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From C. J. F. Bunbury   16 April 1856

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Summary

Is interested by what CD tells him about his researches and speculations on species, variation, and distribution. Hopes he will not give up the idea of publishing his views. Advises CD on need for caution and candour. Raises some difficulties with "specific centre" theory of distribution.

Author:  Charles James Fox Bunbury, 8th baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Apr 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 218
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1854

Matches: 2 hits

  • … DCP-LETT-1854
  • … Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 , n.  7. E.  Forbes 1854. Discussed by Bunbury in C.  J. F. Bunbury …

To Joseph Augustin Hubert de Bosquet   9 September [1856]

Summary

On JAHdeB’s discovery of Cretaceous Chthamalus. Cites his own acceptance of negative evidence about Chthamali in Fossil Lepadidae.

Comments on JAHdeB’s cirripede drawings.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Augustin Hubert de Bosquet
Date:  9 Sept [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.138)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1952

Matches: 6 hits

  • … The references are to Living Cirripedia (1854) . CD had presented Bosquet with copies of …
  • … Bosquet, Joseph Augustin Hubert de. 1854. Monographie des Crustaces fossiles du terrain …
  • … CD had corresponded with Bosquet between 1852 and 1854 about fossil sessile Cirripedia. He …
  • … of a work on fossil Crustacea ( Bosquet 1854 ). Bosquet 1857 . In the published version, …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub- class Cirripedia, …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Rudwick, Martin John Spencer. 1974. Darwin …

To Syms Covington   9 March 1856

Summary

Thanks SC for his interesting account of the state of the colony. SC was wise to settle there where his sons have much better prospects.

Has finished his book on barnacles [1854]. Royal Medal awarded him chiefly for this work.

Asks SC whether he has observed any odd imported breeds of poultry, for his work on variation of species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Syms Covington
Date:  9 Mar 1856
Classmark:  Sydney Mail, 9 August 1884, p. 255
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1840

Matches: 4 hits

  • … prospects. Has finished his book on barnacles [1854]. Royal Medal awarded him chiefly for …
  • … Shoe String Press. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Thomson, Keith Stewart. 1975. HMS Beagle , …
  • … half-pay until 1860. Living Cirripedia (1854) . Covington had sent CD cirripede specimens …

From Thomas Davidson   29 December 1856

Summary

His experience confirms CD’s view that some species and even some genera of Brachiopoda are consistently more variable than others, and that such variable forms are variable in all localities and at all periods. Similarly a species that shows a lack of variability does so at all points in time and space. Discusses the causes of variability. [See Natural selection, p. 106.]

Author:  Thomas Davidson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Dec 1856
Classmark:  DAR 162: 116
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2024

Matches: 3 hits

  • … volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851) and (1854) were published under the title of Monograph …
  • … to the society. Fossil Cirripedia (1851) and (1854) were also published by subscription by …
  • … of yours, A Monograph of the Subclass Cirripeda 1854 but he does not inform me where it is …

To James Dwight Dana   21 December [1856]

Summary

Thanks for sending paper on geological development (Dana 1856). Discusses infertility of species. Discusses first part of Asa Gray’s paper (A. Gray 1856–7). Thanks for note on the Cave Rat. Discusses a new species of fossil cirripede, in the genus Chthamalus. Explains his interest in pigeon breeding.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Dwight Dana
Date:  21 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  Catherine Barnes (dealer) (2003)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2020F

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 1856] . See also Fossil Cirripedia (1854), p.  5. The fossil cirripede turned out not to …
  • … 9 December [1856] and n.  7; see also Fossil Cirripedia (1851) and (1854), and Living …
  • … Cirripedia (1851) and (1854). See Origin , p.  46, where CD gave Rubus and Rosa as …

To J. S. Henslow   16 June [1856]

Summary

Sends a cultivated specimen of Myosotis (first generation) grown from seed sent by JSH. Asks for a tuft of flower.

Hopes JSH will publish a book on teaching botany, because he has no idea how to begin with his children.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  16 June [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A110–11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1903

Matches: 2 hits

  • … University Press. 1985–. Lindley, John. 1854. School botany, and vegetable physiology; or, …
  • … botany was published by Henslow. Lindley 1854 , the third edition of John Lindley’s School …

From J. D. Dana   8 September 1856

Summary

Responds to CD’s query about the blind fauna of Mammoth Cave.

Gives information from L. Agassiz. Distribution of Crustacea, especially along southern coastlines.

Author:  James Dwight Dana
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 269 (Letters), DAR 162: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1951

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Press. 1927–96. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Marginalia : Charles Darwin’s marginalia. …
  • … Science and Arts (Dana 1853b and Dana 1854– 5). For the reference to the Acadian province, …
  • … II), and dedicated Living Cirripedia (1854) to him. In his letter to J.  D.  Dana, 14  …

From S. P. Woodward   15 July 1856

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Summary

Has reduced 20 Cyrena species to geographical varieties of one species, Cyrena fluminalis. Hooker is reducing Indian flora at the rate of 19 to 1.

Recommends W. H. Harvey’s Seaside book [1849] and Charles Pickering’s Races of man [1850].

Author:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 304
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1927

Matches: 3 hits

  • … the Trustees. Harvey, William Henry. 1854. The sea-side book; being an introduction to the …
  • … History 2d ser.  18 (1856): 74–5. Harvey 1854 , published by John Van Voorst, in which …
  • … In the conclusion, he stated ( Harvey 1854 , p.  313): For though we may admit that …

From T. V. Wollaston   [early November 1856]

Summary

Variability of certain features within insect genera.

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [early Nov 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 138
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2030

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Press. 1975. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of the …
  • … The ‘opus diab[olicus]’ is Wollaston 1854 . The tendency of the wing-cases in Harpalus to …

To Miles Joseph Berkeley   29 February [1856]

Summary

Preparing paper on seed-soaking for Linnean Society ["Action of sea-water on seeds", Collected papers 1: 264–73]. Wants to use MJB’s results. Lost ardour when he found seeds would not float.

Has grown MJB’s purest pea seeds and got a few variants. Gärtner’s experiments suggest direct action of pollen, but CD thinks it is "mere variation".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Miles Joseph Berkeley
Date:  29 Feb [1856]
Classmark:  Shropshire Archives (SA 6001/134/45)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1834

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 7 April [1855] and 11 April [1855]. In 1854, Berkeley contributed a regular column on ‘ …
  • … Gazette . In the number for 24 June 1854, he stated his opinion that the colour of the …
  • … Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette , 24 June 1854, p.  404). Gärtner 1849 . In Variation …

To Charles Lyell   16 [June 1856]

Summary

Condemns theory of Edward Forbes and others that many islands were formerly connected to South America by now submerged continents.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  16 [June 1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.131)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1902

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Hooker 1853–5 , 1: xxiii. In Wollaston 1854 , p. x, Thomas Vernon Wollaston referred to ‘ …
  • … Lovell Reeve. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of the …

From Charles Lyell   17 June 1856

Summary

CD forgets an author [CD himself in Coral reefs] "who, by means of atolls, contrived to submerge archipelagoes (or continents?), the mountains of which must originally have differed from each other in height 8,000 (or 10,000?) feet".

CL begins to think that all continents and oceans are chiefly post-Eocene, but he admits that it is questionable how far one is at liberty to call up continents "to convey a Helix from the United States to Europe in Miocene or Pliocene periods".

Will CD explain why the land and marine shells of Porto Santo and Madeira differ while the plants so nearly agree?

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 146: 475
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1905

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Charles Lyell, 25 June [1856] ). McAndrew 1854. CD had corresponded with Robert McAndrew …
  • … Irish Academy in 1850–51. [Read 24 April 1854. ] Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy …
  • … 1856 , pp.  137–9, read on 24 April 1854. Samuel Haughton also presented his results in a …

From John Obadiah Westwood   23 November 1856

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Summary

The Kentucky cave insects (Adelops) are evidently identical to European species of the same genus, some of which are cave insects, others found in damp, dark places.

Author:  John Obadiah Westwood
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 297
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1998

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Bibliography Lacordaire, Jean Théodore. 1854–75. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Genera …
  • … D. Dana, 8 September 1856 . Lacordaire 1854–75 . Schiödte [1849] was translated and read …

To T. H. Huxley   4 May [1856]

Summary

It seems improper that his advances to G. B. Sowerby Jr for payment of engravings should not have been mentioned to Council of Ray Society. His appreciation of the Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  4 May [1856]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 35)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1868

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Only after resigning his commission in 1854 was he awarded £300 from the government grant …
  • … figures for Living Cirripedia (1851) and (1854), published by the Ray Society. CD had paid …

To J. D. Hooker   8 September [1856]

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Summary

Whether or not there should be movement of particles according to Tyndall’s theory of glacial action ["Observations on glaciers", Not. Proc. R. Inst. G. B. 2: 54–8, 441–3].

CD subscribes to H. C. Sorby’s view of gneiss [Edinburgh New Philos. J. 55 (1853): 137–50].

Seed-salting.

Pigeons.

Significant differences in skeletons of domesticated rabbits.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  8 Sept [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 176
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1950

Matches: 2 hits

  • … the Royal Institution of Great Britain 2 (1854–8): 295–308. Variation : The variation of …
  • … with Daniel Sharpe and Charles Lyell in 1854 and 1855 (see Correspondence vol.  5). …

To T. V. Wollaston   6 June [1856]

Summary

Comments on TVW’s book [On the variation of species with special reference to the Insecta (1856)].

On TVW’s Unitarianism. Predicts TVW will fall further away from Christianity.

[Letter sent by TVW to Charles Lyell.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Date:  6 June [1856]
Classmark:  Edinburgh University Library, Centre for Research Collections (Gen. 1999/1/30)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1893

Matches: 2 hits

  • … John Murray. 1859. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of …
  • … Wollaston’s Insecta Maderensia ( Wollaston 1854 ). Probably a reference to something said …

From J. D. Hooker   10 July 1856

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Summary

[T. Bell Salter’s?] "hybrid" Epilobium a false claim.

Admires Huxley’s response to Falconer [see 1904].

Tristan da Cunha plant list, requested by CD, supports JDH’s position [on continental extension?].

Chilean plants not exceptional.

JDH considers parallels between Australian Alps and European plants strong evidence for multiple creations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 96–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1923

Matches: 2 hits

  • … the French botanist Esprit Fabre (Fabre 1854) that Aegilops ovata was the original source …
  • … corrected by Edward Forbes before his death in 1854 for his book on the natural history of …

To J. D. Hooker   21 [May 1856]

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Summary

Huxley’s "vehement" [Royal Institution?] Lectures make it difficult to propose him for Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  21 [May 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 163
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1876

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 41, 467-71. Thuret, Gustave Adolphe. 1854–5. Recherches sur la fecondation des Fucacées, …
  • … month on Thursdays ( Bonney 1919 ). Thuret 1854– 5 . Gustave Adolphe Thuret was well known …

To John Lubbock    [March? 1856]

Summary

JL is studying Cynipidae. CD sends galls for his examination.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  [Mar? 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 10 (EH 88206459)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2028

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Entomological Society of London n.s.  3 (1854–6), Proceedings, p.  114. Lubbock mentioned …

From J. D. Hooker   [early December 1856]

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Summary

Podostemaceae flowering under water.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [early Dec 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 149
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1966

Matches: 1 hit

  • … the same time. Tulasne 1852 . J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 314 n. The passage is marked in CD’s …
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

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  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

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  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

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  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

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  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

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  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

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  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

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  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …
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