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To Edwin Lankester, Ray Society   4 March [1851]

Summary

Asks EL to request the Council [of the Ray Society] to permit him to have nine plates [for vol. 1 of Living Cirripedia] instead of eight (of which two were to be in colour) and a tenth plate if he pays for it himself.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edwin Lankester; Ray Society
Date:  4 Mar [1851]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1395

Matches: 7 hits

  • … published Living Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ). Living Cirripedia (1851) has ten plates; none …
  • … Jr, who engraved the plates for both volumes of Living Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ) and for …
  • … Fossil Cirripedia ( 1854 ). Lankester wrote ‘Ans d EL. ’ at the top of CD’s letter, but …
  • … Bibliography Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ of …
  • … Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. Living Cirripedia (1851): A monograph of …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …

From John Gwyn Jeffreys   7 September 1851

Summary

Has sent CD some cirripedes and notes which he hopes will be of use. Gives details of occurrence and source of some of the specimens.

Author:  John Gwyn Jeffreys
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Sept 1851
Classmark:  D. Gwyn Jeffreys (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1452

Matches: 9 hits

  • … In the introduction to Living Cirripedia (1854):  2, CD stated: ‘I have given much fewer …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Post Office London directory : Post-Office …
  • … B . amphitrite in Living Cirripedia (1854):  240. William Clark of Exmouth. He contributed …
  • … Balanus improvisus ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  250–3). Jeffreys’s specimen is mentioned …
  • … for B.  porcatus ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  256). This cirripede is generally found on …
  • … that B.  amphitrite was not found in British waters (see Living Cirripedia (1854):  241). …
  • … is described in Living Cirripedia (1854):  261–8. In the section ‘Range, habits, &c. ’, …
  • … is described in Living Cirripedia (1854):  225–6. Jeffreys’s specimen was the largest CD …

To John Edward Gray   [January 1851]

Summary

Is coming tomorrow to see Lorenz Spengler on cirripedes [Auserlesne Schnecken, Muscheln und andre Schaalthiere (1758)] and the remaining sessile cirripedes in the collection. Has finished Balanus.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Edward Gray
Date:  [Jan 1851]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum (Zoology letters 2: 57)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1383

Matches: 7 hits

  • … in the letter. Spengler 1790 . CD cited this work in Fossil Cirripedia (1854) and in …
  • … Living Cirripedia (1854) . CD had requested permission from the trustees of the British …
  • … perhaps why CD wished to examine Cocks’s collection (see Living Cirripedia (1854):  196). …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and …
  • … Verrucidæ of Great Britain. By Charles Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. …
  • … Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with figures of all the …
  • … etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Spengler, Lorenz. 1790. Beskrivelse og …

To Christian Ferdinand Friedrich von Krauss   21 December [1851]

Summary

Asks to borrow FK’s specimen of Conia rosea. Would like to know if FK collected it himself [in S. Africa] or was given it, because CD has a closely allied species from Australia, which surprises him. [See Living Cirripedia 2: 335.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Christian Ferdinand Friedrich von Krauss
Date:  21 Dec [1851]
Classmark:  Wellcome Library
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1465

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Mollusken. Stuttgart. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … Tetraclita rosea (see Living Cirripedia (1854):  321). Krauss had described it in Krauss …
  • … p.  136. CD thanked him in Living Cirripedia (1854): 335 n. for sending a ‘unique specimen …
  • … 12 November 1851. In Living Cirripedia (1854):  335 n. , CD stated: ‘There can be no doubt …

To Robert Ball   26 May [1851]

Summary

Obliged for letter about cirripedes attached to turtles’ backs. Genus is Chelonobia, Leach. Cirripedes do not penetrate skin, but surrounding tissue grows up around them.

Asks RB to send S. American Balanus. Already has specimens from Irish coast.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Ball
Date:  26 May [1851]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (Fellows’ Papers 54.ii)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1429

Matches: 5 hits

  • … death of Anne Darwin. Living Cirripedia (1854):  382. Darwin did not begin working on this …
  • … of Chelonobia in Living Cirripedia (1854):  390–2. See letter to Robert Ball, 8 June [ …
  • … are mentioned in Living Cirripedia (1854):  512 as the only three to which CD attributed …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …

To J. J. S. Steenstrup   16 October [1851]

Summary

Thanks him for specimens of Xenobalanus. Discusses systematic relations of the genus.

Comments on paper by J. T. Reinhardt ["Om slaegten Lithotryas", Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren. Kjobenhavn 2 (1850): 1–8].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johannes Japetus Smith (Japetus) Steenstrup
Date:  16 Oct [1851]
Classmark:  Det Kongelige Bibliotek, Copenhagen (NKS 3460 4to)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1459

Matches: 5 hits

  • … chaplain on Madeira ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  439). Living Cirripedia (1851):  156 n. …
  • … CD for it is cited in Living Cirripedia (1854):  440. Steenstrup gave a full description …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Reinhardt, Johannes Theodor. 1850. Om …
  • … globicipitis . ’ In Living Cirripedia (1854):  438, CD used Steenstrup’s name for the …

To J. de C. Sowerby   19 February [1851]

Summary

Comments on JdeCS’s plates [for Fossil Cirripedia (Lepadidae)]. Asks if JdeCS can lend him specimens of fossil Balanidae.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James de Carle Sowerby
Date:  19 Feb [1851]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1391

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Bibliography Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ of …
  • … Great Britain. By Charles Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. …
  • … 1985). Seven specimens from Sowerby’s collection are listed in Fossil Cirripedia (1854) . …

To Robert Ball   8 June [1851]

Summary

Thanks for cast and account of cirripede [Chelonobia caretta] burrowing in turtle shell. Believes base of cirripede absorbed by bone below.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Ball
Date:  8 June [1851]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (Fellows’ Papers 54.iii)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1434

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Press. 1985–. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … 26 May [1851] . In Living Cirripedia (1854):  392, CD wrote: ‘Dr. R.  Ball, of Dublin, …
  • … body of the turtle’. In Living Cirripedia (1854):  390–2, CD repeated this explanation and …

To Thomas Salt   24 December 1851

Summary

Asking Thomas Salt to inform the Executors of Captain Muckleston that he wishes to foreclose the mortgage.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Salt
Date:  24 Dec 1851
Classmark:  Rachel Salt (private collection); sold by Spink’s (dealers), July 2018
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1465F

Matches: 3 hits

  • … s trust for five years; the money was not repaid until 1854. See also Correspondence vol. …
  • … 5, letter to Josiah Wedgwood III, 1 May [1854] , and this volume, Supplement, letter …
  • … to Thomas Salt, 12 July [1854] …

To W. B. R. H. Dunker   2 June [1851]

Summary

Collection of recent cirripedes received. The fossil cirripedes have been returned.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Wilhelm Bernhard Rudolph Hadrian Wilhelm (Wilhelm) Dunker
Date:  2 June [1851]
Classmark:  Det Kongelige Bibliotek, Copenhagen (NKS 4941 I, 4to)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1431

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … Morris, and is cited in Living Cirripedia (1854) in the descriptions of Balanus eburneus ( …
  • … western coast of Africa ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  232, 234). Fossil Cirripedia (1851) . …

To C. S. Bate   18 August [1851]

Summary

Thanks CSB for cirripede larvae.

Has been unwell.

Cannot see transverse articulation referred to and does not believe in it.

Sends species synonyms.

Discussion of Chthamalinae.

Suggests using asphalt to seal specimen containers.

Comments on mouth of larva.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Spence Bate
Date:  18 Aug [1851]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 45
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1345

Matches: 5 hits

  • … stellatus , as described in Living Cirripedia (1854):  104. CD refers to the large segment …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Strickland, Hugh Edwin, et al. 1863. Rules …
  • … 1851 , p.  328). See also Living Cirripedia (1854):  104, where, in his description of the …
  • … 1851 , p.  325). In Living Cirripedia (1854):  493, CD considered Balanus punctatus to be …

To George Newport   12 August [1851]

Summary

Returns scissors with thanks.

Young John Lubbock who has a strong taste for dissecting insects would benefit greatly from conversation with GN.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Newport
Date:  12 Aug [1851]
Classmark:  Linnean Society of London
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1450

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … both volumes of Living Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ) to the Linnean Society (MS attached …
  • … to CD’s copy of Living Cirripedia (1854) in the Cambridge University Library). …

To Edwin Lankester, Ray Society   30 July [1851]

Summary

Sends completed MS [vol. 1 of Living Cirripedia] with instructions for the printers; reviews number of plates and woodcuts, and offers to pay for extras and for excess corrections, if they occur. Hopes the Council [of the Ray Society] will print his second volume at the end of the ensuing year.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edwin Lankester; Ray Society
Date:  30 July [1851]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1447

Matches: 4 hits

  • … The manuscript of Living Cirripedia (1854) was not completed until the end of 1853. …
  • … Publication did not take place until August 1854. There are thirty plates in the volume, …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …

To Adam White   26 December 1851

Summary

Testimonial letter expressing CD’s high opinion of AW’s zoological attainments.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Adam White
Date:  26 Dec 1851
Classmark:  Testimonials of Adam White, F.L.S., Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Museum [1854], p. 15 (National Library of Scotland, 3.2043(6))
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1466

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Zoological Department, British Museum [1854], p. 15 (National Library of Scotland, 3.2043( …
  • … of natural history at Edinburgh University in 1854, but Edward Forbes was appointed before …

To John Richardson   30 December [1851]

Summary

Will send JR’s box of cirripedes on Thursday.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Richardson
Date:  30 Dec [1851]
Classmark:  Louisiana State University Libraries, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections (James E. Murdoch Papers, Mss. 667)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1466H

Matches: 3 hits

  • … volume, Supplement), the days of the carrier, and Living Cirripedia (1854). Peter Cormack …
  • … s specimens, referred to in Living Cirripedia (1854) and in the letter to John Richardson, …
  • … the six home counties 1851). Between 1851 and 1854, 30 December fell on a Tuesday only in …

To J. J. S. Steenstrup   9 September [1851]

Summary

Returns fossil cirripede specimens to JS and Forchhammer.

Sends copies [of Fossil Cirripedia] to them and to Sven Lovén.

Reading proofs [of Living Cirripedia].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johannes Japetus Smith (Japetus) Steenstrup
Date:  9 Sept [1851]
Classmark:  Det Kongelige Bibliotek, Copenhagen (NKS 3460 4to)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1454

Matches: 3 hits

  • … to CD’s copy of Living Cirripedia (1854) , Cambridge University Library). See letter to …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …

To Augustus Addison Gould   2 June [1851]

Summary

Thanks for cirripede specimens. Describes progress [on Living Cirripedia].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Augustus Addison Gould
Date:  2 June [1851]
Classmark:  Houghton Library, Harvard University (Augustus A. Gould papers, 1831–66 MS Am 1210: 227)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1430

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and B.  glandulus ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  235, 253, 265) are listed as Californian …
  • … Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …

To Edward Forbes   [1 May – 5 June 1851]

Summary

Comments on MS by C. S. Bate. Bate not aware of other work on Cirripedia; cites Bate’s errors. Would Bate allow CD to use his drawings in Living Cirripedia? [See Living Cirripedia 1: 9–16.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Forbes
Date:  [1 May – 5 June 1851]
Classmark:  DAR 144: 131
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1214

Matches: 4 hits

  • … figures from it in Living Cirripedia (1854):  Plate XXIX, fig. 7. See letter to C.  S. …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Martin-Saint-Ange, Gaspard Joseph. 1835. …
  • … 1843 and Bate 1851 (see Living Cirripedia (1854):  98–9). Coldstream 1836 . Martin-Saint- …

To James Scott Bowerbank   25 June [1851]

Summary

Asks to re-examine specimen of Scalpellum. Discusses publication [of Fossil Cirripedia] by Palaeontographical Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Scott Bowerbank
Date:  25 June [1851]
Classmark:  Houghton Library, Harvard University (Autograph File, D)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1438

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Society. 1851. Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ …
  • … Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. Freeman, Richard Broke. 1977. The works …
  • … CD thanked him in Fossil Cirripedia (1854):  39 for the opportunity to examine a specimen …

To James Dwight Dana   9 September [1851]

Summary

Thanks him for letter and Balanus specimen.

Acasta is curious; may be a new genus.

Is sending copy [of Fossil Cirripedia 1]. Correcting proofs [of Living Cirripedia 1].

Mentions comment by Hermann Abich on JDD’s chapters on the Sandwich Islands [in Geology (1849)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Dwight Dana
Date:  9 Sept [1851]
Classmark:  Yale University Library: Manuscripts and Archives (Dana Family Papers (MS 164) Series 1, Box 2, folder 43)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1453

Matches: 4 hits

  • … MS attached to CD’s copy of Living Cirripedia (1854) , Cambridge University Library). Otto …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … of Acasta sporillus , Living Cirripedia (1854):  319–20, CD stated: ‘I am indebted to Mr. …
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …
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