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Darwin Correspondence Project

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From Hermann Kindt   5 September 1864

Summary

Requests permission, for a friend, to publish extracts of Orchids in German translation.

Author:  Hermann Adolph Christian August (Hermann) Kindt
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Sept 1864
Classmark:  DAR 169: 11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4609

Matches: 5 hits

  • … barnacle work, conducted between 1846  and 1854, see Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix II. …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …
  • … 9 [July 1864] and n.  6. Living Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ) was published in two volumes by …
  • … the Ray Society in 1851 and 1854. In recognition of his work on the first volume, CD was …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub- class Cirripedia, …

To Ernst Haeckel   [after 10] August – 8 October [1864]

Summary

Can understand EH’s feelings on death of his wife.

CD was impressed by manner in which species in South America are replaced by closely allied ones, by affinity of species inhabiting islands near S. America, and by relation of living Edentata and Rodentia to extinct species. When he read Malthus On population, the idea of natural selection flashed on him.

Agrees with EH’s remarks on Kölliker ["Darwin’sche Schöpfungstheorie", Z. Wiss. Zool. 14 (1864): 174–86].

Asks EH to thank Carl Gegenbaur [for Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbelthiere (1864)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Ernst Philipp August (Ernst) Haeckel
Date:  [after 10] Aug – 8 Oct [1864]
Classmark:  Ernst-Haeckel-Haus (Bestand A–Abt. 1: 1–52/5)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4631

Matches: 8 hits

  • … published two volumes on Balanidae, a family of Cirripedia: Living Cirripedia (1854) and …
  • … Fossil Cirripedia (1854) . See also Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix II. …
  • … arithmetic and the ‘principle of divergence’, 1854–1858. Journal of the History of Biology …
  • … Paris: Garnier Frères. Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and …
  • … Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. Fossil Mammalia : Pt 1 of The zoology of …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Malthus, Thomas Robert. 1826. An essay on …
  • … to CD’s formulation of it between November 1854 and 1858, see Browne 1980 , Ospovat 1981 , …
  • … Wellington, NZ). Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …

From John Struthers   31 December 1864

Summary

Sends CD part two of his anatomical papers [Anatomical and physiological observations (1863) [part 1 (1854)]]; thinks CD may be interested in the paper dealing with variation in numbers of digits in man. Draws CD’s attention to another variation: the occurrence of a supra-condyloid process in the human arm.

Author:  John Struthers
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 Dec 1864
Classmark:  DAR 177: 267
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4725

Matches: 6 hits

  • … and physiological observations (1863) [part 1 (1854)]]; thinks CD may be interested in the …
  • … of the pig’s foot is mentioned in Struthers 1854–64 , 2: 331, n. Struthers wrote ‘231’ in …
  • … Struthers 1854–64 , vol.  2. CD’s annotated copy is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. …
  • … number of phalanges in man’ ( Struthers 1854–64 , 2: 305–33). This paper had appeared in …
  • … Ferdinandi Hirt. Struthers, John. 1854–64. Anatomical and physiological observations. 2 …
  • … of gravity to the right side’ ( Struthers 1854–64 , 2: 283–304). The letter to Struthers …

From Hugh Falconer to William Sharpey   25 October 1864

Summary

Describes CD’s qualifications for Copley Medal.

Author:  Hugh Falconer
Addressee:  William Sharpey
Date:  25 Oct 1864
Classmark:  DAR 144: 475
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4644

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Society. 1851. Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ …
  • … Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. Freeman, Richard Broke. 1978. Charles …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …
  • … barnacles). Fossil Cirripedia ( 1851 and 1854 ) were published by the Palaeontographical …
  • … Society, and Living Cirripedia ( 1851 and 1854 ) was published by the Ray Society. For …
  • … of Cirripedia, carried out between 1846 and 1854, see Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix II. …

To E. A. Darwin   30 June 1864

Summary

Has heard nothing about the Copley Medal. Is grateful for Hugh Falconer’s interest [see 4546].

Supplies details about circumstances of his voyage on the Beagle.

Does not believe that his sea-sickness was the cause of his subsequent ill-health.

Encloses the requested list of publications [see 4550].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Date:  30 June 1864
Classmark:  ML 1: 247–8; DAR 154: 67
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4548A

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Fossil Cirripedia (1851) and (1854). ‘On the action of sea-water on the germination of …
  • … 51 ( Collected papers 1: 182–93). Living Cirripedia (1851) . Living Cirripedia (1854) . …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

To Ernst Haeckel   21 November [1864]

Summary

Sends Living Cirripedia [vol. 2].

Has employed translator for Fritz Müller’s book [Für Darwin (1864)].

Thanks for paper and speech.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Ernst Philipp August (Ernst) Haeckel
Date:  21 Nov [1864]
Classmark:  Ernst-Haeckel-Haus (Bestand A–Abt. 1: 1–52/6)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4676

Matches: 3 hits

  • … barnacles, the Balanidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854) ). See letter to Ernst Haeckel, [after …
  • … Berlin: Georg Reimer. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Marginalia : Charles Darwin’s marginalia. …

To Hermann Kindt   7 September [1864]

Summary

Explains that Orchids has been translated into German (Bronn trans. 1862); and that Living Cirripedia can now be purchased at Hardwicke’s, 192 Piccadilly, London.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hermann Adolph Christian August (Hermann) Kindt
Date:  7 Sept [1864]
Classmark:  Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig (Autographensammlung Kestner: Slg. Kestner/II/C/II/125/Nr. 1, Mappe 125, Blatt Nr1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4609G

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

From John Scott   14 April [1864]

Summary

Thanks for CD’s consoling letter. His mind cannot concentrate after losing his position, and he feels "an inward dread of life’s future". Would have been glad to work for CD. Understands why Hooker cannot recommend him.

Author:  John Scott
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Apr [1864]
Classmark:  DAR 177: 104
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4463

Matches: 2 hits

  • … wrote a number of text-books, including Page 1854  and Page 1856 ; both were published in …
  • … Chicago: Mansell. 1968–81. Page, David. 1854. Introductory text-book of geology. Edinburgh …

From Daniel Oliver   [1 April 1864]

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Summary

References to and résumés of articles on climbing plants.

Author:  Daniel Oliver
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1 Apr 1864]
Classmark:  DAR 157.2: 106
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4443

Matches: 3 hits

  • … a paper by St. Pierre (Compt.  rend. Acad.  1854. XXXIX). In vol. IV Bull. Soc. Bot.  de …
  • … de Saint-Pierre, Jacques Nicholas Ernst. 1854. Mémoire sur le phénomène de la divulsion …
  • … for his reference to Germain de Saint-Pierre 1854 . In ‘Climbing plants’ , p.  73 n. , CD …

From Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker   [28 April 1864]

Summary

Emma prepares JDH for his visit to Wedgwood factory and Barlaston.

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [28 Apr 1864]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 232
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4473

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in his Himalayan journals (J.  D.  Hooker 1854), noting that the 30 ft tall tree was ‘in …
  • … the Himalayan species’ (J.  D.  Hooker 1854, 1: 167). Hooker is credited with introducing …

From J. D. Hooker   [2 April 1864]

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Summary

JDH explains why he cannot take Scott on at Kew.

John Tyndall cannot answer CD’s questions on glaciers. Edward Frankland’s ignorance. In JDH’s opinion, heaviness of winter snowfall is the greatest element in size of glaciers and this is a function of low mean temperature. Discusses descent of glaciers.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [2 Apr 1864]
Classmark:  DAR 101: 198–200, 203; DAR 104: 222
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4445

Matches: 2 hits

  • … region from 1847 to 1851 (see J.  D.  Hooker 1854, 2: 57, 115–16). For his discussion of …
  • … the line of perpetual snow, in J.  D.  Hooker 1854, 2: 128–9 n. , 169 n. , and 394–6; he …

From A. R. Wallace   29 May [1864]

Summary

Argues the antiquity of the human species because natural selection acts differently with respect to men. Changes in man are largely confined to head and brain. Warfare and sex are very uncertain as means of selection.

Gives CD complete credit for theory of natural selection.

Is beginning his narrative of his travels.

Lyell argues against tracing man as far back as Miocene times. R. I. Murchison’s argument that Africa is the oldest existing land implies that Africa is the place to look for early man.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 May [1864]
Classmark:  DAR 106: B14–19
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4514

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1852, and on the Malay Archipelago from 1854 to 1862 ( Fichman 1981 ). See letter to A.   …
  • … Wallace 1869), an account of his travels from 1854 to 1862. Henry Walter Bates had earlier …

From Ernst Haeckel   10 August 1864

Summary

Sends photographs of himself and his late wife [Anna Sethe]. Describes death of his wife.

Plans trip to the Alps.

Thanks CD for biographical information about himself.

Mentions Goethe as early evolutionist.

Cites Kant as early supporter of epigenesis.

Mentions criticism of CD’s theory by R. A. von Kölliker ["Über die Darwin’sche Schöpfungstheorie", Z. Wiss. Zool. 14 (1864): 174–86].

Author:  Ernst Philipp August (Ernst) Haeckel
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Aug 1864
Classmark:  DAR 166: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4586

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 360–74. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. 1854–62. Histoire naturelle générale des règnes …
  • … Hilaire; CD cited I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 , 2: 406, in Origin 3d ed. , p.  xiv …

From J. D. Hooker   29 March 1864

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Summary

John Scott’s career.

Huxley’s vicious attack on anthropologists.

Critique of Joseph Prestwich’s theory of rivers.

Bitter feelings between the Hookers and the Veitch family of nurserymen.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Mar 1864
Classmark:  DAR 101: 193–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4439

Matches: 2 hits

  • … journey in the Himalayas (see J.  D.  Hooker 1854, 1: 32–54); the information on the river …
  • … Prestwich referred to is in J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 38. The Soane river is now known as the …

To John Scott   21 May [1864]

Summary

Encloses an extract from a letter received from [J. D.] Hooker which suggests a job opportunity in India. Advises careful reflection about the risks and the need for a character recommendation. Would like to support the costs of the voyage and initial living expenses.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Scott
Date:  21 May [1864]
Classmark:  Transactions of the Hawick Archæological Society (1908): 67–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4505F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 1850 ( DNB , DSB ; see also J.  D.  Hooker 1854, and R.  Desmond 1999 ). Additionally, as …

From Hermann Kindt   16 September 1864

Summary

CD’s views go hand-in-hand with those of Ludwig Büchner.

He requests an autograph for a friend.

Author:  Hermann Adolph Christian August (Hermann) Kindt
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Sept 1864
Classmark:  DAR 169: 12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4615

Matches: 1 hit

  • … and to Living Cirripedia (1851) and (1854). See letter from Hermann Kindt, 5 September  …

From J. D. Hooker   29 November 1864

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Summary

JDH is making inquiries for CD on temperate climbing plants.

Discusses politics of Royal Society Council in awarding CD the Copley Medal.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Nov 1864
Classmark:  DAR 101: 258–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4684

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of the Calcutta botanic garden between 1854 and 1860 or 1861 ( DNB , R.  Desmond 1994 ). …

From J. D. Hooker   [20 February 1864]

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Summary

Sends a Corydalis.

Hermann Crüger’s paper [see 4394] splendid, but he has made a mess of propagating Cinchona in Trinidad.

JDH’s opinion of Germans.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [20 Feb 1864]
Classmark:  DAR 101: 186–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4413

Matches: 1 hit

  • … in the Himalayas (see J.  D.  Hooker 1854, 1: 163–4, and J.  D.  Hooker and Thomson 1855, …

From J. D. Hooker   15 June 1864

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Summary

JDH busy reforming Kew’s operations.

Falconer may "fall foul" of Huxley’s anger over his attacks on Lyell.

Has heard of a coffee plantation post for Scott.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 June 1864
Classmark:  DAR 101: 227–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4537

Matches: 1 hit

  • … researches , p.  278 n. , and J.  D.  Hooker 1854, 2: 128–9 n.  and 394–6; see also letter …

To J. D. Hooker   5 April [1864]

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Summary

Sees difficulty of placing Scott at Kew. Suspects Balfour is prejudiced because Scott is a Darwinian.

CD’s former letter on Clematis [4403] blundered; work now being revised.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 Apr [1864]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 227a–c
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4450

Matches: 1 hit

  • … When Lettington began working at Down in 1854, CD’s Classed account books (Down House MS) …
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

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  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

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  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

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  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

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  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

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  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

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  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

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  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

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  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

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  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …
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