plants growing in the vicinity of West Chester, Pennsylvania. The first edition did not have the title as given by CD in the letter. …

To J. D. Hooker   5 June [1857]

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Summary

Royal Society medals.

Correlation of variability and abnormal development is G. R. Waterhouse’s law. Relation of this law to polymorphism.

Colouring and marks of ancestral horse deduced from facts observed in pigeons.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 June [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 201
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2102

Matches: 1 hit

  • … John Richardson for a Royal Medal in 1856 (see letter to Edward Sabine, 23 April [1856] ). …

To J. D. Hooker   [after 20 January 1857]

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CD finds Alphonse de Candolle very useful, though JDH has low opinion.

CD argues for accidental introductions explaining some odd distributions, e.g., New Zealand vs Australian plants.

CD’s method.

Diverging affinities in isolated genera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [after 20 Jan 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 190
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2033

Matches: 5 hits

  • … The review had been discussed by CD and Hooker in 1856 (see letter to J.  D. …
  • … Hooker, 9 October [1856] ). In his letter to the Hookers (see n.  3, above), Gray had …
  • … command of Matthew Flinders . A.  Gray 1856–7 . See letter to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] . …
  • … and letter from J.  D. Hooker, [6–9 June 1855] ). Wollaston 1854  and 1856. As Thomas …
  • letter from Asa Gray addressed to both William Jackson Hooker and Joseph Dalton Hooker dated 5 January 1857 ( Asa Gray , Kew Correspondence 1839/73 (137/8), Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew). CD refers to Hooker’s criticism of Alphonse de Candolle’s Géographie botanique raisonnée ( A.  de Candolle 1855 ) in his review of the work ([J.  D. Hooker] 1856). …

To J. D. Hooker   19 July [1856]

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Summary

Multiple creations.

Necessity for crossing in plants and animals: JDH to take up the subject; explains separate sexes in trees.

Continental extensions.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  19 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 171
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1932

Matches: 4 hits

  • … the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 , and the letter to J.  D. Hooker, 13  July [ …
  • … Darwin Library–CUL. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 13 July [1856] . Hooker was an examiner …
  • … the relationship to the letter to J.  D. Hooker, 13 July [1856] . CD had asked Hooker to …
  • … his book on species ( letter to J.  D. Hooker, 13 July [1856] ). Hooker’s reply has not …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s advice  writing …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Re: Design – performance version – 25 March 2007 – 1 Re: Design – Adaptation of the …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Observers |  Fieldwork |  Experimentation |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘ Our ancestor was an animal which breathed water, had a swim-bladder, a great swimming …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Friendship | Mentors | Class | Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

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  • … At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

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  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

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  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

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  • … Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

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  • … The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

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  • …   Darwin made many changes to the text of Origin across different editions as he …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

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  • … In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwin’s mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

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  • … When I was in spirits I sometimes fancied that my book w d  be successful; but I never even …
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