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From George Morrish   18 March 1871

Summary

Having read extracts of CD’s work, he argues that the scriptural version of man’s origin is superior, and he is concerned about CD’s salvation.

Author:  George Morrish
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Mar 1871
Classmark:  DAR 171: 244
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7599

Matches: 4 hits

  • … John Murray. 1859. Whately, Richard. 1854. On the origin of civilisation. A lecture by his …
  • … Association. London. Whewell, William. 1854. Of the plurality of worlds: an essay. Also a …
  • … human societies had degenerated from an original more perfect state, see Whately 1854 , …
  • … Whewell 1854 , pp.  166–90, and Gillespie 1977 . In Descent 1: 174, CD had dismissed the …

To John Lubbock   12 August [1871]

Summary

CD’s comments on proofs of JL’s book [Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura (1873)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  12 Aug [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 67 (EH 88206511)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7904

Matches: 3 hits

  • … John Murray. 1871. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Lubbock, John. 1863–5. On the development of …
  • … 1873, pp.  50–2). See Living Cirripedia (1854) , pp.  110–11. Lubbock argued that an …

From W. W. Reade   1 February 1871

Summary

Sir Andrew Smith says Hottentots and Kaffirs laugh till they cry.

Author:  William Winwood Reade
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Feb 1871
Classmark:  DAR 176: 45
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7473

Matches: 2 hits

  • … refers here, as negroes (Nott and Gliddon 1854, p.  188). See also Appiah and Gates 2005  …
  • … of African peoples, see Nott and Gliddon 1854, pp.  180–210. Nott and Gliddon classified …

From J. V. Carus   14 November 1871

Summary

News of progress of German editions of Origin

and Descent.

Asks CD for references on chabius – a Chilean hybrid of goat and sheep.

Author:  Julius Victor Carus
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Nov 1871
Classmark:  DAR 161: 81
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8067

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1871. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. 1854–62. Histoire naturelle générale des règnes …
  • … were called ‘pellones’ ( Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 , 3: 162–3). The hybrids were also …

From Hermann Müller   9 October 1871

Summary

Is preparing a work on fertilisation of flowers, and wants to add a list of works containing observations on cross-fertilisation of plants. Asks CD for any references he may have.

Author:  Heinrich Ludwig Hermann (Hermann) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Oct 1871
Classmark:  DAR 171: 297
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7997

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Collected papers 2: 138–56. ] Lecoq, Henri. 1854–8. Études sur la géographie botanique de …
  • … CUL. CD refers to Henri Lecoq and Lecoq 1854–8 , and to Jean-Pierre-Etienne Vaucher and …

From C. W. Peach   1 May 1871

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Summary

Sends specimens of gulf-weed and cirripedes for CD to identify.

Various observations on Descent,

inherited deafness,

recognition of musical notes by dog, etc.

Author:  Charles William Peach
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 May 1871
Classmark:  DAR 89: 177–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7731

Matches: 3 hits

  • … pp.  33, 240 n. , and Living Cirripedia (1854) , pp.  157, 511). On Peach’s contribution …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

From K. T. E. von Siebold   29 November 1871

Summary

Thanks CD for copies of the Origin and Cirripedia;

sends his latest publication in return [Beiträge zur Parthenogenesis der Arthropoden (1871)]. Discusses his work on parthenogenesis which, he believes, is a case of atavism.

Author:  Carl Theodor Ernst von Siebold
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Nov 1871
Classmark:  DAR 177: 159
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8088

Matches: 2 hits

  • … had published four volumes on Cirripedia ( Living Cirripedia (1851) and (1854) and Fossil …
  • … Cirripedia (1851) and (1854)). CD’s copy of Siebold 1871  is in the Darwin Library–Down. …

To J. V. Carus   17 November 1871

Summary

CD offers to mark corrected passages in sheets of 6th edition of Origin.

Discusses question of hybrids between goats and sheep, on which H. von Nathusius has cast doubt in his recent Viehzucht [1872]. CD gives several references for a contrary view.

Asks JVC to inquire about HvN’s assertion that castrated rams have no horns.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Julius Victor Carus
Date:  17 Nov 1871
Classmark:  Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Slg. Darmstaedter Lc 1859: Darwin, Charles, Bl. 80–1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8073

Matches: 2 hits

  • … s Types of mankind (Nott and Gliddon 1854) is in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia 1: …
  • … sexes. Nott & Gliddon in “Types of Mankind 1854 p 379” give, I believe, some references on …

To H. E. Litchfield   [before 2 December 1871]

Summary

Sends MS of section on voice as a means of expression [Expression, pp. 86–93]. CD is dissatisfied with it – wishes he could avoid the subject.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  [before 2 Dec 1871]
Classmark:  British Library (Add MS 58373)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8134

Matches: 1 hit

  • … domestic, vol.  1 (DAR 248/1), under the year 1854). CD suggested that some emotions were …

From L. H. Morgan   1 August 1871

Summary

John Lubbock’s paper [? "Remarks on stone implements from western Africa", Rep. BAAS 40 (1870): 154–5] opposes some of his best sustained conclusions.

Author:  Lewis Henry Morgan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 171: 240
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7891

Matches: 1 hit

  • … or Pundit Club, which Morgan had founded in 1854 ( ANB ). Morgan visited CD at Down on 9  …

To George Busk   2 September [1871]

Summary

Is preparing a new edition of Origin [6th ed. (1872)] and asks GB for information on the gradations between the vibracula and avicularia of the Polyzoa and on what he bases his opinion concerning the homology of the avicularium with the zooid.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Busk
Date:  2 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 96: 88
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7921

Matches: 1 hit

  • … the Microscopical Society of London n.s. 2 (1854): 26–33. Nitsche, Hinrich. 1871. On some …

From J. D. Hooker   26 March 1871

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Summary

Answers CD’s questions.

Reception of Descent. Evolution accepted everywhere; descent of man accepted calmly.

Morocco plans.

Fears for Huxley, who is overworked.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Mar 1871
Classmark:  DAR 103: 65–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7627

Matches: 1 hit

  • … refers to his Himalayan journals (Hooker 1854). Elwes’s travelling companion was William …

From J. K. Fowler   9 October 1871

Summary

Is preparing paper on breeding ["Breeding facts and principles", J. Farmers’ Club (1871): 45–53]. Seeks CD’s advice and assistance. Believes male parent influences external appearance and female the internal organisation.

Author:  John Kersley Fowler
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Oct 1871
Classmark:  DAR 164: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7998

Matches: 1 hit

  • … was broached before farmers some years ago—in 1854—by M r . Reginald Orton in a paper read …
Document type
letter (13)
Date
1871
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03 (2)
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …
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