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Darwin Correspondence Project

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From Daniel Oliver   [before 8 November 1861]

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Summary

List of references on orchid structure and fertilisation.

Author:  Daniel Oliver
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 8 Nov 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 225–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3039

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Baillon 1854 . Guépin 1853 . Ménière 1855. Fermond 1841 . Fermond 1840 . Wiegmann 1839 . …
  • … bei den Bastardpflanzen. Bot. Zeit.  1839. 703. (Cause of infertility to be sought only in …
  • … London: John Murray. 1862. Wiegmann, A. F. A. 1839. [Über die Unfruchtbarkeit bei den …
  • … Bastardpflanzen. ] Flora oder allgemeine botanische Zeitung 22 (1839): 703. …

To Richard Kippist   13 February [1861?]

Summary

Gives notice of returning books by a carrier and thanks for assistance.

Asks whether Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville’s Ostéographie (1839–64) includes rabbits or hares.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Richard Kippist
Date:  13 Feb [1861?]
Classmark:  James Lowe Autographs Ltd (dealers)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3061A

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville’s Ostéographie (1839–64) includes rabbits or hares. …
  • … is not known which books from the Linnean Society CD was returning. Blainville 1839–64 . …
  • … Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de. 1839–64. Ostéographie, ou description iconographique …

To Luke Hindmarsh   3 May [1861]

Summary

Asks how many wild Chillingham cattle are killed each year. Interested in rate of increase.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Luke Hindmarsh
Date:  3 May [1861]
Classmark:  DAR 145
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3137

Matches: 2 hits

  • … University Press. 1985–. Hindmarsh, Luke. 1839. On the wild cattle of Chillingham Park. …
  • … to Luke Hindmarsh, 12 May [1861] . Hindmarsh 1839 . The citation was sent to CD by William …

To Gardeners’ Chronicle   [before 14 September 1861]

Summary

Requests orchid specimens from Arethuseae division for his investigation of the many contrivances by which orchids are fertilised by insect agency.

Asks whether Charles Morren has published on the fertilisation of orchids by insect agency.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  [before 14 Sept 1861]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 14 September 1861, p. 831
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3252

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Evans. Morren, Charles François Antoine. 1839. On the production of vanilla in Europe. …
  • … Orchids , p.  270 n. , CD cited Morren 1839  on the necessity of artificial fertilisation …

To Ludwig Rütimeyer   5 December [1861]

Summary

Admires LR’s book [Die Fauna der Pfahlbauten (1861)].

Will attempt to arrange for skull of wild white Chillingham cattle to be sent by Earl of Tankerville.

CD has come to same conclusion as LR on zebus.

CD’s MS of Variation is half-prepared.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Karl Ludwig (Ludwig) Rütimeyer
Date:  5 Dec [1861]
Classmark:  Universitätsbibliothek Basel, Handschriften (G IV 91, 3)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3339

Matches: 2 hits

  • … University Press. 1985–. Hindmarsh, Luke. 1839. On the wild cattle of Chillingham Park. …
  • … s original wild cattle (see Hindmarsh 1839 ). CD himself had long been interested in the …

To Charles Lyell   23 [October 1861]

Summary

Comments especially on the "intermediate shelf" problem of Glen Roy; views of Jamieson and Milne. CD "cannot help a sneaking hope that the sea might have formed the horizontal shelves".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  23 [Oct 1861]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.269)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3295

Matches: 2 hits

  • … accurate. As he himself pointed out in his 1839 paper, Thomas Dick Lauder did not note the …
  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1839): pt 1, 39–81; Collected papers 1: 89– …

To H. W. Bates   25 September [1861]

Summary

Recommends publisher for HWB; admires J. van Voorst but suggests Murray.

In reply to HWB’s letter [missing], comments on neuters and mimicry.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Walter Bates
Date:  25 Sept [1861]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library (Robert M. Stecher collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3266

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of the globe. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. [Separately published as Journal of …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin : On the origin of species by means …
  • … Beagle voyage ( Journal and remarks ) in 1839 as volume 3 of Robert FitzRoy’s Narrative of …

To Peter Martin Duncan?   18 July [1861]

Summary

He is no longer able to answer any of the correspondent’s questions concerning corals.

Places "much trust" in J. D. Dana.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Peter Martin Duncan
Date:  18 July [1861]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.257)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3212

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Exploring Expedition. During the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. Under the command of …
  • … vol.  2, letter to Charles Stokes, [1839–September 1842]; and vol.  7, Supplement, letter …

From Emma Darwin   [June 1861]

Summary

Describes her compassion for all his sufferings and writes of her wish that his gratitude could be offered to heaven as well as to herself. To her, the only relief is to try to believe that suffering and illness are from God’s hand "to help us to exalt our minds & to look forward with hope to a future state".

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [June 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 210.10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3169

Matches: 1 hit

  • … letter from Emma Darwin, [ c . February 1839]). See Emma Darwin (1915) 2: 173–5. Isaiah  …

From J. O. Westwood   26 September 1861

Summary

Has found the reference to Charles Morren’s paper, "On the agency of insects in causing sterility in flowers" [Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1 (1836): xliv–xlv].

Common white butterflies remove pollen-masses with their tarsi from plants of the Asclepiadaceae.

Author:  John Obadiah Westwood
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Sept 1861
Classmark:  DAR 181.1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3267

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Vols. 8,9] Morren, Charles François Antoine. 1839. On the production of vanilla in Europe. …
  • … did cite another of Morren’s papers ( Morren 1839 ). See Orchids , p.  270 n. CD had asked …

To Charles Lyell   [15 September 1861]

Summary

Discusses CL’s correspondence with T. F. Jamieson. Comments on Jamieson’s theory that the roads of Glen Roy were formed by a glacial lake. Discusses elevation of Scotland during the glacial period.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [15 Sept 1861]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.264)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3254

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of Captain FitzRoy, RN, from 1832 to 1836. By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …
  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1839): pt 1, 39–81 ( Collected papers 1: 89– …

To Charles Lyell   20 October [1861]

Summary

Continued discussion of Jamieson’s Glen Roy theory. Mentions river erosion of glaciers. Quotes from old letter to CL [1116].

Is working hard on orchids; fears subject is too complex for the public.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 Oct [1861]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.268)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3291

Matches: 1 hit

  • … not, as CD had maintained in a paper of 1839, beaches made by the sea at different periods …

To P. L. Sclater   4 May [1861]

Summary

CD is unable to locate his specimens of two Falkland Island birds [Opetiorhynchus].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  4 May [1861]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.246)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3138

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Smith, Elder and Co. 1839–41. Correspondence : The correspondence …

To Bartholomew James Sulivan   24 May [1861]

Summary

Thanks BJS for account of Mendoza earthquake.

FitzRoy sent CD the last London Review [& Weekly J. Polit.] and he read the article on Genesis, but feels it is an attempt to reconcile the irreconcilable.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Bartholomew James Sulivan
Date:  24 May [1861]
Classmark:  Sulivan family (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3156

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

To John Murray   21 January [1861]

Summary

Thinks third edition of Origin should advertise "additions and corrections", for the additions are important. They will add 30 pages to the book; there will also be a short historical sketch. Asks for some copies for friends.

Also curious to know how Journal of researches has sold. The new issue seemed a rash venture to him.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  21 Jan [1861]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.98–99)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3048

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin 3d ed. : On the origin of species …

From J. D. Hooker   [30 December 1861 or 6 January 1862]

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Summary

Glad CD has given up on Acropera ovules.

Doubts phanerogams less different in extreme forms [than Crustacea].

No systematic parallelism between plants and animals.

Offers list of Arctic plants with their colours. Asks CD whether it is useful to add colour to [descriptions of] plants.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [30 Dec] 1861 or [6 Jan] 1862
Classmark:  DAR 101: 3–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3375

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

From Jeffries Wyman   8 January [1861]

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Summary

Responds to CD’s inquiries about rattlesnake.

Author:  Jeffries Wyman
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Jan [1861]
Classmark:  DAR 89: 18–21
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3045

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural …

To T. F. Jamieson   6 September [1861]

Summary

Has read TFJ’s letter on Glen Roy. His arguments seem conclusive. CD gives up the ghost. "My paper is one long gigantic blunder." How rash it is "to argue that because a case is not one thing it must be some second thing which happens to be known to the writer".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Francis Jamieson
Date:  6 Sept [1861]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (MS. 5406, ff. 167–8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3247

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1839): pt 1, 39–81. The paper presented …

From William Branwhite Clarke   [August 1861]

Summary

Evidence of glacial action in Australia. [See Origin, 4th ed., p. 443.]

Author:  William Branwhite Clarke
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Aug 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 161.2: 171
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3222

Matches: 1 hit

  • … who had emigrated to New South Wales in 1839, carried out an extensive survey of the …

To W. B. Clarke   25 October [1861]

Summary

Thanks WBC for his account of glacial action in Australia. A mundane cooler period would throw a flood of light on geographical distribution. Has sketched a large MS on subject but does not know whether he will live to publish it.

Questions WBC on striated granite boulders.

Asks him to make a botanical experiment on insect fertilisation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Branwhite Clarke
Date:  25 Oct [1861]
Classmark:  Mitchell Library, Sydney (MLMSS 139 36X, pp. 263–72)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3298

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Keynes, Richard Darwin, ed. 1979. The Beagle …
Document type
letter (31)
Date
1861
01 (2)
02 (2)
03 (1)
04 (2)
05 (4)
06 (1)
07 (1)
08 (1)
09 (9)
10 (5)
11 (1)
12 (2)
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Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … to read in Notebook C ( Notebooks , pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in …
  • … in the Royal Society of London (Royal Society of London 1839) has been heavily marked, and quite a …
  • … Pierquin, published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. …
  • … 1814–29] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle 1839] (read) Smellie Philosophy of …
  • … 12  by Owen in Encyclop. of Anat. & Physiology [R. Owen 1839] Dampier probably worth …
  • … on subjects of science connected with Nat. Theol: [Brougham 1839] on instinct & animal …
  • … 1808] Brit. & Foreign Medical Rev. N o  14. Ap 1839 [Anon. 1839b] Rev. on Walker on …
  • … Smart 17  Beginning of a New School of metaphysic. [Smart 1839] about connection of language & …
  • … Babbington on Flora of Channel Isl d . [Babington 1839] says he has remarks on affinities of …
  • … 1816 [Gallesio 1816]— quoted by D r . Holland [Holland 1839] (p. 27) as good— Decandoelle …
  • … [Thacker 1834–5] p. 291 Athenæum 1839. p. 546— M r  Conrad has published …
  • … Arboretum [Loudon 1838] in Edinburgh Review July 1839 [Anon. 1839a]— there are pencil remarks on it. …
  • … would contain facts for me [DAR *119: 9v.] 1839. Decemb. Advertised . …
  • … Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 1839–40] 24 Flourens “Resume …
  • … publishing Travels into interior of N. America [Wied-Neuwied 1839–41]— in Geograph Soc …
  • … 1840. Octob & Jan. Papers on Instinct by Flourens [Flourens 1839] (read) Index of Clarkes …
  • … S. Bellamy on Nat. Hist. of S. Devonshire [Bellamy 1839] chiefly on distribution of forms said to be …
  • … at end of Catalogue of Royal Soc. [Royal Society of London 1839]— Meckel’s Anatomy. French …
  • … ed. 1834] read Vol. (2 d ) on Dogs [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6] …
  • … on the Obligations of man to the inferior animals’ [Youatt 1839] discusses their minds. …
  • … by  Hooker . [A. P. de Candolle 1839–40] Jussieus …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … they show for one another’s sensibilities. Early in 1839 the couple set up house in London and at …
  • … and set in type by November 1837, though not published until 1839, when it appeared as the third …
  • … of species” ( Letter to J. S. Henslow, [November 1839] ).   note book, after note …
  • … Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His hopes and fears about married life …
  • … to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). These are not matters that she would …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] Written shortly before their …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27 October 1839] Darwin details his typical …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … races, lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect …
  • … development from the day of his birth, 27 December 1839, until September 1844. Parallels in the …
  • … 1 [9] W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10] During first week. yawned, streatched …
  • …  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . [7]  Correspondence  vol. 2, …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb-building abilities was essential if his theory of natural selection was to be taken seriously, and in the 1850s he carried out his own experiments at his home at Down House in Kent,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … on subjects connected with natural theology  (1839), Brougham commented that bees acted with a …
  • … suppose when we recollect who is her teacher’ (Brougham 1839, 1: 35, 77). William Kirby wrote of the …
  • … no bee in the world ever made cylindrical cells (Brougham 1839, 1: 32). However, Darwin knew that …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious …

Journal of researches

Summary

The Journal of researches, Darwin’s account of his travels round the world in H.M.S. Beagle, was his first published book. The circumstances of its publication were not shaped by Darwin, however, but by the Beagle’s captain, Robert FitzRoy, who, according…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his ship . The Journal of Researches thus began life in 1839 as the third volume of the N …
  • … the time the Narrative was eventually published in May 1839, FitzRoy’s volume showed just how …
  • … with the title Journal of researches as early as August 1839. The speed with which this occurred …

York Minster (Elleparu)

Summary

York Minster was known as Elleparu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. He was captured by FitzRoy in 1830 after one the small boats used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del Fuego had been…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London  (1839) pt 1: 39-81. [ Shorter publications , pp.  50 …
  • … Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London  9 (1839): 528-9.  [ Shorter publications , …

Fuegia Basket (Yokcushlu)

Summary

Fuegia Basket was known as Yokcushlu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. She was one of the hostages seized by Robert FitzRoy, after the small boat used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Jemmy Button (Orundellico)

Summary

Jemmy Button was known as Orundellico among the Yahgan, or canoe people of the southern part of Tierra del Fuego.  He was the fourth hostage taken by FitzRoy in 1830 following the theft of the small surveying boat. This fourteen-year old boy was called…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Darwin in letters, 1821-1836: Childhood to the Beagle voyage

Summary

Darwin's first known letters were written when he was twelve. They continue through school-days at Shrewsbury, two years as a medical student at Edinburgh University, the undergraduate years at Cambridge, and the of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … until FitzRoy completed his volume of the Narrative  in 1839. London scientific society …

William Darwin born

Summary

The Darwins' first child, William Erasmus Darwin, is born.  His father immediately starts to record observations on his behaviour and development. Years later these are published in the journal Mind.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' first child, William Erasmus Darwin, is born.  His father immediately starts to …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle in 1831 Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington died in 1861 reportedly 47 years old, so he would have been 17; although if he was the Simon Covington born in Bedford on 30 January 1809,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … employ, paying him extra for secretarial duties. In January 1839 CD married his cousin, Emma …

Journal of Researches published

Summary

Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a great success. It appeared as the third volume of the Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, with the title Journal and remarks but…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Darwin's works in letters

Summary

To celebrate Darwin's 210th birthday, we present a new section on Darwin's works in letters, featuring Journal of researches, Living and fossil cirripedia, Descent of man, and Expression of emotions. And here is a song with lyrics based on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the hidden life of: Journal of researches (1839; better known as The voyage of the …

Marriage

Summary

Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 November 1838, describing it as the 'day of days!'.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written …
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