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To Charles Lyell   18 February [1854]

Summary

Comments on CL’s plan to visit Tenerife.

Discusses inclination of strata on islands and around mountains.

Personal affairs of several scientists.

Visit by Henslow.

Notes publication by Hooker [Himalayan journals (1854)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 Feb [1854]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.108)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1553

Matches: 12 hits

  • … To Charles Lyell   18 February [1854] …
  • … Mss.B.D25.108) Charles Robert Darwin Down 18 Feb [1854] Charles Lyell, 1st baronet …
  • … scientists. Visit by Henslow. Notes publication by Hooker [ Himalayan journals (1854)]. …
  • … the first proofs of Living Cirripedia (1854) (see ‘Journal’; Correspondence vol.  5, …
  • … to visit the Canary Islands in February 1854, returning to England in April. Extracts from …
  • … Collins Harvill. Ramsay, Andrew Crombie. 1854. On the geology of the gold-bearing district …
  • … 2: 192). A later letter to Horner, 21 February 1854 ( ibid . , pp.  193–6), contains more …
  • … deposits had been discovered by the Geological Survey in Wales (see Ramsay 1854 ). In his …
  • … to the Geological Society (17 February 1854), Forbes reported that areas of the Permian …
  • … of the Geological Society of London 10 (1854): xl). Of the Académie des Sciences. Urbain …
  • … Society. At the meeting of 18 January 1854, Prestwich read a paper ‘On the origin of the …
  • … Journal of the Geological Society 10 (1854): 241). Jones may have believed that Prestwich …

To Charles Lyell   1 October [1862]

Summary

Mentions a discussion of man by Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in his Histoire naturelle générale [1854–62].

Mentions a book by Friedrich Rolle [Ch. Darwin’s Lehre von der Entstehung der Arten (1863)].

Cites evolutionary statements on elephants by Hugh Falconer and notes Falconer’s objection to natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  1 Oct [1862]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.282)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3747

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Hilaire in his Histoire naturelle générale [1854–62]. Mentions a book by Friedrich Rolle [ …
  • … Bibliography Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. 1854–62. Histoire naturelle générale des …
  • … CD refers to Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 , 2: 167–261, in which the author concluded …
  • … he referred to Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62  as providing ‘an elaborate and faithful …

To Charles Lyell   4 November [1855]

Summary

Comments on two pamphlets by John Bachman [probably Continuation of the review of "Nott and Gliddon’s types of mankind" (1855) and An examination of the characteristics of genera and species as applicable to the doctrine of the unity of the human race (1855)].

CD’s pigeon breeding and plant hybridization experiments.

Invites CL to visit.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 Nov [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.115)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1772

Matches: 4 hits

  • … article was a review of Nott and Gliddon 1854, a work CD recorded having read in December …
  • … 13, 14). CD’s copy of Nott and Gliddon 1854 is in the Darwin Library–CUL. William Henry …
  • … Whewell. J.  D. Hooker 1853–5  and Wollaston 1854 . CD evidently lent his copies of these …
  • … Lovell Reeve. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of the …

To Charles Lyell   28 [September 1860]

Summary

Discusses extinction of ammonites.

Discusses August Krohn’s cirripede research and Krohn’s correction of his own work.

Discusses origin of dog in connection with origin of man.

Comments on the guinea-pig in South America.

Notes K. E. von Baer’s view of species.

Mentions difficulty of crossing rabbit and hare.

Agrees with Hooker’s views on variation under cultivation and in nature.

Regrets use of term "natural selection", would now use "Natural Preservation".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  28 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.229)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2931

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Origin : On the origin of species by means …
  • … incorrect in Living Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ) in supposing that the horns of the carapace …
  • … presentation copy of Living Cirripedia (1854) to Krohn (see Correspondence vol.  5, letter …
  • … to T.  H.  Huxley, 2 September [1854] , n.  4). Krohn later sent CD a copy of his study of …

To Charles Lyell   22 May [1860]

Summary

Mentions American edition of Origin.

A "savage" review [by John Duns] in North British Review [32 (1860): 455–68].

Comments on views of G. H. K. Thwaites on the survival of simple forms as a problem in his theory.

Mentions imperfection of geological record.

Marine origin of coal.

Illness of Etty.

Encloses article by Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire on hare–rabbit crosses [Histoire naturelle générale (1854–62) 3: 222].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  22 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.213)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2812

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Saint-Hilaire on hare–rabbit crosses [ Histoire naturelle générale (1854–62) 3: 222]. …
  • … Appendix II). I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 , 3: 222. CD’s annotated copy is in the …
  • … 455–86. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. 1854–62. Histoire naturelle générale des règnes …

To Charles Lyell   15 February [1853]

Summary

Returns Lake Superior [1850], which he already has received from Agassiz. Thanks for pamphlets by C. B. Adams [on Mollusca, Contrib. Conchol. 10 (1851): 189–206; 11 (1852): 207–15].

Describes his dissection of an unusual cirripede [Alcippe lampas] with 12 males attached [see Living Cirripedia 2: 556, 558].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  15 Feb [1853]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.103)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1502

Matches: 3 hits

  • … s study of terrestrial Mollusca. Alcippe lampas (see Living Cirripedia (1854):  562). …
  • … Press. 1985–. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural …

To Charles Lyell   10 January [1855]

Summary

Discusses views of Daniel Sharpe on foliation and cleavage. Recalls his own previous discussion [in South America].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  10 Jan [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.110)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1626

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 13. See letter to John Higgins, 25 December 1854 , n.  2. See letter to Francis Galton, 1  …
  • … 30, and to Daniel Sharpe, 12 November [1854]. Sharpe 1852  and 1855 discussed foliation in …

To Charles Lyell   16 [June 1856]

Summary

Condemns theory of Edward Forbes and others that many islands were formerly connected to South America by now submerged continents.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  16 [June 1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.131)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1902

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Hooker 1853–5 , 1: xxiii. In Wollaston 1854 , p. x, Thomas Vernon Wollaston referred to ‘ …
  • … Lovell Reeve. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of the …

To Charles Lyell   [8 March 1850]

Summary

Comments on CL’s Anniversary address [Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 6 (1850): xxvii–lxvi]. Notes CL’s criticism of R. I. Murchison’s catastrophism.

Asks whether there are Lower Cretaceous beds in Scandinavia. Thinks Leopold von Buch must have neglected them.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [8 Mar 1850]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.92)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1308

Matches: 3 hits

  • … formation older than the Upper Chalk are described in Fossil Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ). …
  • … Society. 1851. Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ …
  • … Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. Lyell, Charles. 1830–3. Principles of …

From Charles Lyell   17 June 1856

Summary

CD forgets an author [CD himself in Coral reefs] "who, by means of atolls, contrived to submerge archipelagoes (or continents?), the mountains of which must originally have differed from each other in height 8,000 (or 10,000?) feet".

CL begins to think that all continents and oceans are chiefly post-Eocene, but he admits that it is questionable how far one is at liberty to call up continents "to convey a Helix from the United States to Europe in Miocene or Pliocene periods".

Will CD explain why the land and marine shells of Porto Santo and Madeira differ while the plants so nearly agree?

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 146: 475
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1905

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Charles Lyell, 25 June [1856] ). McAndrew 1854. CD had corresponded with Robert McAndrew …
  • … Irish Academy in 1850–51. [Read 24 April 1854. ] Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy …
  • … 1856 , pp.  137–9, read on 24 April 1854. Samuel Haughton also presented his results in a …

To Charles Lyell   27 and 28 April [1860]

Summary

Thanks CL for loan of paper by J. S. Newberry ["Notes on the ancient vegetation of N. America", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 29 (1860): 208–18].

Mentions reviews of the Origin.

Discusses evolution of the domestic dog, especially with respect to the views of Owen, Pallas, and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

Mentions W. B. Carpenter’s views on taxonomy.

Discusses hybridisation of plants and animals.

Comments on progress in human evolution.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  27 and 28 Apr 1860
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.209)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2771

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Schweizerbart. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. 1854–62. Histoire naturelle générale des …
  • … Pallas 1780  and I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 , 3: 107, are cited on this point in …
  • … third volume of I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 (see letter to Williams and Norgate, 6  …

From Charles Lyell   8 September 1860

Summary

Believes CD’s argument against special creation based on absence of terrestrial mammals on islands isolated before Pliocene era is very strong. However, the absence means Cetacea and bats have not modified towards terrestrial existence. There is similar lack of development of bats and rodents in Australia. Constancy among land shells of Madeira over long period shows that the majority of their species are immutable: a minority of "metamorphic" species maintains the overall number of true species while extinction removes many. Emphasis on the role of extinction discomfits CD’s opponents since the power of generation of new species ought to keep pace. Mentions Ammonite deposits with reference to CD’s comments on their apparent sudden extinction [Origin, pp. 321–2]. Perhaps absence of transmutation on slowly subsiding atolls indicates the slow rate of selective change.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Sept 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal VI, pp. 179–86
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2908A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 75: 180–208. [Vols. 8,10] Lowe, Richard Thomas. 1854. Catalogus Molluscorum pneumonatorum …
  • … fresh-water shells of the island ( Lowe 1854 ). Bronn 1858a. See Junker  1991 . CD made …

To Charles Lyell   8 May [1855]

Summary

Mentions his paper ["Transportal of erratic boulders", Collected papers 1: 218–27]. Discusses ice-borne rock. Reference to unpublished paper on icebergs [?"Power of icebergs to make grooves", Collected papers 1: 252–5]. Remarks on scoring by icebergs. Comments on judgment of theories by Geological Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8 May [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.113)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1679

Matches: 2 hits

  • … York: Macmillan. Ramsay, Andrew Crombie. 1854. On the geology of the gold-bearing district …
  • … breccias wherever they occur. ’ ( Ramsay 1854 , p.  200). Probably a reference to Ramsay …

To Charles Lyell   18 May [1860]

Summary

Comments on enclosed letters from Asa Gray and Wallace [missing].

Discusses hybrid fertility in rabbits and hares, and pheasants and fowls.

Asks about paper by Hermann Schaaffhausen ["Über Beständigkeit u. Umwandlung der Arten", Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande 10 (1853): 420–51].

Mentions criticism by Sedgwick and William Clark at Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Notes importance of CL and Hooker in defending Origin.

Comments on papers by D. A. Godron ["Considérations sur les migrations des végétaux", Acad. Stanislas Mem. Soc. Sci. Nancy (1853): 329–67].

Mentions receiving anonymous verses.

A Manchester newspaper lampoon shows CD has proved "might makes right" to be a universal law.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.212)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2806

Matches: 2 hits

  • … France and cited I.  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62 , vol.  3, as his authority. Lewes’s …
  • … 1985–. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. 1854–62. Histoire naturelle générale des règnes …

To Charles Lyell   [November–December 1851]

Summary

Detailed critique of CL’s A manual of elementary geology [3d ed. (1851), used in editing 4th ed. (1852)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [Nov–Dec 1851]
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1384

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Verneuil, and Keyserling 1845 and Murchison 1854  but did not add to his description of …
  • … during a visit to Madeira in the winter of 1854 (Ch. XXIX). Daniel Sharpe’s conclusions …
  • … 4th ed. London. Murchison, Roderick Impey. 1854. Siluria; the history of the oldest known …

From Charles Lyell   23 April 1855

Summary

CL would like to put Joachim Barrande on the Royal Society’s foreign list. Of French geologists and palaeontologists, he is the man who has made the greatest sacrifices and produced the greatest results.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Apr 1855
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 6: 7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1672

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1911 ) had received much praise during 1854 (see Forbes 1854c). He divided the Silurian …
  • … member of the Geological Society on 3 May 1854 ( Quarterly Journal of the Geological …

From Charles Lyell   [13–14 February 1860]

Summary

Discusses phases of climate.

Describes fossil mammals discovered by Auguste Bravard in South America.

Has had argument with Bishop of Oxford [Samuel Wilberforce] about CD’s book [Origin].

Discusses review in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Guesses that T. V. Wollaston is the author.

Discusses evidence of shells on Madeira.

Comments on paper by Wallace ["On the zoological geography of the Malay Archipelago", J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 4 (1860): 172–84].

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [13–14 Feb 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 283, DAR 205.9: 395
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2694

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 205–15, 272–82; 12: 271–84. Morris, John. 1854. A catalogue of British fossils: comprising …
  • … Clay deposits on the island of Sheppey. Morris 1854 . John Morris’s work was the standard …

From Charles Lyell   30 November 1860

Summary

Satisfied that CD finds his conjectured rate of elevation and long periods of stasis reasonable, even if these periods cannot be estimated. Explaining upheaval by subterranean lava flow makes these pauses plausible. Suspects that mountainous areas move more than lowland and coastal areas. General upheavals or subsidence in Europe in glacial period are unlikely. Believes with Jamieson that there was glacial action in Scotland before its submergence and that it was equally mountainous then. Subterranean upheaval visits different countries by turn. Horizontal Silurian strata must have been submerged and upheaved. Rest has always been the general surface character. Believes, however, that the quantity of late Tertiary movement is against CD’s belief in the constancy of continents and oceans: perhaps since the Miocene period, but not since the Cretaceous.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Nov 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal VII, pp. 49–57
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3001A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … this point in C.  Lyell 1863, p.  286. Spratt 1854 . Lyell discussed Thomas Abel Brimage …
  • … Society of London 4: 480. Spratt, Thomas. 1854. Extract of a letter from Captain Spratt, …

From S. V. Wood Jr to Charles Lyell   27 September 1873

Summary

Returns CD’s books and discusses apples and Crags at Sudbury.

Author:  Searles Valentine Wood
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  27 Sept 1873
Classmark:  Edinburgh University Library, Centre for Research Collections (Gen.117/6330-1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9075F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and comparative physiology ( Carpenter 1839 ) had gone though four editions by 1854. …
  • … CD recorded reading the 1854 edition in his reading notebook for 1855 (see Correspondence …

From Charles Lyell   10 March 1866

Summary

Comments on cool-period MS. Still believes geographical changes principal cause of former changes of climate.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Mar 1866
Classmark:  K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 408–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5031

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1, above), CD wrote, citing J.  D.  Hooker 1854: ‘Looking south we find in the Himalaya …
  • … elsewhere in the Himalayas in J.  D.  Hooker 1854, 1: 248, 380. The mountains of Sikkim …
Document type
letter (32)
Correspondent
Date
1848 (1)
1850 (1)
1851 (1)
1853 (2)
1854 (1)
1855 (5)
1856 (3)
1858 (2)
1859 (2)
1860 (10)
1862 (2)
1866 (1)
1873 (1)
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …
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