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To Williams and Norgate?   6 March [1860]

Summary

Orders first part of vol. 3 of Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Histoire naturelle générale des règnes organiques [3 vols. (1854–62)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Williams & Norgate
Date:  6 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  John Hay Library, Brown University (Albert E. Lownes Manuscript Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2723

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Saint-Hilaire, Histoire naturelle générale des règnes organiques [3 vols. (1854–62)]. …
  • … Bibliography Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. 1854–62. Histoire naturelle générale des …
  • … the reference to the third volume of I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 . The third volume …
  • … of I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62  was issued in two parts, the first of which was …

To Henry Walter Bates   22 November [1860]

Summary

Thanks for interesting letter which confirms belief that a good observer is a good theorist.

He is glad to hear that HWB, with his wide knowledge of natural history, has anticipated CD in many respects and agrees with the Origin.

Has been thoroughly attacked, especially by entomologists – J. O. Westwood, T. V. Wollaston, and Andrew Murray.

Glad HWB is writing on "equatorial refrigeration"; CD expresses his belief in north to south migration during glacial period.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Walter Bates
Date:  22 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2993

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Smith, Frederick. 1854. Essay on the genera and species …
  • … of British Formicidæ. [Read 4 December 1854. ] Transactions of the Entomological …
  • … Society of London n.s. 3 (1854–6): 95-135. [Wollaston, Thomas Vernon]. 1860a. Review of …
  • … in conjunction with Frederick Smith of the British Museum (Bates and Smith 1854 –6). …

To Charles Lyell   28 [September 1860]

Summary

Discusses extinction of ammonites.

Discusses August Krohn’s cirripede research and Krohn’s correction of his own work.

Discusses origin of dog in connection with origin of man.

Comments on the guinea-pig in South America.

Notes K. E. von Baer’s view of species.

Mentions difficulty of crossing rabbit and hare.

Agrees with Hooker’s views on variation under cultivation and in nature.

Regrets use of term "natural selection", would now use "Natural Preservation".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  28 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.229)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2931

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Origin : On the origin of species by means …
  • … incorrect in Living Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ) in supposing that the horns of the carapace …
  • … presentation copy of Living Cirripedia (1854) to Krohn (see Correspondence vol.  5, letter …
  • … to T.  H.  Huxley, 2 September [1854] , n.  4). Krohn later sent CD a copy of his study of …

To T. H. Huxley   9 April [1860]

Summary

Owen on the branchiae of Balanidae.

The Edinburgh Review article on the Origin [by Owen, 111 (1860): 487–532] full of misrepresentations, with a brutal attack on THH.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  9 Apr [1860]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 111)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2751

Matches: 3 hits

  • … see n.  7, below). Living Cirripedia (1854) . In R.  Owen 1843, p.  158, Richard Owen …
  • … Bibliography Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

To Charles Lyell   22 May [1860]

Summary

Mentions American edition of Origin.

A "savage" review [by John Duns] in North British Review [32 (1860): 455–68].

Comments on views of G. H. K. Thwaites on the survival of simple forms as a problem in his theory.

Mentions imperfection of geological record.

Marine origin of coal.

Illness of Etty.

Encloses article by Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire on hare–rabbit crosses [Histoire naturelle générale (1854–62) 3: 222].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  22 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.213)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2812

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Saint-Hilaire on hare–rabbit crosses [ Histoire naturelle générale (1854–62) 3: 222]. …
  • … Appendix II). I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 , 3: 222. CD’s annotated copy is in the …
  • … 455–86. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. 1854–62. Histoire naturelle générale des règnes …

To Armand de Quatrefages   21 January [1860]

Summary

Discusses P. T. A. Talandier as possible translator [of Origin].

Comments on reception of book in North America and opposition of Louis Agassiz.

Asks about reaction of Henri Milne-Edwards.

QdeB’s lectures on anthropology.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Jean Louis Armand (Armand de Quatrefages) Quatrefages de Bréau
Date:  21 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.193)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2659

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Press. 1985–. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Milne-Edwards, Henri. 1867. Rapport sur les …
  • … CD had dedicated Living Cirripedia (1854) to him. So far as is known, Milne-Edwards never …

To J. D. Hooker   17 June [1860]

Summary

Has reread JDH’s paper ["On the functions of the rostellum of Listera ovata", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 144 (1854): 259–64].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  17 June [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 68 (EH 88206051)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1571

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of the rostellum of Listera ovata ", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 144 (1854): 259–64]. …

To A. G. More   5 August 1860

Summary

Thanks for observations on bee orchid.

Comments on Hooker’s ["On the functions and structure of the rostellum of Listera ovata", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 144 (1854): 259–64].

Discusses rostellum and describes fertilisation of Epipactis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  5 Aug 1860
Classmark:  DAR 146: 390
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2890

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 144 (1854): 259–64]. Discusses rostellum and describes …
  • … Hooker’s paper in Philosph. Transactions, 1854, p.  259, on the curious structure of the …

To John Higgins   13 June [1860]

Summary

Discusses possible purchase of land.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Higgins
Date:  13 June [1860]
Classmark:  Lincolnshire Archives (HIG/4/2/3/3)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2831

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to John Higgins, 26 December 1859 . In 1854, CD had asked Higgins to look for land to …
  • … vol.  5, letter to John Higgins, 9 April [1854] ). CD’s solicitor was Thomas Salt of the …

To J. D. Hooker   3 March [1860]

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Summary

CD’s list of fifteen converts. His opinions on opponents and supporters.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  3 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 45
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2719

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Press. 1985–. Harvey, William Henry. 1854. The sea-side book; being an introduction to the …
  • … Harvey’s more general treatise ( Harvey 1854 ) but did not find it of great interest (see …

To Charles Lyell   27 and 28 April [1860]

Summary

Thanks CL for loan of paper by J. S. Newberry ["Notes on the ancient vegetation of N. America", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 29 (1860): 208–18].

Mentions reviews of the Origin.

Discusses evolution of the domestic dog, especially with respect to the views of Owen, Pallas, and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

Mentions W. B. Carpenter’s views on taxonomy.

Discusses hybridisation of plants and animals.

Comments on progress in human evolution.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  27 and 28 Apr 1860
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.209)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2771

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Schweizerbart. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. 1854–62. Histoire naturelle générale des …
  • … Pallas 1780  and I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 , 3: 107, are cited on this point in …
  • … third volume of I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 (see letter to Williams and Norgate, 6  …

To William Benjamin Carpenter   6 January [1860]

Summary

WBC’s review [of Origin, Natl Rev. 10 (1860): 188–214] will do great good. It "turns the flanks of theological opposers" capitally.

Asks for information about cuckoo eggs and West Indian sheep.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Benjamin Carpenter
Date:  6 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.6: 4 (EH 88205921)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2641

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Collins. 1958. Carpenter, William Benjamin. 1854. Principles of comparative physiology. …
  • … of comparative physiology ( Carpenter 1854 ). CD owned a copy of this work (Darwin …

From Charles Lyell   8 September 1860

Summary

Believes CD’s argument against special creation based on absence of terrestrial mammals on islands isolated before Pliocene era is very strong. However, the absence means Cetacea and bats have not modified towards terrestrial existence. There is similar lack of development of bats and rodents in Australia. Constancy among land shells of Madeira over long period shows that the majority of their species are immutable: a minority of "metamorphic" species maintains the overall number of true species while extinction removes many. Emphasis on the role of extinction discomfits CD’s opponents since the power of generation of new species ought to keep pace. Mentions Ammonite deposits with reference to CD’s comments on their apparent sudden extinction [Origin, pp. 321–2]. Perhaps absence of transmutation on slowly subsiding atolls indicates the slow rate of selective change.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Sept 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal VI, pp. 179–86
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2908A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 75: 180–208. [Vols. 8,10] Lowe, Richard Thomas. 1854. Catalogus Molluscorum pneumonatorum …
  • … fresh-water shells of the island ( Lowe 1854 ). Bronn 1858a. See Junker  1991 . CD made …

From Thomas Vernon Wollaston   [16 September 1860]

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Summary

Has received a batch of S. African specimens which contain many of the Atlantic genera he found in Madeira and the Canaries.

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [16 Sept 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 302
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2919

Matches: 2 hits

  • … criticised Wollaston’s assumption in Wollaston 1854  that the islands of the Madeira group …
  • … 108: 225–64. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of the …

To Charles Lyell   18 May [1860]

Summary

Comments on enclosed letters from Asa Gray and Wallace [missing].

Discusses hybrid fertility in rabbits and hares, and pheasants and fowls.

Asks about paper by Hermann Schaaffhausen ["Über Beständigkeit u. Umwandlung der Arten", Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande 10 (1853): 420–51].

Mentions criticism by Sedgwick and William Clark at Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Notes importance of CL and Hooker in defending Origin.

Comments on papers by D. A. Godron ["Considérations sur les migrations des végétaux", Acad. Stanislas Mem. Soc. Sci. Nancy (1853): 329–67].

Mentions receiving anonymous verses.

A Manchester newspaper lampoon shows CD has proved "might makes right" to be a universal law.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.212)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2806

Matches: 2 hits

  • … France and cited I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 , vol.  3, as his authority. Lewes’s …
  • … 1985–. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. 1854–62. Histoire naturelle générale des règnes …

From Charles Lyell   [13–14 February 1860]

Summary

Discusses phases of climate.

Describes fossil mammals discovered by Auguste Bravard in South America.

Has had argument with Bishop of Oxford [Samuel Wilberforce] about CD’s book [Origin].

Discusses review in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Guesses that T. V. Wollaston is the author.

Discusses evidence of shells on Madeira.

Comments on paper by Wallace ["On the zoological geography of the Malay Archipelago", J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 4 (1860): 172–84].

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [13–14 Feb 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 283, DAR 205.9: 395
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2694

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 205–15, 272–82; 12: 271–84. Morris, John. 1854. A catalogue of British fossils: comprising …
  • … Clay deposits on the island of Sheppey. Morris 1854 . John Morris’s work was the standard …

From Charles Lyell   30 November 1860

Summary

Satisfied that CD finds his conjectured rate of elevation and long periods of stasis reasonable, even if these periods cannot be estimated. Explaining upheaval by subterranean lava flow makes these pauses plausible. Suspects that mountainous areas move more than lowland and coastal areas. General upheavals or subsidence in Europe in glacial period are unlikely. Believes with Jamieson that there was glacial action in Scotland before its submergence and that it was equally mountainous then. Subterranean upheaval visits different countries by turn. Horizontal Silurian strata must have been submerged and upheaved. Rest has always been the general surface character. Believes, however, that the quantity of late Tertiary movement is against CD’s belief in the constancy of continents and oceans: perhaps since the Miocene period, but not since the Cretaceous.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Nov 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal VII, pp. 49–57
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3001A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … this point in C.  Lyell 1863, p.  286. Spratt 1854 . Lyell discussed Thomas Abel Brimage …
  • … Society of London 4: 480. Spratt, Thomas. 1854. Extract of a letter from Captain Spratt, …

From Asa Gray to J. D. Hooker   5 January 1860

Summary

Opinions on the Origin: AG thinks it masterly; Agassiz considers it very poor.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 Jan 1860
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 20–1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2638

Matches: 1 hit

  • … first volume of which was published in 1854. The final volume did not appear until 1873. …

To Charles Lyell   20 November [1860]

Summary

Admires Edward Forbes’s theory of continental extensions, but it will discourage investigation of distribution.

Mentions Oswald Heer’s proposed map of Atlantis.

Discusses extinction of plants caused by the glacial era. Migration of plants and animals during glacial period.

Encourages CL’s work [on Antiquity of man (1863)].

Comments on unfriendly reviews. Asks CL’s opinion about including a reply to reviewers in next edition of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.233)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2989

Matches: 2 hits

  • … the Branchiæ of Cirripedes. But Prof. Owen in 1854 admits without hesitation that they are …
  • … 1860] . CD refers to R.  Owen 1843 (not 1854) and to the anatomist John Hunter, some of …

To W. H. Harvey   [20–4 September 1860]

Summary

Replies to WHH’s criticisms of the Origin. Is disappointed that WHH does not understand what CD means by natural selection. CD has said "ad nauseam" that selection can do nothing without previous variability. Natural selection accumulates successive variations in any profitable direction. If CD had to rewrite his book he would use "natural preservation" rather than selection. Defends his necessarily conjectural illustrations. Agrees with what WHH says on the antiquity of the world, but it makes no impression on him. Considers the difficulty of the first modification of the first protozoan. Emphasises that there is nothing in his theory "necessitating in each case progression of acquisition", nor is it the case that "a low form would never conquer a high" in the struggle for life. Attempts to explain what he means by a "dominant" group; dominance is always relative, and he does not believe any one group could be predominant. He has no objections to "sudden jumps"; they would aid him in some cases, but he has found no evidence to make him believe in them and a good deal pointing the other way.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Henry Harvey
Date:  [20–4 Sept 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 45–53
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2922

Matches: 2 hits

  • … from the mother’s womb? ’ Ehrenberg 1854–6, pp.  viii–ix. Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, …
  • … he found in these samples in Ehrenberg 1854–6, pp.  289–95. The discussion was included in …
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …
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