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To A. A. Gould   21 July 1855

Summary

If AAG is no longer member of the Ray Society, CD would like to send copy of Living Cirripedia, vol. 2.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Augustus Addison Gould
Date:  21 July 1855
Classmark:  Houghton Library, Harvard University (Augustus A. Gould papers, 1831–66 MS Am 1210: 230)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1724

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Living Cirripedia (1854) . See letter to A.   …
  • … A. Gould, 9 September [1854] . …
  • … Bibliography Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …

To Robert Hunt   22 July [1855]

Summary

Mentions RH’s book on light [Researches on light in its chemical relations, 2d ed. (1854)]. Asks about coloured glass used in experiments on plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Hunt
Date:  22 July [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1727

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Bibliography Hunt, Robert. 1854. Researches on light in its chemical relations; embracing …
  • … in its chemical relations , 2d ed. (1854)]. Asks about coloured glass used in experiments …
  • … Letter from Robert Hunt, 19 July 1855 . R.  Hunt 1854 . R.   …
  • … Hunt 1854 , pp.  215–47. These pages are annotated in CD’s copy; on p.  237, CD noted: ‘ …

From Thomas Vernon Wollaston   2 March [1855]

Summary

Hybrid insects.

Description of the Salvages.

Variability of "transition groups" of insects; relation of variability to ranges of insects. The variability of wings, even within species. Reduction of flying ability on isolated islands.

Forbes’s "Atlantis" theory and insect fauna of the Atlantic islands, considered with regard to insect migrations.

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Mar [1855]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 136
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1640

Matches: 15 hits

  • … s Insecta Maderensia ( Wollaston 1854 ) in the first months of 1855 ( Correspondence …
  • … 1855. ’ CD’s extensive notes on Wollaston 1854  are in DAR 197.1 and 197.2. CD frequently …
  • … necessarily encompassing Spain ( Wollaston 1854 , pp. xiii–xiv). Wollaston described his …
  • … species (p. ix). The concluding sentence of the introduction to Wollaston 1854 , p. xviii. …
  • … arithmetic and the ‘principle of divergence’, 1854–1858. Journal of the History of Biology …
  • … John Murray. 1859. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of …
  • … between the Harpalides and Chlœniidea ( Wollaston 1854 , pp.  22–3). CD’s reference is to …
  • … and Calathus complanatus in Wollaston 1854 , p.  25. Wollaston’s collection of four …
  • … of Dezerta Grande in the Madeiras ( Wollaston 1854 , p.  25). CD had evidently counted the …
  • … Leacock of Funchal is described in Wollaston 1854 , p.  501. Richard Thomas Lowe, a friend …
  • … abundant individually of all with which we are concerned. ’ ( Wollaston 1854 , p. xiii). …
  • … Actually Wollaston 1854 , pp.  483–4, with reference to the taxonomic position of the …
  • … a tendency to be wingless ( Wollaston 1854 , p. xii). CD discussed the origin of apterous …
  • … on apterous beetles are cited from Wollaston 1854  in Origin , pp.  135–6. Wollaston, like …
  • … grand and comprehensive idea. ’ ( Wollaston 1854 , p. xiii). The island of Porto Santo. CD …

To T. H. Huxley   20 February [1855]

Summary

Sends specimens of sessile cirripedes for corroboration of their cementing apparatus.

Absence of anus in Brachiopoda and Alcippe cirripedes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  20 Feb [1855]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 23, 372, 376)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1635

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … H. Huxley 1855a (see n.  7, below). See letters to T.  H. Huxley, 8 September [1854] and …
  • … 13 September [1854] . Huxley had examined specimens of cirripedes during his visit to …
  • … his views on the Lepadidae (pedunculated cirripedes) (see Living Cirripedia (1854):  134). …
  • … See Living Cirripedia (1854) , p.  134, where CD described the cementing apparatus in …
  • … T.  H. Huxley 1854b. Living Cirripedia (1854):  546. T.  H. Huxley 1855a. CD’s copy is in …

From Robert McAndrew   6 October 1855

Summary

Answers questions presumably sent in CD’s letter [missing] of 5 Oct 1855 after reading RMcA’s work on the geographical distribution of testaceous Mollusca.

Author:  Robert McAndrew
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Oct 1855
Classmark:  DAR (Pamphlet collection: bound in McAndrew, Robert 1854)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1759A

Matches: 4 hits

  • … collection: bound in McAndrew, Robert 1854) Robert McAndrew Liverpool 6 Oct 1855 Charles …
  • … distribution of testaceous Mollusca (McAndrew 1854), an annotated copy of which is in the …
  • … refers to McAndrew’s comment in McAndrew 1854, p.  44, that ‘it will appear that several …
  • … a memorandum attached to his copy of McAndrew 1854, CD wrote: ‘M r Macandrew told me that …

To J. D. Hooker   14 [July 1855]

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Summary

CD experiments: sowing seeds in fields; "breaking" seeds’ constitution with coloured light; plant hybridisation. Compiling works on hybridism.

Respect for W. B. Carpenter.

Note on "nectar secreting" to Gardeners’ Chronicle [Collected papers 1: 258–9].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  14 [July 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 141
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1717

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Bibliography Carpenter, William Benjamin. 1854. Principles of comparative physiology. 4th …
  • … of the Gardeners’ Chronicle . R.  Hunt 1854 . CD’s copy is in the Darwin Library–CUL. The …
  • … London (1836): 149–75. Hunt, Robert. 1854. Researches on light in its chemical relations; …
  • … at Oxford University, 1822–55. R.  Hunt 1854 , pp.  216–17, alluded to Daubeny’s memoir on …
  • … was printed in the appendix of R.  Hunt 1854 , pp.  375–6. Charles Lawson was the son of …
  • … of Edinburgh. CD refers to R.  Hunt 1854 , p.  239, which describes Hunt’s commission to …
  • … and the origin of variation in Carpenter 1854 , pp.  632–40. CD recorded that he finished …

To T. H. Huxley   8 March [1855]

Summary

Thanks THH for corroborating his observations. Discusses metamorphosis of ovaria to cement organs. Ovaries, germinal vesicles, and anatomy of cirripedes. Difficulties of classification, and observation.

THH’s article on Mollusca [Charles Knight, ed., English cyclopædia: a new dictionary of universal knowledge (1854–70) 3: 855–74].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  8 Mar [1855]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 25)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1645

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ed. , English cyclopædia: a new dictionary of universal knowledge (1854–70) 3: 855–74]. …
  • … Proteolepas bivincta in Living Cirripedia (1854):  594–6. Owing largely to the differences …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Milne-Edwards, Henri. 1852. Observations sur …
  • … difference of opinion in Living Cirripedia (1854):  17. Whereas James Dwight Dana, like …

From Robert Hunt   19 July 1855

Summary

Discusses how best to simulate the light at a particular point on the earth’s surface using coloured glass; considers sunlight as composed of three "principles", varying in proportion according to latitude, which affect germination, lignification, and floriation.

Author:  Robert Hunt
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 July 1855
Classmark:  DAR 261.11: 17
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1721

Matches: 4 hits

  • … see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 14 [July 1855] ). Described in R.  Hunt 1854 . R.   …
  • … Hunt 1854 , pp.  221–8. …
  • … R.  Hunt 1854 , pp.  228–31. John Frederick William Herschel had coined the term ‘ …
  • … Royal Society of London , pp. 1–6. Hunt, Robert. 1854. Researches on light in its chemical …

From J. D. Dana   [before 6 December 1855]

Summary

Responds to CD’s criticism of his use of word "Kingdom" in discussing geographical distribution of Crustacea.

Author:  James Dwight Dana
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 6 Dec 1855]
Classmark:  DAR (CD library – Dana, J. D. 1853)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1544

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Bibliography Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Lubbock, John. 1855. On the freshwater …
  • … the area formed CD’s ‘first or North Atlantic province’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  167). …
  • … In Living Cirripedia (1854):  168, CD had written: Mr. Dana joins the East Indian …
  • … or provinces’ in Living Cirripedia (1854):  167 to denote the regions in which the animals …

To J. S. Henslow   13 March 1855

Summary

Acknowledges a list [of plants?].

Looks forward to new edition [of British plants growing wild in the parish of Hitcham, Suffolk, 2d ed. (1855)].

JSH should not trouble about Anacharis until he is less busy. Will send cirripedes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  13 Mar 1855
Classmark:  DAR 93: A25
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1647

Matches: 1 hit

  • … cirripede specimens to the museum (see letter to J.  S. Henslow, 2 September [1854] ). …

From John Davy   30 January 1855

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Summary

Responds to CD’s letter. The ova of Salmonidae exposed to air, if kept moist, will stay alive up to 72 hours.

Author:  John Davy
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Jan 1855
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 227
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1634

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Bibliography Davy, John. 1854. Some observations on the …
  • … Salmonidæ. [Read 18 December 1854. ] Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 3 ( …
  • … brother of the chemist Humphry Davy. Davy 1854 . CD had suggested experiments that might …

To T. H. Huxley   29 [September 1855]

Summary

Responds to THH’s questioning of his observations on cirripede anatomy with extensive discussion of what he observed. Admits his elementary knowledge of microscopical structures but seriously doubts he has erred. Cement glands, ovarian tubes, etc.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  29 [Sept 1855]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 21); DAR 145: 222
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1757

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Cirripedia (1851):  46 and Living Cirripedia (1854):  87). Living Cirripedia (1851):  57. …
  • … see letter to T.  H. Huxley, 13 September [1854] ). Huxley and his wife had spent their …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Steenstrup, Johannes Japetus Smith. 1846. …
  • … mass of ovarian cæca’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  134). He described in Balaninae how ‘at …

To John Lubbock   24 April [1855]

Summary

Praise for JL’s interesting paper ["On the freshwater entomostraca of South America", Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. n.s. 3 (1854–6): 232–46].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  24 Apr [1855]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 11 (EH 88206460)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1673

Matches: 2 hits

  • … entomostraca of South America", Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. n.s. 3 (1854–6): 232–46]. …
  • … and Magazine of Natural History in 1853 and 1854. Freshwater Mollusca. CD wanted to see …

To Charles Lyell   4 November [1855]

Summary

Comments on two pamphlets by John Bachman [probably Continuation of the review of "Nott and Gliddon’s types of mankind" (1855) and An examination of the characteristics of genera and species as applicable to the doctrine of the unity of the human race (1855)].

CD’s pigeon breeding and plant hybridization experiments.

Invites CL to visit.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 Nov [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.115)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1772

Matches: 4 hits

  • … article was a review of Nott and Gliddon 1854, a work CD recorded having read in December …
  • … 13, 14). CD’s copy of Nott and Gliddon 1854 is in the Darwin Library–CUL. William Henry …
  • … Whewell. J.  D. Hooker 1853–5  and Wollaston 1854 . CD evidently lent his copies of these …
  • … Lovell Reeve. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of the …

From Edward Blyth   4 August 1855

Summary

Sends a skeleton of a Bengal jungle cock.

Has never heard of trained otters breeding in captivity.

Introduced domestic rabbits are confined to the ports of India.

Canaries and other tame finches and thrushes brought into India do not breed well.

Origin of the domestic canary. Tendency of domesticated birds to produce "top-knot" varieties.

The tame geese of lower Bengal are hybrids; those of upper Bengal are said to be pure Anser cygnoides.

Wild Anser cinereus occur in flocks in the cold season.

Discusses at length different breeds of domestic cats and possible wild progenitors. Wild and domestic cats occasionally interbreed. The Angora variety breeds freely with the common Bengal cat and all stages of intermediates can be found.

Believes pigeons have been bred in India since remote antiquity.

Discusses whether mankind is divided into races or distinct species.

[CD’s notes are an abstract of this letter.]

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Aug 1855
Classmark:  DAR 98: A69–A78
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1735

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Zoologie. Paris. Bonaparte, Charles Lucien. 1854. Coup d’œil sur les pigeons (troisième …
  • … Delamer, Eugene Sebastian [Edmund Saul Dixon]. 1854. Pigeons and rabbits, in their wild, …
  • … of Canino in Comptes Rendus , tome 39 (1854), p.  1106. Choice fancy Pigeons are here too …
  • … rabbits , a shilling treatise on the practical aspects of rearing these animals, in 1854 ( …
  • … Delamer 1854 ). That Blyth would have been ‘ utterly astounded ’ by this may have been …
  • … S. Dixon 1848 (Darwin Library–CUL). Delamer 1854  is also in the Darwin Library–CUL and CD …
  • … the illustration of the half-lop rabbit ( Delamer 1854 , opposite p.  135) in Variation 1: …
  • … four races of Kallij pheasants. Bonaparte 1854 . Blyth 1847a. CD’s copy of the Annals and …

From Robert Hunt   24 July 1855

Summary

Informs CD which colours of glass accelerate germination, lignification, and floriation; advises CD on obtaining such glass and offers his help in any experiments.

Author:  Robert Hunt
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 July 1855
Classmark:  DAR 261.11: 18
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1730

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Bibliography Hunt, Robert. 1854. Researches on light in its chemical relations; embracing …
  • … See letter from Robert Hunt, 19 July 1854. The three …
  • … types of glass are described in Hunt 1854  as: blue glass to encourage germination (pp.   …

Armand de Quatrefages   20 November [1855]

Summary

Thanks for gift of Souvenirs d’un naturaliste (Quatrefages 1854).

Can AdeQ ask M. J. P. Flourens about experiments which show that hybrid offspring of dogs, wolves and jackals are sterile between themselves in the third generation.

CD cannot obtain a copy of Dureau de la Malle’s work on breeds of horse: can AdeQ assist?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Jean Louis Armand (Armand de Quatrefages) Quatrefages de Bréau
Date:  20 Nov [1855]
Classmark:  Bibliothèque National de France (Collection d’autographes formée de la correspondance reçue ou acquise par Étienne de Jouy, Jules Lacroix, Paul Lacroix MS-9623 (2035))
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1782F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … de Panckoucke. Quatrefages, Armand de. 1854. Souvenirs d’un naturaliste. 2 vols. Paris: …
  • … of Souvenirs d’un naturaliste (Quatrefages 1854). Can AdeQ ask M. J. P. Flourens about …

To Asa Gray   24 August [1855]

Summary

"Close" species in large and small genera.

Alphonse de Candolle on geographical distribution [Géographie botanique raisonnée (1855)].

Species variability.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  24 Aug [1855]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (10)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1749

Matches: 3 hits

  • … April 1852] ). See Living Cirripedia (1854):  155, where CD stated this principle and used …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural …
  • … 248–56. [vols. 5,6,7] Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   [13 September 1855]

Summary

Would welcome any distinct breed of poultry and would be glad to have any good pigeons.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  [13 Sept 1855]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Tegetmeier, W. B. ser.2: 26)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1754

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Chronicle”. Tegetmeier, William Bernhard. 1854. Profitable poultry; their management in …
  • … Correspondence vol.  5, Appendix I). Tegetmeier 1854 . CD’s copy in the Darwin Library–CUL …
  • … from the large Surrey fowl’ ( Tegetmeier 1854 , p.  33). Edmund Saul Dixon, in E.  S. …

To Syms Covington   28 February 1855

Summary

Pleased to hear that SC is prospering.

News of FitzRoy, Sulivan and J. L. Stokes.

The Crimean War is badly mismanaged, but Englishmen are behaving nobly.

Wishes he knew what to do with his boys.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Syms Covington
Date:  28 Feb 1855
Classmark:  Sydney Mail, 9 August 1884, pp. 254–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1637

Matches: 3 hits

  • … in 1852, FitzRoy married Maria Smyth in 1854. Bartholomew James Sulivan commanded a vessel …
  • … See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 1 March [1854] , n.  14. John Lort Stokes shared the poop …
  • … about six weeks ago, dated August 8, 1854, with so good an account of yourself, your …
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …
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