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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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From Frederick Smith   26 February 1858

Summary

Identifies an ant described by CD and discusses the predatory habits of Formica sanguinea.

Describes some wasps’ nests.

Author:  Frederick Smith
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Feb 1858
Classmark:  DAR 177: 191 (fragile)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2226

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Cambridge University Press. 1975. Smith, Frederick. 1854. Essay on the genera and species …
  • … of British Formicidæ. [Read 4 December 1854. ] Transactions of the Entomological …
  • … Society of London n.s. 3 (1854–6): 95-135. Smith, Frederick. 1857. Revision of an essay on …
  • … known species of British ants in F.  Smith 1854  and revised this list in F.  Smith 1857 . …
  • … areas of southern England ( F.  Smith 1854 , pp.  101, 103). CD must have asked Smith …
  • … s account of the subject ( F.  Smith 1854 ). In CD’s copy of the work, Smith’s description …

To Emma Darwin   [25 April 1858]

Summary

Concerned about ED’s headaches, CD writes an affectionate letter.

Believes he has found a rare slave-making species of ant.

Is reading novels: Beneath the surface and Three chances.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Date:  [25 Apr 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 210.8: 33
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2413

Matches: 4 hits

  • … country life. 3 vols. London. Smith, Frederick. 1854. Essay on the genera and species …
  • … of British Formicidæ. [Read 4 December 1854. ] Transactions of the Entomological …
  • … Society of London n.s. 3 (1854–6): 95-135. …
  • … and at Weybridge in Surrey ( F.  Smith 1854 , p.  103). CD continued to observe ants …

To Armand de Quatrefages   4 January [1858?]

Summary

The information correspondent hopes to get from M.-J.-P. Flourens will be valuable.

CD is keeping all varieties of pigeons, poultry, ducks, etc. for his work on variation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Jean Louis Armand (Armand de Quatrefages) Quatrefages de Bréau
Date:  4 Jan [1858?]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.144)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2036

Matches: 4 hits

  • … presentation copy of Living Cirripedia (1854) (see Correspondence vol.  5, letter to T.   …
  • … H. Huxley, 2 September [1854] , n.  4). Both Quatrefages de Bréau and Flourens were …
  • … John Murray. 1845. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural …

To Frederick Smith   [before 9 March 1858]

Summary

Four queries regarding the habits of bees and ants with answers by FS interlined between each query.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Frederick Smith
Date:  [before 9 Mar 1858]
Classmark:  DAR Pamphlet collection (bound with Smith, Frederick (a) 1854)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2235A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … collection (bound with Smith, Frederick (a) 1854) Charles Robert Darwin Down [before 9 Mar …

From J. D. Hooker   [26 December 1858]

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Summary

JDH cannot abide CD’s connection of wide-ranging species and "highness". Australian flora contradicts this in many ways.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 Dec 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 125–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2385

Matches: 2 hits

  • … plants’. Hooker had come to believe in 1854 that conifers were advanced plants, rather …
  • … 5, letter from J.  D. Hooker, [29 June 1854] ). He published these views in 1856 (see n.   …

To J. D. Hooker   31 December [1858]

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Summary

Replies at length to JDH’s worried reaction to his comments on lowness of Australian plants. CD distinguishes between "competitive highness", i.e., which fauna would be exterminated and which survive if two faunas were placed in competition, and ordinary "highness" of classification.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  31 Dec [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 35
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2388

Matches: 3 hits

  • … the issue of ‘highness’ and ‘lowness’ in 1854 (see Correspondence vol.  5, letters to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 27 [June 1854] and …
  • … 7 July [1854] ). CD discussed the point in Origin , pp.  313–15. CD held to this opinion …

To a librarian   [1858 or later]

Summary

Will return Benjamin Jowett’s Epistles of St Paul (Jowett 1855) and requests several books, of which the latest is Hugh Miller’s Cruise of the Betsey (Miller 1858).

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  [1858 or later]
Classmark:  Yale University: Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (James Marshall and Marie-Louise Osborn Collection: Edward G. and Hortense R. Levy Autograph Collection, Part 2 (OSB MSS 137) Box 25, folder 1188)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2199F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … vols. London: John Murray. Miller, Hugh. 1854. My schools and schoolmasters; or, The story …

From Leonard Jenyns   [before 18 April 1858]

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Summary

[Copy of some rough notes.] References about species. Variations within species.

Author:  Leonard Jenyns; Leonard Blomefield
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 18 Apr 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 45: 20–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2250

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Bibliography Carpenter, William Benjamin. 1854. Principles of comparative physiology. 4th …
  • … Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1840 . Carpenter 1854 . CD’s annotated copy of this work is in the …

To George Bentham   27 January [1858]

Summary

Asks GB to vote for "a distant connexion of mine" at Athenaeum, and to mention this to Hooker.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Bentham
Date:  27 Jan [1858]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Bentham, George letters: 676
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13778

Matches: 1 hit

  • … the botanical collections housed there; in 1854 he had given his own substantial herbarium …

To Charles Lyell   26 April [1858]

Summary

Comments on letter from Georg Hartung to CL dealing with erratic boulders.

Discusses migration of plants and animals.

A letter from Thomas Thomson on heat endured by temperate plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  26 Apr [1858]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.151)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2262

Matches: 1 hit

  • … was superintendent of the Calcutta botanic garden, 1854–61. His letter to CD has not been …

To Skeffington Poole   13 October [1858]

Summary

Asks about Indian horses. Encloses questions.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Skeffington Poole
Date:  13 Oct [1858]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2152

Matches: 1 hit

  • … who had retired from the Bengal army in 1854 ( Modern English biography ). He was cited by …

From J. D. Hooker   13–15 July 1858

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Summary

Sends proofs [of "On the tendency of species to form varieties … ", read 1 July 1858, Collected papers 2: 3–19]. CD could publish his abstract [later the Origin] as a separate supplemental number of [Journal of the Linnean Society].

JDH has studied in detail CD’s manuscript on variable species in large and small genera and concurs with its consequences. Discusses methodological idiosyncrasies of systematists, e.g., Bentham, Robert Brown, and C. C. Babington, which complicate CD’s tabulations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [13 or 15] July 1858
Classmark:  DAR 100: 116–19, 168
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2307

Matches: 1 hit

  • … J.  D. Hooker, 9 December [1857] ). In 1854, the East India Company had appointed Hooker a …

From G. R. Waterhouse   13 February 1858

Summary

GRW’s observations of and ideas on bees’ and wasps’ cells.

Author:  George Robert Waterhouse
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 Feb 1858
Classmark:  DAR 181: 23
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2216

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Entomological Society of London n.s. 3 (1854–6), Proceedings , pp.  128–30). Smith again …

To J. D. Hooker   23 February [1858]

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Summary

Fertilisation of clover by bees in New Zealand.

Uneasy about biggest genera and their varieties.

H. T. Buckle’s sophistry [History of civilisation in England (1857)].

Working on bees’ cells.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  23 Feb [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 224
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2222

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Frances Mackintosh Wedgwood’s niece, in 1854. CD refers to Beethoven’s ‘Questa tomba …

From William Balfour Baikie   11 February 1858

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Summary

Describes some species of fauna peculiar to Fernando Po. The ocean currents make it unlikely that animals have been floated to the little islands [off the west coast of Africa].

Author:  William Balfour Baikie
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Feb 1858
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 260
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2214

Matches: 1 hit

  • … explore the river Niger and Fernando Po in 1854. James Campbell, naval surgeon, donated a …

From J. D. Hooker and Charles Lyell to the Linnean Society   30 June 1858

Summary

Communicate papers by CD and A. R. Wallace on "The Laws which affect the Production of Varieties, Races, and Species". Explain that CD and Wallace have, independently and unknown to each other, arrived at the same theory to account for the appearance and perpetuation of specific forms, and that neither has yet published, although CD first sketched his theory in 1839. Give their reasons for arranging the joint presentation.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker; Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Linnean Society
Date:  30 June 1858
Classmark:  Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society (Zoology) 3 (1859): 45–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2299

Matches: 1 hit

  • … been found. As a fellow (elected on 7 March 1854), Hooker was entitled to submit papers to …

From Edward Blyth   [8 January 1858]

Summary

Zebra-striped asses.

Markings of a Bengal jungle cock.

Refers to some of his own articles on birds in India.

Reports the arrival of the "glorious garrison of Lucknow". The "wonderful superiority of the European to the Asiatic" made the success of the insurrection inconceivable.

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [8 Jan 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 98: A144–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2200

Matches: 1 hit

  • … was a captain in the British navy from 1854 to his retirement in 1870. The headquarters of …

To Gardeners’ Chronicle   [before 13 November 1858]

Summary

Reports the decreased yield of pods resulting from excluding bees from the flowers of the kidney bean. Gives other observations suggesting the importance of bees in the fertilisation of papilionaceous flowers.

Cites cases of crosses between varieties of bean grown close together and requests observations from readers on the subject. States his belief "that is a law of nature that every organic being should occasionally be crossed with a different individual of the same species".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  [before 13 Nov 1858]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 13 November 1858, pp. 828–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2359

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette , 24 June 1854, p.  404. See Correspondence vol.  5, …
Document type
letter (18)
Date
1858
01 (4)
02 (4)
03 (1)
04 (3)
06 (1)
07 (1)
10 (1)
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …
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