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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To T. H. Huxley   4 January [1857]

Summary

Congratulations [on Mrs H’s delivery].

Balanus balanoides positively identified by CD.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  4 Jan [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 48)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2037

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Bibliography Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … in which individuals of Balanus balanoides were found in Living Cirripedia (1854):  272. …

From Richard Bishop to Charles Spence Bate    3 December 1857

Summary

Gives observations to be forwarded to CD of impregnation in Balanus.

Author:  Richard Bishop
Addressee:  Charles Spence Bate
Date:  3 Dec 1857
Classmark:  DAR 160: 189
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2179

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Balanus balanoides ( Living Cirripedia (1854) , p.  102). The annotation refers to CD’s …
  • … Press. 1985–. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural …

To J. D. Hooker   1 August [1857]

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Summary

Important issue at stake with new flora calculations: evidence that species are only strongly marked varieties. Planning large-scale survey.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Aug [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 206, 207
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2130

Matches: 4 hits

  • … D. Hooker and Thomson 1857–8. Wollaston 1854 . Koch 1843–4 . Ledebour 1842–53 (see letter …
  • … and Correspondence vol.  5, letter to J.  D. Hooker, 27 [June 1854] , and letter from J.   …
  • … Vols. 6,7] Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of the …
  • … D. Hooker, [29 June 1854] . The proper dosage of chloroform had recently been the subject …

To William Sharpey   22 May [1857]

Summary

Agrees with Thomas Henry Huxley that Albany Hancock has a good claim on a Royal Society medal. Thinks that geology has not been sufficiently honoured by the Royal Society, and suggests Joseph Prestwich. Expresses his strong opinion that Charles Lyell would be a worthy recipient of the Copley Medal.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Sharpey
Date:  22 May [1857]
Classmark:  D. and E. Lake Ltd (dealers) (June 2016)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2093F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Tertiary district. [Read 18 January 1854. ] Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of …
  • … of these two groups of strata. [Read 7 June 1854. ] Quarterly Journal of the Geological …

From Frederick Smith   10 November 1857

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Summary

Sends drawings of two forms of workers of Cryptocerus discocephalus in response to CD’s request for examples of insects whose workers show disparity of form.

Author:  Frederick Smith
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Nov 1857
Classmark:  DAR 11.2: 65a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2167

Matches: 4 hits

  • … selection , p.  364 n.1). F.  Smith 1854 . Henry Walter Bates had accompanied Alfred …
  • … Cambridge University Press. 1975. Smith, Frederick. 1854. Essay on the genera and species …
  • … of British Formicidæ. [Read 4 December 1854. ] Transactions of the Entomological …
  • … Society of London n.s. 3 (1854–6): 95-135. …

To Asa Gray   29 November [1857]

Summary

Thanks AG for his criticisms of CD’s views; finds it difficult to avoid using the term "natural selection" as an agent.

Discusses crossing in Fumaria and barnacles.

Has received a naturally crossed kidney bean in which the seed-coat has been affected by the pollen of the fertilising plant.

Finds the rule of large genera having most varieties holds good and regards it as most important for his "principle of divergence".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  29 Nov [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (18)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2176

Matches: 3 hits

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural …
  • … Stuttgart. [Vols. 6,7] Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, …
  • … described this case in Living Cirripedia (1854):  102 and referred to it in both Natural …

To J. D. Hooker   [after 20 January 1857]

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Summary

CD finds Alphonse de Candolle very useful, though JDH has low opinion.

CD argues for accidental introductions explaining some odd distributions, e.g., New Zealand vs Australian plants.

CD’s method.

Diverging affinities in isolated genera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [after 20 Jan 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 190
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2033

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Hooker, [6–9 June 1855] ). Wollaston 1854  and 1856. As Thomas Vernon Wollaston remarked …
  • … of our entomological fauna. ’ ( Wollaston 1854 , p. x). See also letter from T.  V. …
  • … Botany 3: 387–92. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of …

To T. H. Huxley   [before 12 November 1857]

Summary

Glad THH has taken up aphid question versus Owen ["On the agamic reproduction and morphology of Aphis", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 22 (1858): 193–236].

Fertilisation and inheritance discussed. Speculates that fertilisation may be a mixture rather than a fusion. Can understand in no other way why crossed forms tend to go back to ancestral forms.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  [before 12 Nov 1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 58)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2166

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Bibliography Burnett, Waldo I. 1854. Researches on the development of viviparous aphids. …
  • … T.  H. Huxley 1857–8, p.  216). Burnett 1854 , p.  63. George Henry Kendrick Thwaites had …

To J. D. Hooker   20 October [1857]

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Summary

Returns some of the systematics books borrowed from JDH. Will now take on A. P. and Alphonse de Candolle [Prodromus].

Arrangements for a visit.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  20 Oct [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 212, 222c
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2156

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Stuttgart. [Vols. 6,7] Thuret, Gustave Adolphe. 1854–5. Recherches sur la fecondation des …
  • … Chronicle , 18 October [1857]. Thuret 1854–5 . This is CD’s ‘list of queries’ referred to …

To J. D. Hooker   4 December [1857]

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Summary

Inquiries on effect of dry heat on temperate plants for glacial chapter.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  4 Dec [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 216
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2180

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1857. Candolle and Candolle 1824–73 . Thuret 1854–5 . CD cited this work in his chapter on …
  • … Press. 1975. Thuret, Gustave Adolphe. 1854–5. Recherches sur la fecondation des Fucacées, …

From William Henry Harvey   3 January 1857

Summary

Sexes of algae.

Author:  William Henry Harvey
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Jan 1857
Classmark:  DAR 166: 115
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2035

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Press. 1975. Thuret, Gustave Adolphe. 1854–5. Recherches sur la fecondation des Fucacées, …
  • … of Gustave Thuret’s famous paper ( Thuret 1854–5 ) on the sexual reproduction of Algae ( …

From T. V. Wollaston   [12 April 1857]

Summary

Lists groups of insects absent from the Madeiran fauna.

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [12 Apr 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 139
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2076

Matches: 2 hits

  • … John Murray. 1859. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of …
  • … The specimen was described in Wollaston 1854 , p.  236, where Wollaston stated that it had …

To J. D. Hooker   25 December [1857]

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Summary

Species with marked varieties.

Dana’s pamphlet also too metaphysical for CD.

Natural selection chapter on hybridism completed.

Doubts JDH will resist theory in his introduction to Flora Tasmaniae.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  25 Dec [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 218
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2194

Matches: 1 hit

  • … arithmetic and the ‘principle of divergence’, 1854–1858. Journal of the History of Biology …

To J. D. Hooker   30 September [1857]

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Summary

C. F. Ledebour [Flora rossica (1842–53)] particularly useful for variety tabulation. Results generally favourable.

Additions to Down House.

Last two chapters of MS took six months to write.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  30 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 210
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2148

Matches: 1 hit

  • … arithmetic and the ‘principle of divergence’, 1854–1858. Journal of the History of Biology …

To C. S. Bate   29 November [1857]

Summary

Asking for specific information about reproduction in barnacles.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Spence Bate
Date:  29 Nov [1857]
Classmark:  Bonhams (dealers) (22 October 2014)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2175F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Bate, 3 December 1857). In Living Cirripedia (1854), p.  102, CD had noted that in several …

CD memorandum   July 1857

Summary

Memorandum about £250 investment in Patent Siliceous Stone Company, owned by David Thomas Ansted and Frederick Ransome.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  unknown
Date:  July 1857
Classmark:  DAR 210.10: 23
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2115F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … loans, also each for £250, to Ransome in 1854 and to Ansted in 1855. CD by this memorandum …

To Syms Covington   22 February 1857

Summary

Sends news of his family, Sulivan, and FitzRoy.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Syms Covington
Date:  22 Feb 1857
Classmark:  Sydney Mail, 9 August 1884, p. 255
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2056

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Henrietta. He had married Maria Smith in 1854. William Macarthur had been knighted and …

To Asa Gray   1 January [1857]

Summary

Thanks AG for 2d part of "Statistics [of the flora of the northern U. S.", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369–403].

Is glad AG concludes species of large genera are wide-ranging, but is "riled" that he thinks the line of connection of alpine plants is through Greenland. Mentions comparisons of ranges worth investigating.

Believes trees show a tendency toward separation of the sexes and wonders if U. S. species bear this out. Asks which genera are protean in U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  1 Jan [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2034

Matches: 1 hit

  • … arithmetic and the ‘principle of divergence’, 1854–1858. Journal of the History of Biology …

To John Tyndall   4 February [1857]

Summary

CD is "as ignorant of mechanics as a pig", but glaciers have interested him greatly. Hopes to hear that JT’s experiments with ice will explain the freezing together of ice below the freezing point.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Tyndall
Date:  4 Feb [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 261.8: 2 (EH 88205940)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2046

Matches: 1 hit

  • … and its environs. [Read 15 November 1854. ] Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of …

To A. R. Wallace   22 December 1857

Summary

Comments on agreement of their respective views on distribution.

Reference to differences on subsidence.

Reports on progress of his work and praises ARW’s investigations.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  22 Dec 1857
Classmark:  British Library (Add MS 46434)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2192

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 5, letter from R.  T. Lowe, 19 September 1854. A.  A. Gould 1852–6 . See letter from T.   …
Document type
letter (24)
Date
1857
01 (5)
02 (3)
04 (1)
05 (1)
06 (1)
07 (2)
08 (1)
09 (1)
10 (1)
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

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  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

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  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …
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