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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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From Edward Blyth   1 October 1868

Summary

Gives CD a reference to one of his papers ["Remarks on the modes of variation of nearly affined species or races of birds", J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 19 (1850): 221–9]

and discusses moulting in birds.

Quotes instance of an action by an elephant that apparently displays considerable intelligence.

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Oct 1868
Classmark:  DAR 160: 223
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6406

Matches: 3 hits

  • … races of birds", J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 19 (1850): 221–9] and discusses moulting in birds. …
  • … been found. CD cited this page of Blyth 1850  in Descent 2: 190 and n.  5. Blyth refers to …
  • … Bibliography Blyth, Edward. 1850. Remarks on the modes of variation of nearly affined …

From Edward Blyth   4 October 1868

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Summary

Replies to CD’s questions on sexual differences in birds.

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Oct 1868
Classmark:  DAR 84.1: 100–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6409

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Lynx editions. 1991–2013. Blyth, Edward. 1850. Remarks on the modes of variation of nearly …
  • … Blyth refers to Blyth 1850 , p.  223; see letter from Edward Blyth, 1 October 1868  and …
  • … mentioned species of each genus in Blyth 1850 , p.  223. There is a ‘rufous morph’ of the …

To J. D. Hooker   21 May [1868]

Summary

JDH too severe on Duke of Argyll.

Pities JDH on [BAAS] address [see 6099]; Huxley feels JDH will do well and will not pity him.

Thinks Huxley will give an excellent and original lecture on geographical distribution of birds.

Has been working hard on sexual selection and correspondence about it.

Mignonette is sterile with its own pollen but any two distinct plants are fertile together. It is utterly mysterious and not even Pangenesis will explain it.

On Lyell’s book [Principles, 10th ed.].

Wallace’s wonderful cleverness, but he is not cautious enough. CD differs from Wallace on birds’ nests and protection.

A. Murray’s miserable criticism of Wallace [J. Travel & Nat. Hist. 1 (1868): 137–45].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  21 May [1868]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 62–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6196

Matches: 2 hits

  • … see Correspondence vol.  4, letter to W.  D.  Fox, [17 January 1850] , and letter to J.   …
  • … S.  Henslow, 17 January [1850] . …

From J. D. Caton   2 [October] 1868

Summary

Observations on lateral spots on coats of two specimens of deer. PS on habits of wild and domestic turkeys.

Author:  John Dean Caton
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 [Oct] 1868
Classmark:  DAR 83: 167–9, DAR 161: 125
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6488

Matches: 2 hits

  • … the menagerie and aviary at Knowsley Hall (J.  E.  Gray 1850). CD cited page 64 of J.   …
  • … E.  Gray 1850 in Descent 2: 303 n.  40 when he referred to spots on the summer coat of …

From Alphonse de Candolle   2 July 1868

Summary

Offers notes and reflections on Variation.

Not convinced by Pangenesis, particularly its dependence on the Cytisus [graft hybrid] examples [ch. 27 and ch. 11].

What a book could be written on the application of natural history to man! Gives examples of inheritance in man.

Author:  Alphonse de Candolle
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 July 1868
Classmark:  DAR 161: 14
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6264

Matches: 3 hits

  • … John Murray. 1868. Vilmorin, Louis de. 1850. Note sur une variété non épineuse de l’ajonc …
  • … Ulex europæus , L. ). [Read 11 February 1850. ] Comptes rendus hebdomadaires de l’Académie …
  • … a cattle feed: see, for example, Vilmorin 1850 . CD cited Candolle for this information in …

From W. S. Dallas   6 February 1868

Summary

Forwards a letter from Secretary of Yorkshire Philosophical Society. Hopes CD will honour them by accepting.

Has heard nothing of Variation.

Author:  William Sweetland Dallas
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Feb 1868
Classmark:  DAR 162: 11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5847

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From J. E. Gray   6 February 1868

Summary

Would like a look at Nathusius.

Edward Blyth’s inability to recognise cats’ skulls.

Author:  John Edward Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Feb 1868
Classmark:  DAR 165: 214
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5846

Matches: 2 hits

  • … at Knowsley Hall ( J.  E.  Gray 1846  and 1850), and a catalogue of the Ungulata in the …
  • … CUL or at Down. CD ordered J.  E.  Gray 1846  or 1850 in a letter to a librarian with the …

From W. D. Fox   9 December [1868]

Summary

Hybrid geese.

Proportions of sexes in sheep and cattle.

Pairing habits of crows.

Author:  William Darwin Fox
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Dec [1868]
Classmark:  DAR 84.1: 126–7, DAR 85: B36–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6455

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1861 15 — 1860 14 — 11 1859 16 — 9 1858 5 — 9 1857 7 12 1849 18 — 16 1849 3 — 6 1850 12 — …
  • … 11 1850 3 . — 7 1851 1851 2 . — 5 1852 11 . — 5 27 . 37 209 170. This is a very beggarly …

From Charles Peter Layard to G. H. K. Thwaites   28 July 1868

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Summary

Has black-boned cocks and hens that show the characteristic that Edgar Layard thought peculiar to the female line. Will provide any particulars that CD wants.

Author:  Charles Peter Layard
Addressee:  George Henry Kendrick Thwaites
Date:  28 July 1868
Classmark:  DAR 86: A91
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6295

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From Edward Blyth   20 November 1868

Summary

Describes his tour of the Netherlands. Reports on some of the specimens he saw on his trip.

Discusses the coloration of hair in aged monkey

and sexual differences in bird species.

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Nov 1868
Classmark:  DAR 83: 149, DAR 84.1: 137
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6469

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of ornithology as a scientific discipline: 1760–1850. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins …

From George Cupples   1 May 1868

Summary

Has read Variation;

is preparing a monograph on Scotch deerhounds. Offers CD information on size of male and female deerhounds.

Might not the effect of human mother’s imagination on "character of offspring" support Pangenesis?

Author:  George Cupples
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 May 1868
Classmark:  DAR 161: 283
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6157

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From G. H. Darwin   8 December 1868

Summary

Sends news of his and Frank’s doings at Cambridge.

Author:  George Howard Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Dec 1868
Classmark:  DAR 210.2: 5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6495

Matches: 1 hit

  • … read before the Zoological Society in February, 1850’ ( Origin 4th ed. , p.  xviii). See …

From Alfred Tylor   19 November 1868

Summary

On corals and coral-formation.

Author:  Alfred Tylor
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 Nov 1868
Classmark:  DAR 178: 198
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6467

Matches: 1 hit

  • … surgeon on HMS Rattlesnake from 1846 to 1850, when it surveyed in the Coral Sea (the …

From J. D. Hooker   [28 November 1868]

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Summary

Is doing a British Flora [The student’s flora of the British Islands (1870)], for students, more scientific and more complete than former editions.

His opinion of Bentham’s [British] Flora [1858].

On Croll’s extension of glaciers – a huge relief to get rid of simultaneous cooling of the whole globe.

Watson’s garbling of passage in JDH’s Flora Indica is unprincipled.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [28 Nov 1868]
Classmark:  DAR 102: 243–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6484

Matches: 1 hit

  • … British flora (W.  J.   Hooker and Arnott 1850). Arnott had died on 17 June 1868 ( ODNB ). …

From Ernst Haeckel   23 March 1868

Summary

Has received English edition of Variation. First volume of German edition came three months ago. Comments on book.

Will send copy of recent lectures on human evolution [Entstehung des Menschengeschlechts (1868)]. Gegenbaur much interested in the subject.

Considers Selachius the ancestral form of the fish and hence of all higher vertebrates. Believes their swim-bladder became lung of amphibians.

Mentions cases of hybrid crosses between rabbits and hares producing fertile offspring.

Author:  Ernst Philipp August (Ernst) Haeckel
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Mar 1868
Classmark:  DAR 166: 47
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6040

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From Fritz Müller   9 September 1868

Summary

Will repeat CD’s experiments on dimorphic and trimorphic plants.

Auditory organs of Orthoptera; stridulation in lamellicorn beetles.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Sept 1868
Classmark:  DAR 82: A92, Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 146–7.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6359

Matches: 1 hit

  • … French translation (Siebold and Stannius 1850, 1: 567) of the Lehrbuch der vergleichenden …
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Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle voyage in 1831, Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington kept an illustrated journal of his observations and experiences on the voyage, noting wildlife, landscapes, buildings and people and,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Covington still assisted Darwin in his work:  in 1850 he sent a box of barnacles to London , some …

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … state of indecision’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox,  10 October [1850] ) as he and Emma tried to choose …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1370 — Darwin, C. R. to Covington, Syms, 23 Nov 1850 Darwin thanks Covington for the …
  • … Letter 1319 — Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 6 & 7 Apr 1850 Hooker thinks Darwin is “too …
  • … Letter 1339 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 13 June [1850] Darwin writes to Hooker on …

Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … when he first wrote out his species essay in full. In 1850, he had written to Hooker ( …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … Memoirs of Plumer Ward by Hon Phipps [E. Phipps 1850] L d . Harveys Memoirs [Hervey 1848] …
  • … & will lend me— Pickering Races of Man [Pickering 1850]. (has a good chapter). …
  • … Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith [Newman 1850] Burnetts Hist. of own time …
  • … Miss. Fennimore Cooper. Rural Scenes in N.A [Cooper 1850] G. Cummings South African Huntsmans …
  • … Dana’s Geology. U.S. Expedition [J. D. Dana 1849] 1850 March Forbes Cystideæ & …
  • … [Harvey 1849] —— Agassiz Lake Superior [Agassiz 1850] Nov. Memoirs of Pal. Soc [ …
  • … 12. Sedgwicks Discourse on Study of Univers [Sedgwick 1850] 28 Steenstrup on …
  • … Feb. 3 d . Hutchinson on Dog-breaking [Hutchinson 1850] 27. Chambers. Sanatory Reform [Anon …
  • … 5. Collin’s Autobiography [?Collins 1848]. good 1850 . Jan 15 th  Lives of …
  • … March 16 th . Newman Phases of Faith [Newman 1850] excellent —— Lord Cloncurry Memoirs …
  • … 1846] May 20 G. Cumming S. African Hunter [Cumming 1850] goodish July 1 st . …
  • … Sept 12 th . B. Franklins life by Sparks [Sparks ed. 1850] very good Oct 3 Martineau …
  • … Podrome de Paleantologie stratigraphique [Orbigny 1850–2] 24 fr: 3. vols. The Vegetation of …
  • … Danicorum Mammalium Domesticorum by Prof. Benddz [Bendz 1850]— Plates very expensive Coll. of …
  • … Anat. der Wirbellosen Thiere. 1848 [K. T. E. von Siebold 1850].— [DAR *128: 180] …
  • … Botany, Horticulture, Floriculture and Natural Science ] (1850? 1851?) must positively  be read …
  • … to aid me on skeletons Knox Races of Mankind [R. Knox 1850] a curious Book. (Blyth). in …
  • …   of the Horticultural Society of London ]. Vol I. to V. (1850) VI & VII May 27 th . …
  • … [Agassiz 1835] —— 30 Bairds Entomostraca [Baird 1850] May 22 d . Madras Journal of …
  • … 1853. Jan. 27 th  Life of D r . Coombe [Combe 1850]. good Feb. 6. Letters of Ray …
  • … Histoire du Pommier, Poirier, Pêcher [Duval 1852, 1849, 1850] —— 27 th . Hist. Nat. Gen. de …
  • … Sept. 4. Nunn’s Shipwreck in the Favorite [Nunn 1850] —— 16 Pepys Diary. Vol 1. 2. 3 d …
  • … Facultes Interieurs des animaux invertebres [Macquart 1850]. —— 8 th  Gosse Naturalist …
  • … 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. Johnston 1850]. March 28 th  Sebastian …
  • … [DAR 128: 13] Aug. 20 Weber der Taubenfreund 1850 [Weber 1850] Sept. 1 st . Puvis …
  • … [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R. Knox 1850] 7. Willughby by Ray …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … side of É de B.’ (letter to Charles Lyell, 3 January 1850 ). Barnacles Over a …
  • … In the year between September 1849 and September 1850, Darwin’s Account Books (Down House MSS) …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … (Moore 1985; letter to J. S. Henslow, 17 January [1850] and n. 6; and letter to J. B. Innes, …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … 1853 . Preparing for publication Until 1850, Darwin had probably expected the Ray …
  • … I have not yet thought’, Darwin told Bowerbank in January 1850, ‘ your mentioning the Palæont. Soc. …
  • … was accepted by the Palaeontographical Society by February 1850 , and in the end, Darwin was …
  • … many parcels I have no doubt they wd aid me’. By April 1850, he reported to Steenstrup that he had ‘ …
  • … and after requiring late changes by Sowerby in September 1850, told him, ‘ I hope to God I have now …
  • … the first fossil volume approached completion in September 1850, Darwin had reported on his progress …

Suggested reading

Summary

  Contemporary writing Anon., The English matron: A practical manual for young wives, (London, 1846). Anon., The English gentlewoman: A practical manual for young ladies on their entrance to society, (Third edition, London, 1846). Becker, L. E.…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … H. & Chalus, E. (eds.),  Women's history, Britain 1750 - 1850: An introduction , (Oxford, …
  • … fortunes: Men and women of the English middle class , 1780-1850 (London, 2002). Desmond, A., …
  • … Shoemaker, R. B.,  Gender in English society, 1650-1850: The emergence of separate spheres ? (1998 …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1319 — Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 6 & 7 Apr 1850 Hooker apologises for the …
  • … Letter 1339 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 13 June [1850] Darwin writes to Hooker from his …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1370 —Darwin to Syms Covington, 23 Nov 1850 In this letter, Darwin thanks his …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Burghal School 27 Deventer 29 may 1850 Groningen 2 may 1908 …
  • … for Ladies   Leeuwarden 10 november 1850 Leeuwarden 28 …
  • … Technologist   Assen 17 october 1850 Delft     …
  • … of Natural History. 27 Leiden 2 may 1850 Middelburg 19 …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … occasions in his correspondence with Hooker. On 13 June [1850] , for example, Darwin wrote:    …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Burghal School 27 Deventer 29 May 1850 Groningen 2 May 1908 …
  • … for Ladies   Leeuwarden 10 November 1850 Leeuwarden 28 …
  • … Technologist   Assen 17 October 1850 Delft     …
  • … of Natural History. 27 Leiden 2 may 1850 Middelburg 19 …

Leonard Darwin born

Summary

The Darwins' eighth child and fourth son, Leonard, is born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' eighth child and fourth son, Leonard, is born …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1847; Francis, born 16 August 1848; Leonard, born 15 January 1850; and Horace, born 18 May 1851. It …
  • … memoirs and reminiscences. [61] Leonard Darwin, born 1850. [62] Francis Darwin, born …

Bartholomew James Sulivan

Summary

On Christmas Day 1866, Bartholomew Sulivan sat down to write a typically long and chatty letter to his old friend, Charles Darwin, commiserating on shared ill-health, glorying in the achievements of their children, offering to collect plant specimens, and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … was the first British subject to be born there.  In 1850 he proposed mounting a fossil-hunting …

Leonard Jenyns

Summary

When Darwin returned from the Beagle voyage there was no-one available to describe the fish that he had collected. At Darwin’s request Jenyns, a friend from Cambridge days, took on the challenge. It was not an easy one: at that time Jenyns had only worked…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … to Jenyns still survive in Bath, where Jenyns moved in 1850. …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Lepadidæ.   Proceedings of the Geological Society  6 (1850): 439-40.  [ Shorter publications , …
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