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Darwin Correspondence Project

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To H. W. Bates   19 February [1868]

Summary

CD in utter confusion about differences between J. O. Westwood and HWB on division of certain insects. Asks if HWB will homologise certain families for him, telling him which terms would be most generally understood.

Asks also about differences on sound-producing organs of Achetidae Gryllidae.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Walter Bates
Date:  19 Feb [1868]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library (Robert M. Stecher collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5895

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of Saltatoria is given in Westwood 1839–40 , 1: 439. Bates described the Locustidae as a …
  • … Acheta campestris , is described in Westwood 1839–40 , 1: 444–5, where it is placed in the …
  • … Garland Publishing. 1990. Westwood, John Obadiah. 1839–40. An introduction to the modern …
  • … covers of Acheta domestica in Westwood 1839–40 , 1: 440–2. Acheta domestica is now A.   …
  • … 127–8; on the Gryllidae, see also Westwood 1839–40 , 1: 450–56). CD’s annotated copy of …

From Charles Owen Waterhouse   12 February 1868

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Summary

On blind beetles [see Descent 1: 367].

Development of mandibles in Brentus.

Author:  Charles Owen Waterhouse
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Feb 1868
Classmark:  DAR 82: A74–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5870

Matches: 6 hits

  • … nineteenth-century entomology, see Westwood 1839–40 ; for the Geodephaga, see ibid. 1: 47. …
  • … 6: 120–38. Westwood, John Obadiah. 1839–40. An introduction to the modern classification …
  • … Staphylinidae, rove beetles (see Westwood 1839–40 , 1: 161–2). Glyptomerus is in the …
  • … of carrion-feeding beetles (see Westwood 1839–40 , 1: 132). The modern taxonomy for these …
  • … weevils and snout beetles (see Westwood 1839–40 , 1: 326). Troglorhynchus is now a …
  • … Coleoptera with four-jointed tarsi ( Westwood 1839–40 , 1: 44, 390). Claviger and Adranes …

From Henry Holland   11 February [1868]

Summary

Thanks for copy of Variation. Comments on it, especially on Pangenesis.

Author:  Henry Holland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Feb [1868]
Classmark:  DAR 166: 249
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5862

Matches: 2 hits

  • … University Press. 1985–. Holland, Henry. 1839. Medical notes and reflections. London. …
  • … had written on hereditary diseases ( Holland 1839  and 1855). Laura Rolfe was the wife of …

From David Forbes   26 March 1868

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Summary

Blushing in South American Indians.

Hairlessness of Aymaras and Quechuas. [See Descent 2: 322–3.]

Author:  David Forbes
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Mar 1868
Classmark:  DAR 80: B168
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6054

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of the colour of the Quichua and Aymara people, see Orbigny 1839 , 1: 264–5, 314. …
  • … Alcide Charles Victor Dessalines d’. 1839. L’homme américain (de l’Amerique Méridionale), …

From Hewett Cottrell Watson to Joseph Dalton Hooker   1 January 186[8]

Summary

HCW’s criticisms of CD’s theory.

Author:  Watson, H. C
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Jan 186[8]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, DC 105 f.222
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5077F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …
  • … the voyage of the Erebus and Terror from 1839 to 1844; it was described by Hooker in J.   …

From H. W. Bates   21 February 1868

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Summary

Comments on J. O. Westwood’s entomological nomenclature.

Discusses the organs for stridulation in Orthoptera [see Descent 1: 352ff].

Author:  Henry Walter Bates
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 Feb 1868
Classmark:  DAR 82: A32–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5909

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to the classification of insects ( Westwood 1839–40 ). See letter to H.  W.  Bates, 19  …
  • … Garland Publishing. 1990. Westwood, John Obadiah. 1839–40. An introduction to the modern …

To W. W. Reade   21 May [1868]

Summary

Thanks WWR for information in answer to his queries concerning expression.

Asks when horns first appear among a breed of sheep on the Guinea coast,

and for information about the gorilla and chimpanzee.

Asks about African ideas of beauty.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Winwood Reade
Date:  21 May [1868]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.371)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6754

Matches: 2 hits

  • … CD kept notes made during 1837, 1838, and 1839 on human descent and on expression in his M …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Marginalia : Charles Darwin’s marginalia. …

From B. D. Walsh   25 March 1868

Summary

Sexual preference in insects;

structures for seizing females;

coloration.

Doubts whether CD can make much of a case from insects in support of sexual selection.

Author:  Benjamin Dann Walsh
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Mar 1868
Classmark:  DAR 82: A90–1; A117–18, DAR 85: B65
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6051

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Steam Print. Westwood, John Obadiah. 1839–40. An introduction to the modern classification …
  • … modern classification of insects ( Westwood 1839–40 , 2: 206). The passage is scored in …
  • … jaws being used for burrowing ( Westwood 1839–40 , 2: 205). Ammophila is a genus of sand …

From H. T. Stainton   29 February 1868

Summary

Replies to CD on proportion of sexes in butterflies, coloration of moths, and courtship. Encloses copies of letters on these subjects between HTS, Henry Doubleday, and John Hellins.

Author:  Henry Tibbats Stainton
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Feb 1868
Classmark:  DAR 85: B52-3; DAR 86: A16;
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5960

Matches: 2 hits

  • … van Voorst. Westwood, John Obadiah. 1839–40. An introduction to the modern classification …
  • … 1868] and n.  6. Stainton refers to Westwood 1839–40 . Stainton announced CD’s interest in …

From B. J. Sulivan   13 February [1868]

Summary

Sends photo of four Fuegians, including Jemmy Button’s son.

Reports incident of two wild stallions on the Falklands acting together in an attempt to take a troop of mares from an introduced English horse [see Descent 2: 241].

Author:  Bartholomew James Sulivan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 Feb [1868]
Classmark:  DAR 83: 188–9, DAR 177: 291
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5873

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Macdonald, Frederick C. 1929. Bishop Stirling …

From George Cupples   1 May 1868

Summary

Has read Variation;

is preparing a monograph on Scotch deerhounds. Offers CD information on size of male and female deerhounds.

Might not the effect of human mother’s imagination on "character of offspring" support Pangenesis?

Author:  George Cupples
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 May 1868
Classmark:  DAR 161: 283
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6157

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Modern English biography : Modern English …

From George Cupples   10 August 1868

Summary

Thanks for photograph.

Author:  George Cupples
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Aug 1868
Classmark:  DAR 161: 286
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6310

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of Captain FitzRoy, RN, from 1832 to 1836. By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

To J. P. M. Weale   23 January [1868]

Summary

Thanks for information on expression.

Poor progress of civilisation in South Africa. CD’s doubts and fears about democracy.

JPMW’s views on glaciation in S. Africa will discredit him unless supported by clearest evidence.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Philip Mansel Weale
Date:  23 Jan [1868]
Classmark:  University of Virginia Library, Special Collections (3314 1: 50)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5795

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

To Philip Lutley Sclater   28 February [1868]

Summary

Bird specimens collected by Capt. P. P. King eventually went to British Museum, but many specimens were incorrectly marked.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  28 Feb [1868]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.345)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5948

Matches: 1 hit

  • … and 1836. [Edited by Robert FitzRoy. ] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

To William Bowman   2 April [1868]

Summary

Gives Charles Bell’s explanation of the contraction of the orbicularis during screaming and seeks confirmation of his view because the action is "the key-stone of a whole class of expressions". Curious to learn WB’s conclusion in regard to the relation between contraction of the orbicularis and secretion of tears. Notes that voluntary contraction of the orbicularis causes no tears.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bowman, 1st baronet
Date:  2 Apr [1868]
Classmark:  DAR 249: 72 (photocopy)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6081

Matches: 1 hit

  • … When his eldest son William was born in December 1839, CD began to keep a notebook on his …

From J. D. Hooker   28 January 1868

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Summary

Wollaston’s situation hopeless; he must go to Boulogne or Jersey to live. A friend will keep his collection and books together.

JDH’s opinion of Wollaston’s Coleoptera Hesperidum [1867].

Cannot read Duke of Argyll.

CD’s view of Asa Gray as foreign member of Royal Society; compares him to Candolle.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 Jan 1868
Classmark:  DAR 102: 189–190
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5807

Matches: 1 hit

  • … during the expedition to the Antarctic between 1839 and 1843. (Robert McMurdo, personal …

To J. D. Hooker   23 August [1868]

Summary

Pleased at success of JDH’s address. Has read several press reports.

Spectator pitches into JDH about theology ["Dr Hooker on the evidences", 22 Aug 1868, pp. 986–7].

Feels JDH has "immensely advanced the belief in evolution of species".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  23 Aug [1868]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 85–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6327

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Lyell, Charles. 1830–3. Principles of …

From St G. J. Mivart   20 May 1868

Summary

Answers CD’s queries on sexual characters and differences among the Urodela.

Is interested in the relationship of pectoral and pelvic limbs in man and apes and has looked at reptiles and amphibians to find traces of the earlier conditions of the limbs.

Asks whether CD knows any instances of deformities or pathological conditions occurring simultaneously in both sets of limbs.

Author:  St George Jackson Mivart
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 May 1868
Classmark:  DAR 171: 185
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6193

Matches: 1 hit

  • … palmipes and L.  punctatus in T.  Bell 1839. Salamandra maculata is now Ambystoma …

To Alphonse de Candolle   6 July 1868

Summary

Thanks AdeC for his long letter full of interesting facts, which will be of great use if a new edition [of Variation] is demanded.

As for when CD will publish on variation in a state of nature: he has had the MS almost ready for several years but Variation fatigued him so much

that "I determined to amuse myself by publishing a short essay on the Descent of Man".

AdeC will have plenty of time to publish his views. Asks permission to quote AdeC on a case of inheritance of scalp-muscles [see Descent 1: 20].

Hooker has expressed a view, similar to AdeC’s, "that morals & politics would be very interesting if discussed like any branch of Natural History".

Agrees with AdeC on acclimatisation

and on graft-hybrids.

CD is repeating Hildebrand’s method in producing graft-hybrid potatoes.

As for Pangenesis, very few people approve of it though it has some enthusiastic friends and CD has much faith in its vitality.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alphonse de Candolle
Date:  6 July 1868
Classmark:  Archives de la famille de Candolle (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6269

Matches: 1 hit

  • … CD kept notes made during 1837, 1838, and 1839 on human descent in his M and N notebooks, …

From J. D. Hooker   30 August 1868

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Summary

The newspapers’ pother about his mild theology.

Tyndall’s reference to JDH and CD as the two "modestest" men in science.

Huxley offended the clergy twice without cause or warrant.

William Hooker ill.

Astronomers do not like JDH’s reference to them.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Aug 1868
Classmark:  DAR 102: 229–32
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6333

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of the Erebus to Antarctica, between 1839 and 1843. Julia Margaret Cameron had taken …
Document type
letter (22)
Date
1868
01 (3)
02 (7)
03 (2)
04 (1)
05 (4)
07 (1)
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Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … to read in Notebook C ( Notebooks , pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in …
  • … in the Royal Society of London (Royal Society of London 1839) has been heavily marked, and quite a …
  • … Pierquin, published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. …
  • … 1814–29] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle 1839] (read) Smellie Philosophy of …
  • … 12  by Owen in Encyclop. of Anat. & Physiology [R. Owen 1839] Dampier probably worth …
  • … on subjects of science connected with Nat. Theol: [Brougham 1839] on instinct & animal …
  • … 1808] Brit. & Foreign Medical Rev. N o  14. Ap 1839 [Anon. 1839b] Rev. on Walker on …
  • … Smart 17  Beginning of a New School of metaphysic. [Smart 1839] about connection of language & …
  • … Babbington on Flora of Channel Isl d . [Babington 1839] says he has remarks on affinities of …
  • … 1816 [Gallesio 1816]— quoted by D r . Holland [Holland 1839] (p. 27) as good— Decandoelle …
  • … [Thacker 1834–5] p. 291 Athenæum 1839. p. 546— M r  Conrad has published …
  • … Arboretum [Loudon 1838] in Edinburgh Review July 1839 [Anon. 1839a]— there are pencil remarks on it. …
  • … would contain facts for me [DAR *119: 9v.] 1839. Decemb. Advertised . …
  • … Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 1839–40] 24 Flourens “Resume …
  • … publishing Travels into interior of N. America [Wied-Neuwied 1839–41]— in Geograph Soc …
  • … 1840. Octob & Jan. Papers on Instinct by Flourens [Flourens 1839] (read) Index of Clarkes …
  • … S. Bellamy on Nat. Hist. of S. Devonshire [Bellamy 1839] chiefly on distribution of forms said to be …
  • … at end of Catalogue of Royal Soc. [Royal Society of London 1839]— Meckel’s Anatomy. French …
  • … ed. 1834] read Vol. (2 d ) on Dogs [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6] …
  • … on the Obligations of man to the inferior animals’ [Youatt 1839] discusses their minds. …
  • … by  Hooker . [A. P. de Candolle 1839–40] Jussieus …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … they show for one another’s sensibilities. Early in 1839 the couple set up house in London and at …
  • … and set in type by November 1837, though not published until 1839, when it appeared as the third …
  • … of species” ( Letter to J. S. Henslow, [November 1839] ).   note book, after note …
  • … Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His hopes and fears about married life …
  • … to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). These are not matters that she would …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] Written shortly before their …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27 October 1839] Darwin details his typical …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … races, lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect …
  • … development from the day of his birth, 27 December 1839, until September 1844. Parallels in the …
  • … 1 [9] W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10] During first week. yawned, streatched …
  • …  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . [7]  Correspondence  vol. 2, …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb-building abilities was essential if his theory of natural selection was to be taken seriously, and in the 1850s he carried out his own experiments at his home at Down House in Kent,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … on subjects connected with natural theology  (1839), Brougham commented that bees acted with a …
  • … suppose when we recollect who is her teacher’ (Brougham 1839, 1: 35, 77). William Kirby wrote of the …
  • … no bee in the world ever made cylindrical cells (Brougham 1839, 1: 32). However, Darwin knew that …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious …

Journal of researches

Summary

The Journal of researches, Darwin’s account of his travels round the world in H.M.S. Beagle, was his first published book. The circumstances of its publication were not shaped by Darwin, however, but by the Beagle’s captain, Robert FitzRoy, who, according…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his ship . The Journal of Researches thus began life in 1839 as the third volume of the N …
  • … the time the Narrative was eventually published in May 1839, FitzRoy’s volume showed just how …
  • … with the title Journal of researches as early as August 1839. The speed with which this occurred …

York Minster (Elleparu)

Summary

York Minster was known as Elleparu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. He was captured by FitzRoy in 1830 after one the small boats used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del Fuego had been…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London  (1839) pt 1: 39-81. [ Shorter publications , pp.  50 …
  • … Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London  9 (1839): 528-9.  [ Shorter publications , …

Fuegia Basket (Yokcushlu)

Summary

Fuegia Basket was known as Yokcushlu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. She was one of the hostages seized by Robert FitzRoy, after the small boat used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Jemmy Button (Orundellico)

Summary

Jemmy Button was known as Orundellico among the Yahgan, or canoe people of the southern part of Tierra del Fuego.  He was the fourth hostage taken by FitzRoy in 1830 following the theft of the small surveying boat. This fourteen-year old boy was called…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Darwin in letters, 1821-1836: Childhood to the Beagle voyage

Summary

Darwin's first known letters were written when he was twelve. They continue through school-days at Shrewsbury, two years as a medical student at Edinburgh University, the undergraduate years at Cambridge, and the of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … until FitzRoy completed his volume of the Narrative  in 1839. London scientific society …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle in 1831 Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington died in 1861 reportedly 47 years old, so he would have been 17; although if he was the Simon Covington born in Bedford on 30 January 1809,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … employ, paying him extra for secretarial duties. In January 1839 CD married his cousin, Emma …

Journal of Researches published

Summary

Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a great success. It appeared as the third volume of the Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, with the title Journal and remarks but…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Darwin's works in letters

Summary

To celebrate Darwin's 210th birthday, we present a new section on Darwin's works in letters, featuring Journal of researches, Living and fossil cirripedia, Descent of man, and Expression of emotions. And here is a song with lyrics based on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the hidden life of: Journal of researches (1839; better known as The voyage of the …

Marriage

Summary

Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 November 1838, describing it as the 'day of days!'.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written …

Alexander Burns Usborne

Summary

Alexander Burns Usborne was born in Kendal, Westmorland, in 1808, the son of Alexander and Margaret Usborne; his father died in 1818 and in his will was described as the purser on HMS Hannibal. His son joined the navy in 1825 aged 16 as a second-class…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … coast of Australia is named after him. However in May 1839 he was so badly injured when a musket …
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