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Darwin Correspondence Project

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To J. E. Gray   28 [June 1848]

Summary

Mentions returning borrowed book by Camillo Ranzani.

Discusses loan of cirripede specimens from British Museum. "In truth never will a mountain in labour have brought forth such a mouse as my book on the Cirripedia. It is ridiculous the time each species takes me."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Edward Gray
Date:  28 [June 1848]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.74)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1187

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Ranzani 1820 , cited in Living Cirripedia (1854):  5, 272, 329  …
  • … and Fossil Cirripedia (1854):  10, 37. Conchotrya and Brisnæus are listed as synonyms for …
  • … are described in Living Cirripedia (1854): 483–91. The synonym Octomeris stutchburii is …
  • … Bibliography Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ of …
  • … Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. Gray, John Edward. 1825. A synopsis of …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Ranzani, Camillo. 1820. Osservazioni su i …

From William Thompson   29 September 1848

Summary

Concerning the measurements of Balanus specimens with respect to growth.

Author:  William Thompson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Sept 1848
Classmark:  Living Cirripedia (1854): 272–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1200A

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Living Cirripedia (1854): 272–3 William Thompson 29 Sept 1848 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Bibliography Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … s letter, CD recorded ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  273): Mr. Thompson goes on to say, that …
  • … or another letter ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  272): I am informed by Mr. Thompson, that …

To James Scott Bowerbank   [January–August 1848]

Summary

Thanks him for Balanus specimens. Comments on his findings. A large Acasta in the wet state would be valuable. Asks JSB to mention his work to J. T. Quekett at the College of Surgeons.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Scott Bowerbank
Date:  [Jan–Aug 1848]
Classmark:  John Hay Library, Brown University (Albert E. Lownes Manuscript Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1045

Matches: 5 hits

  • … during 1848. In Living Cirripedia (1854):  307 n. , CD thanked Bowerbank for making …
  • … species, than the whole rest of the known world. ’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  159–60). …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … interesting species’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  481 n. ). Pachylasma was of interest for …

To James Smith   28 January [1848]

Summary

CD asks if he may have the use of the cirripedes JS collected in Portugal. He will need to break up or make a section of at least one of each species.

Expresses admiration for JS’s paper on Malta ["On recent depressions in the land", Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 3 (1847): 234–40], with its striking demonstration of the change of level between land and water there discovered.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Smith
Date:  28 Jan [1848]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1148

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Bibliography Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … several sources of specimens of fossil Balanus concavus ( Fossil Cirripedia (1854): 17). …
  • … In Living Cirripedia (1854):  237–40, CD described how he had to use both living and …

To J. S. Henslow   2 July [1848]

Summary

Criticises lecturing system in education and emphasis on classics. Has forgotten all his classical knowledge.

Asks JSH’s help in naming cirripedes, on which he is working. Believes he has made "some very curious points".

Expects a sixth child [Francis] in August.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  2 July [1848]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A18–A20
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1189

Matches: 4 hits

  • … sub-family Chthamalinæ ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  455, 493). CD probably refers to his …
  • … John Van Voorst. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Paley, William. 1794. A view of the evidences …
  • … this conclusion. In Living Cirripedia (1854):  493, he said Balanus punctatus was the …

To Daniel Sharpe   23 August [1848?]

Summary

Thanks for note.

Glad DS sticks to cleavage and foliation question. Bernhard Studer one of few to take correct view on subject.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Sharpe
Date:  23 Aug [1848?]
Classmark:  DAR 147: 47
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-991

Matches: 3 hits

  • … beds near Lisbon ( Fossil Cirripedia (1854):  17). Sharpe’s fossils were essential to his …
  • … of Chicago Press. 1977. Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and …
  • … Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. ML : More letters of Charles Darwin: a …

From J. D. Hooker   13 October 1848

Summary

Hugh Falconer’s misbehaviour.

Waiting out rains at Brian Hodgson’s.

Will make botanical transverse section of Himalayas from plains to snow.

Arrangements to pass Sikkim Rajah’s territory.

No evidence of glacial or diluvial action in sub-Himalayan mountains. No evidence of detrital coal formation.

Hodgson’s replies to CD on introduced species and hybrids.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 Oct 1848
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: India letters 1847–51: 112–14
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1203

Matches: 7 hits

  • … expedition is described in J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 177–270. While Hooker was travelling in …
  • … through his territory (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 198). Major C.  Thoresby ( East-India …
  • … of Sikkim, Nepal, and Bhutan (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 115–18). The British did eventually …
  • … of the soils of Sikkim to J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 383–4. He also assisted Hooker by making …
  • … absence from Darjeeling (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 402–4). Hooker discussed the distribution …
  • … in the letter text) in J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 394–400. The Gangetic valley is mentioned on …
  • … the foothills of the Himalayas (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 101–2). Hugon 1837 , one of several …

To Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz   22 October 1848

Summary

Thanks LA and sends thanks to A. A. Gould for specimens. Describes principal findings of his research on cirripedes. Is obliged for information Joseph Leidy gave about cirripede eyes. Describes anatomical features and chief aspects of growth. Describes discovery of parasitic males and a species parasitic upon other cirripedes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Jean Louis Rodolphe (Louis) Agassiz
Date:  22 Oct 1848
Classmark:  Houghton Library, Harvard University (MS Am 1419: 274)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1205

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. LL : The life and letters of Charles Darwin, …
  • … Saint-Ange 1835 . In Living Cirripedia (1854):  9–20, CD discussed the taxonomic rank of …
  • … 1851):  15, 52, and Living Cirripedia (1854): 95, 113. CD often repeated this statement ( …
  • … the two systems. In Living Cirripedia (1854):  151–2, CD speculated ‘that Cirripedes were …

To Henri Milne-Edwards   1 September [1848]

Summary

Describes his cirripede work. Asks whether HM-E can arrange for him to borrowspecimens, especially of species described in Dumont d’Urville, Voyage of"Astrolabe" [1830–2]. Lists species that interesthim.

Compliments HM-E on his Crustacés [1834–40].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henri Milne-Edwards
Date:  1 Sept [1848]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.76)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1199

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 4, Appendix IV). Living Cirripedia (1854) is dedicated to Milne-Edwards in acknowledgment …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Milne-Edwards, Henri. 1834–40. Histoire …

To John Innes   [1848?]

Summary

Suggests various remedies for toothache.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Brodie Innes
Date:  [1848?]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1141

Matches: 2 hits

  • … it frequently affords immediate relief in toothache’ ( Beasley 1854 , p.  199). …
  • … medicines. 2d ed. London. Beasley, Henry. 1854. The book of prescriptions. London. Court, …

To Augustus Addison Gould   3 September [1848]

Summary

Describes his research on cirripedes. Asks to borrow specimens. Comments on previous work on the subject.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Augustus Addison Gould
Date:  3 Sept [1848]
Classmark:  Houghton Library, Harvard University (Augustus A. Gould papers, 1831–66 MS Am 1210: 224)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1200

Matches: 3 hits

  • … is described in Living Cirripedia (1854) . Charles Lyell had met Gould during one or both …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Say, Thomas. 1821. An account of some of the …

To John Stevens Henslow   [1 April 1848]

Summary

Thanks JSH for his address [Address delivered in the Ipswich Museum on 9th March 1848]. Questions a sentence which implies that only the practical use of a scientific discovery makes it worth while. The instinct for truth justifies science without any practical results. Cites his work on cirripedes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  [1 Apr 1848]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A17
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1167

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural …
  • … Hooker, 10 May 1848. In Living Cirripedia (1854):  23, CD explained that: ‘Cirripedes are …

To James Smith   6 February [1848]

Summary

Thanks for present of fossil Balani.

Thanks also for JS’s request to [David?] Landsborough to send barnacle specimens.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Smith
Date:  6 Feb [1848]
Classmark:  Glasgow City Archives (396/TD1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1153F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Society. 1851. Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ …
  • … of Great Britain. By Charles Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. …

From J. D. Hooker   20 February – 16 [March] 1848

Summary

Though correspondence has never ebbed so low, CD is constantly in his thoughts.

Observations on cheetahs used as domesticated hunting animals.

Finds geographical barriers sometimes separate species, but also finds species that remain separate where there are no barriers to migration.

Colour "individuates" isolated animal species.

Plains and alpine animal distribution show altitude not strictly analogous to latitude.

Impact of timber cutting on climate has led to extinction of crocodiles.

Will discuss coal formation in letter to Edward Forbes.

CD often asked whether isolated mountains in southern latitudes had closely allied representatives of Arctic and north temperate plants; JDH has found a representative barberry.

Making for Darjeeling via Calcutta.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Feb – 16 [Mar] 1848
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: India letters 1847–51: 52–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1158

Matches: 4 hits

  • … deposits were reputed to exist (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 2). Hooker had previously examined …
  • … asiatica , described in J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 24 n. , and in Hooker and Thomson 1855, …
  • … known as the dziggetai (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 172 n. ). Only one specimen had previously …
  • … where he arrived on 16 March (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 634). CD’s letter has not been found. …

From William Buckland   15 July [1848]

Summary

Will forward recommendation of Edward Cresy to Edwin Chadwick, but thinks there will be no further need of engineers.

Author:  William Buckland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 July [1848]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1190

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 1952. Edwin Chadwick and the public health movement, 1832– 1854. London: Longmans, Green. …

To Edward Cresy   [15 July 1848]

Summary

Encloses note from William Buckland [1190], stating that no appointment of surveyor is to be made. Thinks further recommendation would be unwise, but will write to Sir Henry De la Beche and [Robert?] Hutton if EC wishes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Cresy, Jr
Date:  [15 July 1848]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 307
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1191

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 1952. Edwin Chadwick and the public health movement, 1832– 1854. London: Longmans, Green. …

To James Clark Ross    25 February [1848]

Summary

Thanks for sending cirripedes. Cannot make out the label, so can JCR tell him the bank and the depth. Hopes to keep the specimens for 6 or 8 weeks before returning them.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Clark Ross
Date:  25 Feb [1848]
Classmark:  Scott Polar Research Institute (MS 1226/10)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1158A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … were described in Living Cirripedia (1854): 209, 225. The letter is annotated ‘An d 30  …

To J. D. Hooker   10 May 1848

thumbnail

Summary

Confident of species theory as result of applying it to cirripede sexual systems.

CD’s opinion of E. Blyth. JDH should meet Blyth, inquire about domesticated varieties, study insular flora, solve coal-plant problem.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  10 May 1848
Classmark:  DAR 114: 112
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1174

Matches: 1 hit

  • … published in two volumes (J.  D. Hooker 1854). Edward Blyth had gone to India in 1841 to …

To Charles Lyell   [16 June 1848]

Summary

Comments on Ann Susan Horner’s escape in a dangerous incident at sea.

Compares addresses by William Buckland and CL, delivered at recent meeting of the Geological Society.

Discusses the views on Glen Roy in Chambers’ Ancient sea-margins [1848].

Speculates that Chambers wrote Vestiges [of creation (1844)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [16 June 1848]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.73)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1186

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Chambers] 1844 ) was widely known by 1854 ( A.  Desmond 1982 , p.  210 n.  28). See …
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

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  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

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  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

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  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

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  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

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  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

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  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

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  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

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  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …
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