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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To J. D. Hooker   31 May [1866]

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Summary

Comments on JDH’s list – very good, but Orchids and Primula paper have too indirect a bearing to be worth mentioning. The Eozoon is a very important fact and to a much lesser degree the Archaeopteryx. Müller’s Für Darwin [1864] perhaps the most important contribution.

CD has forgotten to mention Bates on variation and JDH’s Arctic paper ["Distribution of Arctic plants", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 23 (1862): 251–348] in new edition of Origin.

Now finds that Owen claims to be originator of natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  31 May [1866]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 290
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5106

Matches: 4 hits

  • … before the Zoological Society in February, 1850. … This belief in Professor Owen that he …
  • … statement in his recent book was almost identical to that expressed in his 1850 paper on …
  • … the Dinornis (Owen 1850), and that if he was thought to have followed the view of …
  • … the fact that he had published this work in 1850 actually placed CD in the position of ‘ …

From Charles James Fox Bunbury to Charles Lyell   3 February 1866

Summary

Discusses Louis Agassiz’s theory of the glaciation of Brazil.

Author:  Bunbury, C. F. J.
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  3 Feb 1866
Classmark:  F. J. Bunbury ed. 1891–3, Later life 1: 134–6.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4995F

Matches: 3 hits

  • … explored that country, no longer ago than 1850, the voyage from Para to Santorin, which is …
  • … the Amazon in the Journal of Botany between 1850 and 1855. Agassiz’s expedition left Pará …
  • … expedition to the Amazon between 1848 and 1850 ( A.  R.  Wallace 1853 , Bates 1863 ). …

From Bartholomew James Sulivan   27 June 1866

Summary

Reports on his health.

Discusses a surveying expedition under Richard Charles Mayne on which his son will be Second Lieutenant; hopes to arrange for them to excavate some bones in the Falklands.

Author:  Bartholomew James Sulivan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 June 1866
Classmark:  DAR 177: 286
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5133

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …
  • … 4, letter to Richard Owen, 28 April [1850] , and Correspondence vol.  10, letter from …

From John Walton   [after 4 April 1866]

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Summary

Reports of a tooth found in the testicle of a horse.

Hares are very fleet in countries in which greyhound coursing is developed, slow in those in which no greyhounds are kept.

Author:  John Walton, Jr
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 4 Apr 1866]
Classmark:  DAR 47: 210
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13851

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From Frederick Ransome   7 February 1866

Summary

Is compelled to ask for postponement of payment of principal. His invention is gaining ground. Will pay interest until payment is made.

Author:  Frederick Ransome
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Feb 1866
Classmark:  DAR 99: 26–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5150

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From James Shaw   19 April 1866

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Summary

Anecdotes about appreciation of beauty by animals.

Author:  James Shaw
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 Apr 1866
Classmark:  DAR 84.1: 10–13
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5060

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From Charles John Robinson   [1866?]

Summary

Has a small living at Norton Canon.

Will visit Charles Whitley next week.

Author:  Charles John Robinson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1866?]
Classmark:  DAR 176: 188
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4966

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

To the Lords of the Admiralty   [2–4 July 1866]

Summary

Petition earnestly requesting that a ship surveying the Strait of Magellan collect fossil bones in the south of Patagonia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Admiralty, Lords of the
Date:  [2–4 July 1866]
Classmark:  DAR 96: 25–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5142

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From E. A. Darwin   11 October [1866]

Summary

Disposal of Susan’s effects. Legacies to CD’s children. EAD has taken the letters and papers and asked Henry [Parker] to forward the George Richmond pictures of CD and Emma.

Caroline looks "miserably ill".

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Oct [1866]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B48–51
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5238

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 1842, and of Erasmus Alvey Darwin in 1850 ( Lister 1981 , p.  156; see also frontispieces …

From Edward Blyth   13 [December] 1866

Summary

Gives CD reference to case of the saiga, an antelope, fearless of man.

Reports observations by New Zealander who has seen heaps of pebbles presumably voided by Dinornis.

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 [Dec] 1866
Classmark:  DAR 160: 207
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4975

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From J. D. Hooker   31 July 1866

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Summary

Questions for his lecture on "Insular floras".

Comments on CD’s criticism of Atlantis. Has no fixed opinion on continental extensions. Great objections to hypotheses of CD and Forbes: botanical to CD’s; geological to Forbes’s. Will point out that natural selection is necessary to both hypotheses.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 July 1866
Classmark:  DAR 102: 81–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5168

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of the Geological Society of London 6 (1850): 69–97. Bailey, Liberty Hyde and Bailey, …

From T. H. Huxley   11 November 1866

Summary

Thanks for 4th ed. of Origin.

What a basting CD gives "our mutual friend" [Owen].

Glad he argrees with THH on Jamaica affair [Gov. Eyre and the "rebellion"].

Author:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Nov 1866
Classmark:  DAR 166: 312
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5275

Matches: 1 hit

  • … presented a theory of descent as early as 1850 (see Origin 4th ed. , pp.  xvii–xviii). See …

From J. D. Hooker   13 May 1866

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Summary

Refers to enclosure from Asa Gray

with whom he can talk calmly now that war is over. North had no right to resort to bloodshed.

Startled by CD’s attendance at Royal Society soirée.

Has asked E. B. Tylor to make up questions for consuls and missionaries, through whose wives a lot of most curious information [for Descent?] could be obtained.

Tying umbilical cord has always been a mystery to JDH.

John Crawfurd’s paper on cultivated plants is shocking twaddle ["On the migration of cultivated plants in reference to ethnology", J. Bot. Br. & Foreign 4 (1866): 317–32].

R. T. Lowe back from Madeira.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 May 1866
Classmark:  DAR 102: 71–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5089

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From T. H. Huxley   6 July 1866

Summary

Has taken memorial to G. H. Richards, the Hydrographer. He favours the proposal and will instruct Capt. Mayne. THH will communicate with Dr Cunningham, the naturalist for the expedition.

Author:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 July 1866
Classmark:  DAR 166: 311
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5149

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …

From Ernst Haeckel   11 January 1866

Summary

Comments on CD’s health.

Discusses origin of life and differentiation of principal classes of plants and animals.

Discusses Generelle Morphologie and its chapter on embryological development.

His lectures on CD’s theory.

Asks CD for larger portrait of himself and for several copies of the small photograph. Will send photographs of German scientists in exchange.

Author:  Ernst Philipp August (Ernst) Haeckel
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Jan 1866
Classmark:  DAR 166: 41
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4973

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of persons who have died since the year 1850. By Frederick Boase. 3 vols. and supplement ( …
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Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle voyage in 1831, Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington kept an illustrated journal of his observations and experiences on the voyage, noting wildlife, landscapes, buildings and people and,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Covington still assisted Darwin in his work:  in 1850 he sent a box of barnacles to London , some …

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … state of indecision’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox,  10 October [1850] ) as he and Emma tried to choose …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1370 — Darwin, C. R. to Covington, Syms, 23 Nov 1850 Darwin thanks Covington for the …
  • … Letter 1319 — Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 6 & 7 Apr 1850 Hooker thinks Darwin is “too …
  • … Letter 1339 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 13 June [1850] Darwin writes to Hooker on …

Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … when he first wrote out his species essay in full. In 1850, he had written to Hooker ( …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … Memoirs of Plumer Ward by Hon Phipps [E. Phipps 1850] L d . Harveys Memoirs [Hervey 1848] …
  • … & will lend me— Pickering Races of Man [Pickering 1850]. (has a good chapter). …
  • … Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith [Newman 1850] Burnetts Hist. of own time …
  • … Miss. Fennimore Cooper. Rural Scenes in N.A [Cooper 1850] G. Cummings South African Huntsmans …
  • … Dana’s Geology. U.S. Expedition [J. D. Dana 1849] 1850 March Forbes Cystideæ & …
  • … [Harvey 1849] —— Agassiz Lake Superior [Agassiz 1850] Nov. Memoirs of Pal. Soc [ …
  • … 12. Sedgwicks Discourse on Study of Univers [Sedgwick 1850] 28 Steenstrup on …
  • … Feb. 3 d . Hutchinson on Dog-breaking [Hutchinson 1850] 27. Chambers. Sanatory Reform [Anon …
  • … 5. Collin’s Autobiography [?Collins 1848]. good 1850 . Jan 15 th  Lives of …
  • … March 16 th . Newman Phases of Faith [Newman 1850] excellent —— Lord Cloncurry Memoirs …
  • … 1846] May 20 G. Cumming S. African Hunter [Cumming 1850] goodish July 1 st . …
  • … Sept 12 th . B. Franklins life by Sparks [Sparks ed. 1850] very good Oct 3 Martineau …
  • … Podrome de Paleantologie stratigraphique [Orbigny 1850–2] 24 fr: 3. vols. The Vegetation of …
  • … Danicorum Mammalium Domesticorum by Prof. Benddz [Bendz 1850]— Plates very expensive Coll. of …
  • … Anat. der Wirbellosen Thiere. 1848 [K. T. E. von Siebold 1850].— [DAR *128: 180] …
  • … Botany, Horticulture, Floriculture and Natural Science ] (1850? 1851?) must positively  be read …
  • … to aid me on skeletons Knox Races of Mankind [R. Knox 1850] a curious Book. (Blyth). in …
  • …   of the Horticultural Society of London ]. Vol I. to V. (1850) VI & VII May 27 th . …
  • … [Agassiz 1835] —— 30 Bairds Entomostraca [Baird 1850] May 22 d . Madras Journal of …
  • … 1853. Jan. 27 th  Life of D r . Coombe [Combe 1850]. good Feb. 6. Letters of Ray …
  • … Histoire du Pommier, Poirier, Pêcher [Duval 1852, 1849, 1850] —— 27 th . Hist. Nat. Gen. de …
  • … Sept. 4. Nunn’s Shipwreck in the Favorite [Nunn 1850] —— 16 Pepys Diary. Vol 1. 2. 3 d …
  • … Facultes Interieurs des animaux invertebres [Macquart 1850]. —— 8 th  Gosse Naturalist …
  • … 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. Johnston 1850]. March 28 th  Sebastian …
  • … [DAR 128: 13] Aug. 20 Weber der Taubenfreund 1850 [Weber 1850] Sept. 1 st . Puvis …
  • … [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R. Knox 1850] 7. Willughby by Ray …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … side of É de B.’ (letter to Charles Lyell, 3 January 1850 ). Barnacles Over a …
  • … In the year between September 1849 and September 1850, Darwin’s Account Books (Down House MSS) …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … (Moore 1985; letter to J. S. Henslow, 17 January [1850] and n. 6; and letter to J. B. Innes, …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … 1853 . Preparing for publication Until 1850, Darwin had probably expected the Ray …
  • … I have not yet thought’, Darwin told Bowerbank in January 1850, ‘ your mentioning the Palæont. Soc. …
  • … was accepted by the Palaeontographical Society by February 1850 , and in the end, Darwin was …
  • … many parcels I have no doubt they wd aid me’. By April 1850, he reported to Steenstrup that he had ‘ …
  • … and after requiring late changes by Sowerby in September 1850, told him, ‘ I hope to God I have now …
  • … the first fossil volume approached completion in September 1850, Darwin had reported on his progress …

Suggested reading

Summary

  Contemporary writing Anon., The English matron: A practical manual for young wives, (London, 1846). Anon., The English gentlewoman: A practical manual for young ladies on their entrance to society, (Third edition, London, 1846). Becker, L. E.…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … H. & Chalus, E. (eds.),  Women's history, Britain 1750 - 1850: An introduction , (Oxford, …
  • … fortunes: Men and women of the English middle class , 1780-1850 (London, 2002). Desmond, A., …
  • … Shoemaker, R. B.,  Gender in English society, 1650-1850: The emergence of separate spheres ? (1998 …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1319 — Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 6 & 7 Apr 1850 Hooker apologises for the …
  • … Letter 1339 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 13 June [1850] Darwin writes to Hooker from his …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1370 —Darwin to Syms Covington, 23 Nov 1850 In this letter, Darwin thanks his …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Burghal School 27 Deventer 29 may 1850 Groningen 2 may 1908 …
  • … for Ladies   Leeuwarden 10 november 1850 Leeuwarden 28 …
  • … Technologist   Assen 17 october 1850 Delft     …
  • … of Natural History. 27 Leiden 2 may 1850 Middelburg 19 …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … occasions in his correspondence with Hooker. On 13 June [1850] , for example, Darwin wrote:    …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Burghal School 27 Deventer 29 May 1850 Groningen 2 May 1908 …
  • … for Ladies   Leeuwarden 10 November 1850 Leeuwarden 28 …
  • … Technologist   Assen 17 October 1850 Delft     …
  • … of Natural History. 27 Leiden 2 may 1850 Middelburg 19 …

Leonard Darwin born

Summary

The Darwins' eighth child and fourth son, Leonard, is born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' eighth child and fourth son, Leonard, is born …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1847; Francis, born 16 August 1848; Leonard, born 15 January 1850; and Horace, born 18 May 1851. It …
  • … memoirs and reminiscences. [61] Leonard Darwin, born 1850. [62] Francis Darwin, born …

Bartholomew James Sulivan

Summary

On Christmas Day 1866, Bartholomew Sulivan sat down to write a typically long and chatty letter to his old friend, Charles Darwin, commiserating on shared ill-health, glorying in the achievements of their children, offering to collect plant specimens, and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … was the first British subject to be born there.  In 1850 he proposed mounting a fossil-hunting …

Leonard Jenyns

Summary

When Darwin returned from the Beagle voyage there was no-one available to describe the fish that he had collected. At Darwin’s request Jenyns, a friend from Cambridge days, took on the challenge. It was not an easy one: at that time Jenyns had only worked…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … to Jenyns still survive in Bath, where Jenyns moved in 1850. …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Lepadidæ.   Proceedings of the Geological Society  6 (1850): 439-40.  [ Shorter publications , …
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