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Darwin Correspondence Project

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To J. D. Hooker   [28 August 1863]

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Summary

Admits, at last, that New Zealand must have been connected to some continent, but not Australia.

Climbing plants: asks for more plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [28 Aug 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 205
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4280

Matches: 3 hits

  • … in 1840 ( EB ). CD visited Chatsworth in 1845 and was impressed by the large collection of …
  • … see Correspondence vol.  3, letter to Charles Lyell, 8 October [1845] , and letter to J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 28 October [1845] ). CD refers to Calamus , a genus of climbing palms native …

To John Scott   6 March 1863

Summary

Answers JS’s criticism of natural selection, which he doubts JS understands. CD does not believe in an "innate selective principle".

To understand "utility" JS should read CD on correlation.

Origin of maize: no longer thinks husked form was wild because of Asa Gray’s evidence on its variability.

Has information from Thomas Rivers on weeping habit in trees.

JS’s experiments on coloured primroses.

Encloses bibliographical note on Passiflora.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Scott
Date:  6 Mar 1863
Classmark:  DAR 93: B66–8, B71
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4031

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Gleditschischen Handlung. Lecoq, Henri. 1845. De la fécondation naturelle et artificielle …
  • … naturalists had not previously known. Lecoq 1845 , p.  70. There are annotated copies of …
  • … des végétaux et de l’hybridation ( Lecoq 1845  and 1862) in the Darwin Library–CUL (see …

To Thomas Rivers   1 February [1863]

Summary

Answers TR’s query about stomata.

CD will use "weeping trees" as an example of how inexplicable the laws of inheritance are, and asks for facts on character of seedlings.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Rivers
Date:  1 Feb [1863]
Classmark:  Sotheby’s (dealers) (23–4 July 1987)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3962

Matches: 2 hits

  • … cites Knight 1826, p.  394, and Downing 1845 , p.  502, on this point in Variation 1: 340. …
  • … Press. 1985–. Downing, Andrew Jackson. 1845. The fruits and fruit trees of America: or the …

From George Henry Kendrick Thwaites   17 February 1863

Summary

Replies to CD’s letter: dimorphism common in Ceylon Rubiaceae. [See Forms of flowers, p. 286.]

Author:  George Henry Kendrick Thwaites
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Feb 1863
Classmark:  DAR 109: A94
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3994

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1877. Grisebach, August Heinrich Rudolph. 1845. Gentianaceae. In vol. 9, pp. 39–141, of …
  • … Heinrich Rudolph Grisebach ( Grisebach  1845 , p.  139); L. kleinianum and L.  wightianum …

From Edward Bradford   31 July 1863

Summary

Doubts CD’s view in Orchids [pp. 236–46] that Catasetum tridentatum is exclusively male and has as its female form the genus Monachanthus. EB has grown many of this type in Trinidad; has never seen that female form.

Author:  Edward Bradford
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 July 1863
Classmark:  DAR 160: 274, DAR 166: 95/1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4259

Matches: 2 hits

  • … orchids, while in Trinidad during 1845 and 1846 ( R.  Desmond 1994 ). In Orchids , pp.   …
  • … as gathered by you in Trinidad in August 1845 has a large ripe fruit on it quite full of …

To W. D. Fox   4 [September 1863]

Summary

His bad health has caused him to return to Malvern.

Emma cannot find the gravestone of their child, Anne. Asks WDF whether he can remember its location.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  4 [Sept 1863]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 140)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4292

Matches: 2 hits

  • … resident in London. London: C. Mitchell. 1845. The London and provincial medical …
  • … Worcestershire. London: W. Kelly; Kelly & Co. 1845–1928. Smith, Brian S. 1978. A history …

From Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin   [28 October 1863]

Summary

CD’s health.

Family and local news.

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [28 Oct 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 219. 1: 78
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4323F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Surrey and Sussex. London: W. Kelly & Co. 1845–78. Survey gazetteer of the British Isles : …
  • … resident in London. London: C. Mitchell. 1845. The London and provincial medical …

From Asa Gray   [10–16] June [1863]

Summary

Possible dimorphism in Phlox.

Knows of no U. S. law prohibiting marriage of cousins.

Gives references to papers on phyllotaxy.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [10–16] June [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 136
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4198

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 2d ser. 56: 1–37. Naumann, Karl Friedrich. 1845. Ueber den Quincunx als Grundgesetz der …
  • … of scientific papers ). See also Naumann 1845 . See letter to Asa Gray, 11 May [1863] and …

From Daniel Oliver   17 February 1863

Summary

DO thinks an essay [Alexander Braun’s "Rejuvenescence", Ray Society (1853)] is not worth reading with respect to some difficulty concerning phyllotaxy.

Author:  Daniel Oliver
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Feb 1863
Classmark:  DAR 173: 20
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8770

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Publishing. 1990. Naumann, Karl Friedrich. 1845. Ueber den Quincunx als Grundgesetz der …
  • … cited Bravais and Bravais 1838 , Naumann 1845 , Schleiden 1842, and Silfverstrahle 1839 ( …

From W. D. Fox   29 May [1863]

Summary

Recommends that CD visit Dr MacLeod’s [hydropathic] establishment near Ilkley.

Author:  William Darwin Fox
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 May [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 164: 179
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4193

Matches: 1 hit

  • … resident in London. London: C. Mitchell. 1845. The London and provincial medical …

To J. D. Hooker   26 [March 1863]

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Summary

CD’s opinion of Lyell’s Antiquity of man.

Geographical distribution during and between glacial periods.

Latent characters and reversion.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  26 [Mar 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 188
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4061

Matches: 2 hits

  • … resident in London. London: C. Mitchell. 1845. The London and provincial medical …
  • … The botany of the voyage of HMS Herald … during the years 1845–51. London: Lovell Reeve. …

To the chairman of Bromley District Highway Board from the parishioners of Down, Kent   3 April 1863

Summary

Testimony by the parishioners of Down, Kent, to the moral character and integrity of George Snow, District Surveyor. Signed by nearly fifty local residents, including CD.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Chairman of Highway Board
Date:  3 Apr 1863
Classmark:  Sotheby, London (24 July 1995)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4074F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Surrey and Sussex. London: W. Kelly & Co. 1845–78. Return of highway districts : Return …

From John Lubbock   4 September 1863

Summary

Has returned from trip to Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.

Has been made President of the Ethnological Society.

Author:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Sept 1863
Classmark:  DAR 170: 40
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4291

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Surrey and Sussex. London: W. Kelly & Co. 1845–78. Post Office London directory : Post- …

From John Scott   28 May [1863]

Summary

Sends abstract from Edinburgh Courant of his orchid sterility paper [see 4087]. Balfour altered title to obscure its theoretical nature.

Sends specimens showing curious variation.

Author:  John Scott
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 May [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 177: 92
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4190

Matches: 1 hit

  • … resident in London. London: C. Mitchell. 1845. The London and provincial medical …

From H. E. Darwin to Thomas Warner   14 October [1863]

Summary

On behalf of her father, she asks that his name be put down for James Buckman’s testimonial. His cheque for £2.2.0 is enclosed.

Author:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Addressee:  Thomas Warner
Date:  14 Oct [1863]
Classmark:  Mrs Carole Cockett
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4320A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Agricultural College, Cirencester, founded in 1845 ( Sayce 1992 , p.  351). See also n.   …

From Henry Farncombe Billinghurst   [21 July 1863 – August 1870?]

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Summary

Acknowledges the receipt of some signed transfers.

Author:  Henry Farncombe Billinghurst
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [21 July 1863 – Aug 1870?]
Classmark:  DAR 80: B18v
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5765

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of the letter. George was born on 9 July 1845. The earliest he could have signed a legal …

From Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox   [29 September 1863]

Summary

Thanks to WDF’s directions, Anne’s tombstone has been found.

CD improved, but recovery is slow. She describes treatment.

Encloses paper she and CD have written [see 4294, which was wrongly addressed by ED and had not reached WDF].

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  [29 Sept 1863]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (Fox 141)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4312

Matches: 1 hit

  • … and Worcestershire. London: W. Kelly; Kelly & Co. 1845–1928. Post Office directory of …

From Isaac Anderson-Henry   14 February 1863

Summary

On holiday; cannot answer CD’s questions.

Author:  Isaac (Henry, Isaac Anderson) Anderson-Henry
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Feb 1863
Classmark:  DAR 159: 63
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3985

Matches: 1 hit

  • … each parish by the Scottish Poor Law Act of 1845, were responsible for the administration …

From W. B. Tegetmeier   [c. 26 September 1863]

Summary

Encloses a cutting from the Field: C. R. Bree on zebra-striped asses.

Author:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 26 Sept 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 178: 59
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4314

Matches: 1 hit

  • … resident in London. London: C. Mitchell. 1845. The London and provincial medical …

From Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox   8 December [1863]

Summary

Thanks WDF for his letter [on steel traps].

Gives a better report of CD’s health since he gave up water-cure.

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  8 Dec [1863]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 142)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4355

Matches: 1 hit

  • … resident in London. London: C. Mitchell. 1845. The London and provincial medical …
Document type
letter (45)
Date
1863
01 (2)
02 (6)
03 (4)
04 (5)
05 (9)
06 (3)
07 (3)
08 (4)
09 (6)
10 (2)
12 (1)
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Search:
1845 in keywords
20 Items

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Species theory In November 1845, Charles Darwin wrote to his friend and confidant Joseph …
  • …  vol. 3, letter to J. D. Hooker, [5 or 12 November 1845] ). In the event, the ‘little zoology’ …

Darwin in letters, 1844–1846: Building a scientific network

Summary

The scientific results of the Beagle voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but he broadened his continuing investigations into the nature and origin of species. Far from being a recluse, Darwin was at the heart of British scientific society,…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … his  Journal of researches  for a second edition in 1845, having already provided corrections in …
  • … vice-presidents in 1844 and remaining on the council from 1845 onwards; he was a conscientious …
  • … attacked the work vehemently in the  Edinburgh Review  (1845), while other colleagues like Edward …
  • … his cousin William Darwin Fox in a letter of [24 April 1845] , he felt he ought to be both …
  • … of his  Journal of researches  for a second edition in 1845. At Lyell’s recommendation, …
  • … the original publisher, to John Murray, and throughout 1845 Darwin worked hard to provide manuscript …
  • … on board the Beagle  back to Tierra del Fuego. By 1845, Darwin was in full command of a …
  • … Distribution’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [10 February 1845] ) and quick to make use of the young …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … he was working (Darwin to his wife Emma,  [7-8 February 1845] ). Although Darwin did not usually …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … on Instinct [F. G. Cuvier 1822] read Flourens Edit [Flourens 1845] read L. Jenyns paper on …
  • … 1834–9] Carlyles Oliver Cromwell [Carlyle 1845] (read) Keppells(?) voyage to Borneo …
  • … Exploring Expedition towards the Rocky Mountains [Frémont 1845]. (amusing extracts). perhaps for …
  • … America  by A. Downing Wiley & Putnam. 14 s . [Downing 1845] (Brit. Museum) (read) good …
  • … [DAR *119: 22] Eyeres Travels [E. J. Eyre 1845] very amusing Tschudi’s Travels in …
  • … Campbells Lives of Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] last vol. Ludlows Memoirs …
  • … Murchisons Russia [Murchison, Verneuil, and Keyserling 1845] (read) Agassiz’s Works …
  • … Wilkes Expedition.  £ 3. 3 s  [Wilkes 1845] order at L. Library. read Botanical Soc. of …
  • … Soc. of Neuchatel on Jura. 1846, or 7, or 8 [?Marcou 1845]. 46   Morris  good for me.— …
  • … 1853] Vol. V of Campbells Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] Lives of the Lindsays …
  • … [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1832–7] Wilkes [Wilkes 1845]. Voyage Vol I. to V Apr …
  • … May. Blanco White. Auto-biography [Blanco y Crespo 1845].— 24 Improvisatore [Andersen 1845] …
  • … Aug. 5 th  Lyells Travels in N. America [Lyell 1845] Oct. Cosmos [A. von Humboldt 1845–8]. …
  • … Dec. 10 Ray. Society. Vol I. Reports [Ray Society 1845].— 20 D r  Badham insect Life …
  • … Feb 6 Explanations by Author of Vestiges [Chambers 1845] —— Bronn’s Gesickte [Bronn 1842–3] 2 …
  • … [Twamley 1844] —— Whewell on Education [Whewell 1845–52]. Dec: 26. Watson History of …
  • … [Heber 1828] —— 31 Kitto on Deafness [Kitto 1845] —— the French in Algiers [Lamping …
  • … 1841] April 10 Wagners Anatomy by Tulk [Wagner 1845] (half through) —— 24 Steenstrup …
  • … th  Elie de Beaumont Lecons Geologie [Élie de Beaumont 1845] skimmed. June 17 th . Downing …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Towards the end of 1862, Darwin resolved to build a small hothouse at Down House, for ‘experimental purposes’ (see Correspondence vol. 10, letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1862], and volume 10, letter to Thomas Rivers, 15 January 1863). The decision…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …  vol. 3, letter to Charles Lyell, 8 October [1845] ). Having indulged his senses, Darwin …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … hundred letters from Darwin, from his first negotiations in 1845 until his final years. Although …
  • … came to discuss a second edition, probably at the end of 1845, Darwin was not happy with Colburn’s …
  • … Colonial Library in three monthly parts (July to September 1845) before being reissued in a single …
  • … you have transacted the business with me’ (27 August [1845] Letter 908 ). Thus began the business …

Richard Matthews

Summary

Richard Matthews was 21 years old when he stepped aboard the Beagle, destined for a lonely career as a missionary in Tierra del Fuego. The Church Missionary Society had arranged for him to accompany the three Fuegians (Fuegia Basket, Jemmy Button, and York…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … character), determined to stay with the Fuegians’ (Darwin 1845, p. 223). When all seemed well the …
  • … just in time to save his life’, Darwin recorded (Darwin 1845, p. 226). Matthews was back on …
  • … death in 1893. References: Darwin, C. R. 1845. Journal of researches into the …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … interest in the problem, and had experienced the 1845 potato blight that destroyed much of the …
  • … vol. 3, letter to J. S. Henslow, 28 October [1845] ). He was aware of Torbitt’s ambitions, having …

Jemmy Button (Orundellico)

Summary

Jemmy Button was known as Orundellico among the Yahgan, or canoe people of the southern part of Tierra del Fuego.  He was the fourth hostage taken by FitzRoy in 1830 following the theft of the small surveying boat. This fourteen-year old boy was called…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … often visit Darwin and say ‘Poor, poor fellow!’ (Darwin 1845, p. 207). When Orundellico …
  • … lamented ‘so complete and grievous a change ’ (Darwin 1845, p. 228). The clean, stout lad was now ‘ …
  • …  London: Hodder and Stoughton. Darwin, C. R. 1845. Journal of researches into the natural …

Journal of researches

Summary

The Journal of researches, Darwin’s account of his travels round the world in H.M.S. Beagle, was his first published book. The circumstances of its publication were not shaped by Darwin, however, but by the Beagle’s captain, Robert FitzRoy, who, according…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … a penny from Colburn, Darwin had few scruples when, in 1845, at Lyell’s suggestion, he asked whether …
  • … were issued separately between late June and late August 1845, with the slightly amended title …

Second species sketch

Summary

Darwin finishes an expanded sketch of his species theory, first drafted in 1842

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin finishes an expanded sketch of his species theory, first drafted in 1842 …

George Darwin born

Summary

The Darwins' son George Howard Darwin born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' son George Howard Darwin born …

Fuegia Basket (Yokcushlu)

Summary

Fuegia Basket was known as Yokcushlu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. She was one of the hostages seized by Robert FitzRoy, after the small boat used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … bears a double interpretation) some days on board’ (Darwin 1845, p. 228 n.).  Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • …  London: Hodder and Stoughton. Darwin, C. R. 1845. Journal of researches into the natural …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. These were systematic monographs, written for a specialist audience, and as such are probably among the most…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In the course of discussions about species in the autumn of 1845, his close friend Joseph Dalton …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … family had increased by five: George Howard, born 9 July 1845; Elizabeth, born 8 July 1847; Francis, …
  • … her familiar name. [64] George Howard Darwin, born 1845. [65] Joseph Parslow, butler …

Boat Memory

Summary

Boat Memory was one of the indigenous people from Tierra del Fuego brought back to England by Robert FitzRoy in 1830, but he remains as ghostly a figure as his name. What he was called by his own people is unknown, but the name Boat Memory, chosen by…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …  London: Hodder and Stoughton. Darwin, C. R. 1845. Journal of researches into the natural …

Bartholomew James Sulivan

Summary

On Christmas Day 1866, Bartholomew Sulivan sat down to write a typically long and chatty letter to his old friend, Charles Darwin, commiserating on shared ill-health, glorying in the achievements of their children, offering to collect plant specimens, and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … distinguished. He saw action at the siege of Montevideo in 1845 when British and French naval forces …

York Minster (Elleparu)

Summary

York Minster was known as Elleparu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. He was captured by FitzRoy in 1830 after one the small boats used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del Fuego had been…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …  London: Hodder and Stoughton. Darwin, C. R. 1845. Journal of researches into the natural …

Robert FitzRoy

Summary

Robert FitzRoy was captain of HMS Beagle when Darwin was aboard. From 1831 to 1836 the two men lived in the closest proximity, their relationship revealed by the letters they exchanged while Darwin left the ship to explore the countries visited during the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of New Zealand in 1843, but was relieved of this post in 1845 after he worsened (through his support …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and G. A. W. Arnott 1836, 1841; J. D. Hooker 1844–7, 1845, 1846, 1853–5, and 1860). In 1980, two …