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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To Gardeners’ Chronicle   15 September [1860]

Summary

Asks for any published reference providing account of the movement of the viscid hairs or leaves of Drosera lunata, an Indian Drosera which Lindley cites in Vegetable kingdom, p. 433.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  15 Sept [1860]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 22 September 1860, p. 853
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2918A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … which is placed in the same natural family. ” Lindley refers to Royle 1839 , 1: 75. …
  • … London: the author. Royle, John Forbes. 1839. Illustrations of the botany and other …

To Charles Lyell   11 August [1860]

Summary

Comments on his fear that "so many heavy guns fired by great men" might influence the public and scientists.

Sends CL the Owen-inspired Wilberforce review [Q. Rev. 108 (1860): 225–64].

Mentions defence of Origin by Asa Gray at American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Agassiz and Theophilus Parsons have poor criticisms ["Prof. Agassiz on the origin of species", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 30 (1860): 142–54].

Lists other negative reviews by Rudolph Wagner ["An essay on classification by Louis Agassiz", Göttingische Gelehrte Anz. (1860) pt 2: 761–800], Charles Daubeny ["Remarks on the final causes of the sexuality of plants, with particular reference to Mr Darwin’s work On the origin of species by natural selection", Rep. BAAS 30 (1860) pt 2: 109–10], and two anonymous ones (one favourable).

Huxley says K. E. von Baer "goes a long way with us".

Comments on "pipes" in chalk as evidence of geological processes still at work.

Is writing on origin of dog breeds [Variation 1: 15–43].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  11 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.223)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2895

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of water containing carbonic acid ( C.  Lyell 1839 ). He described his views in succeeding …
  • … University Press. 1985–. Lyell, Charles. 1839. On the origin of the tubular cavities …
  • … of sandpipes in Chalk deposits since 1839, believing they were formed by the corroding …

To Charles Lyell   14 [June 1860]

Summary

Mentions letters from Edward Blyth and William Hopkins.

Sees little in review of Origin by J. A. Lowell [Christian Examiner (1860): 449–64].

Sees only one sentence approaching natural selection in paper by Hermann Schaaffhausen. Emphasises importance of natural selection.

Comments on Agassiz’s view of species.

Cites account of flint tools in travel book by F. P. Wrangell [Narrative of an expedition to the Polar Sea (1840)]. Mentions Eskimo tools.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  14 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.216)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2832

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 3: 89–117. Wrangel, Ferdinand Petrovich. 1839. Reise des Kaiserlichrussischen flotten- …
  • … The book had been translated from Wrangel 1839  by Elizabeth Juliana Sabine. CD first read …

From Philip Lutley Sclater   [3? February 1860]

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Summary

Lists land birds of Galapagos and discusses their distribution on mainland of S. America.

Author:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [3? Feb 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 205.3 (Letters)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2683

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Smith, Elder and Co. 1839–41. Correspondence : The correspondence …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

To W. H. Miller   [after 5 June 1860]

Summary

Discusses measurements of bees’ cells. Describes modification in structure of Melipona hive. Notes importance of natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Hallowes Miller
Date:  [after 5 June 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2391

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Bibliography Brougham, Henry Peter. 1839. Dissertations on subjects of science connected …
  • … their construction. CD refers to Brougham 1839  and 1858. See also Correspondence vol.  7, …

To John Murray   [25 January 1860]

Summary

CD asks how soon JM will go to press with Journal [of researches]; thinks he had better look it over to see if progress of science has made any correction necessary.

P.S. Asa Gray has written that Origin has caused great excitement in U. S. Agassiz has denounced it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  [25 Jan 1860]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.64–67)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2632

Matches: 2 hits

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin : On the origin of species by means …
  • … of Journal of researches was published in 1839 by Henry Colburn. For CD’s unsatisfactory …

To Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther   6 March [1860]

Summary

Reports on the snakes he collected in the Galapagos.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf (Albert) Günther
Date:  6 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  Shrewsbury School, Taylor Library
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2725

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Porter, Duncan M. 1985. The Beagle collector …
  • … When CD published Journal of researches in 1839, he did not have access to the detailed …

To Charles Griffin & Co.   29 January [1860]

Summary

Returns MS [of biography for Dictionary of contemporary biography (1861)]. Part was inaccurate, and there was an important omission so CD has had a new copy made.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Griffin
Date:  29 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  British Library (Add. 28509: 408)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2667

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1831 to 1836. — His Journal first appeared in 1839 as part of the general narrative of the …
  • … visited by H.M.S.  Beagle” was published in 1839. In 1846 his “Geological Observations on …

To H. G. Bronn   14 July [1860]

Summary

Responds to HGB’s critique of Origin [appended to German translation of Origin]. Comments on English reviews.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Heinrich Georg Bronn
Date:  14 July [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 143
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2867

Matches: 2 hits

  • … vols.  5 and 6). CD first began to learn German in 1839 (see Correspondence vol.   …
  • … 2, letter to Caroline Wedgwood, [27 October 1839] ). According to Francis Darwin, CD read …

To Joseph Dalton Hooker   3 January [1860]

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Summary

High praise and detailed comments on JDH’s introductory essay to Flora Tasmaniae, which CD has now finished reading.

Disagrees on power of transoceanic migration. Advocates glacial transport of plants.

CD’s response to reviews of Origin in Saturday Review [8 (1859): 775–6] and John Lindley’s in Gardeners’ Chronicle [but see 2651].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  3 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2635

Matches: 2 hits

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …
  • … Ships Erebus and Terror, in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To John Murray   18 May [1860]

Summary

Thanks for six copies of Journal of researches [1860 ed.].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  18 May [1860]
Classmark:  Dunedin Public Library (Reed collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2810

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

To P. L. Sclater   4 February [1860]

Summary

Thanks PLS for list of Galapagos birds.

Mentions note he will add to Journal [of researches (1860)]

and correction he will make in Origin [3d ed. (1861)].

Asks PLS about variability in "abnormal parts of birds".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  4 Feb [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.195)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2684

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Smith, Elder and Co. 1839–41. Correspondence : The correspondence …

To J. D. Hooker   14 February [1860]

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Summary

Huxley’s Royal Institution lecture on Origin [10 Feb 1860, Not. Proc. R. Inst. G. B. 3 (1858–62): 195–200] an "entire failure" as an exposition of CD’s doctrine.

R. I. Murchison very civil.

CD counts Lyell among the converted.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  14 Feb [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 40
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2696

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Ships Erebus and Terror, in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To T. H. Huxley   1 November [1860]

Summary

THH’s term "Pithecoid Man" is a theory in itself.

CD is convinced that his doctrine of a mundane period of glaciation is correct.

Henrietta’s serious illness.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  1 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 141)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2972

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Smith, Elder and Co. 1839–43. OED : The Oxford English dictionary. …

To Jeffries Wyman   3 December [1860]

Summary

"You cannot tell how much your paper on Gestation has interested me" ["On some unusual modes of gestation in batrachians and fishes", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 27 (1859): 5–13].

Robert McDonnell has made curious discoveries on electrical organs of rays.

Is giving JW’s hog case in corrected ed. [3d] of Origin.

Would like account of tip of tail of young rattlesnake.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Jeffries Wyman
Date:  3 Dec [1860]
Classmark:  Harvard Medical Library in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine (Jeffries Wyman papers H MS c 12)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3005

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Wyman, Jeffries. 1849. A report on the …

To J. D. Hooker   31 [January 1860]

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Summary

CD preparing historical sketch, which will go into second American edition of Origin.

Asks JDH to copy out Naudin’s line on finality.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  31 [Jan 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2671

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Ships Erebus and Terror, in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To P. L. Sclater   14 February [1860]

Summary

Thanks PLS for information about variation in birds. Asks for more information.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  14 Feb [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.197)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2695

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Smith, Elder and Co. 1839–41. Correspondence : The correspondence …

From Daniel Oliver   25 September 1860

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Summary

His results with pure gum on Drosera spathulata entirely support CD’s opinion. Other observations on insectivorous plants.

Author:  Daniel Oliver
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Sept 1860
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 1–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2927

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Ships Erebus and Terror, in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

From J. D. Hooker   [28 April 1860]

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Summary

Has examined Leschenaultia and concludes the external viscid surfaces have nothing to do with the stigmatic surface. Agrees with CD’s style and nectary conclusions; accounts for their form and position in irregular flowers by describing floral development.

[Enclosed are some queries by CD with answers by JDH. Gives information on seed setting by Mucuna

and an opinion on the abruptness of N. and S. limits of plant ranges.]

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [28 Apr 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 150–1, DAR 166.2: 262
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2774

Matches: 1 hit

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …

To Charles Lyell   [24 March – 3 April 1860]

Summary

Discusses letter of recommendation for Edward Blyth.

Sedgwick’s review of the Origin in the Spectator [24 Mar 1860].

Mentions breaks between geological formations.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [24 Mar – 3 Apr 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.204)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2734

Matches: 1 hit

  • … alludes to Eden’s Afghan campaign of 1839. Adam Sedgwick’s anonymous review of Origin ( [ …
Document type
letter (31)
Date
1860
01 (4)
02 (7)
03 (2)
04 (2)
05 (2)
06 (2)
07 (2)
08 (2)
09 (3)
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Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … to read in Notebook C ( Notebooks , pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in …
  • … in the Royal Society of London (Royal Society of London 1839) has been heavily marked, and quite a …
  • … Pierquin, published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. …
  • … 1814–29] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle 1839] (read) Smellie Philosophy of …
  • … 12  by Owen in Encyclop. of Anat. & Physiology [R. Owen 1839] Dampier probably worth …
  • … on subjects of science connected with Nat. Theol: [Brougham 1839] on instinct & animal …
  • … 1808] Brit. & Foreign Medical Rev. N o  14. Ap 1839 [Anon. 1839b] Rev. on Walker on …
  • … Smart 17  Beginning of a New School of metaphysic. [Smart 1839] about connection of language & …
  • … Babbington on Flora of Channel Isl d . [Babington 1839] says he has remarks on affinities of …
  • … 1816 [Gallesio 1816]— quoted by D r . Holland [Holland 1839] (p. 27) as good— Decandoelle …
  • … [Thacker 1834–5] p. 291 Athenæum 1839. p. 546— M r  Conrad has published …
  • … Arboretum [Loudon 1838] in Edinburgh Review July 1839 [Anon. 1839a]— there are pencil remarks on it. …
  • … would contain facts for me [DAR *119: 9v.] 1839. Decemb. Advertised . …
  • … Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 1839–40] 24 Flourens “Resume …
  • … publishing Travels into interior of N. America [Wied-Neuwied 1839–41]— in Geograph Soc …
  • … 1840. Octob & Jan. Papers on Instinct by Flourens [Flourens 1839] (read) Index of Clarkes …
  • … S. Bellamy on Nat. Hist. of S. Devonshire [Bellamy 1839] chiefly on distribution of forms said to be …
  • … at end of Catalogue of Royal Soc. [Royal Society of London 1839]— Meckel’s Anatomy. French …
  • … ed. 1834] read Vol. (2 d ) on Dogs [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6] …
  • … on the Obligations of man to the inferior animals’ [Youatt 1839] discusses their minds. …
  • … by  Hooker . [A. P. de Candolle 1839–40] Jussieus …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … they show for one another’s sensibilities. Early in 1839 the couple set up house in London and at …
  • … and set in type by November 1837, though not published until 1839, when it appeared as the third …
  • … of species” ( Letter to J. S. Henslow, [November 1839] ).   note book, after note …
  • … Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His hopes and fears about married life …
  • … to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). These are not matters that she would …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] Written shortly before their …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27 October 1839] Darwin details his typical …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … races, lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect …
  • … development from the day of his birth, 27 December 1839, until September 1844. Parallels in the …
  • … 1 [9] W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10] During first week. yawned, streatched …
  • …  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . [7]  Correspondence  vol. 2, …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb-building abilities was essential if his theory of natural selection was to be taken seriously, and in the 1850s he carried out his own experiments at his home at Down House in Kent,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … on subjects connected with natural theology  (1839), Brougham commented that bees acted with a …
  • … suppose when we recollect who is her teacher’ (Brougham 1839, 1: 35, 77). William Kirby wrote of the …
  • … no bee in the world ever made cylindrical cells (Brougham 1839, 1: 32). However, Darwin knew that …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious …

Journal of researches

Summary

The Journal of researches, Darwin’s account of his travels round the world in H.M.S. Beagle, was his first published book. The circumstances of its publication were not shaped by Darwin, however, but by the Beagle’s captain, Robert FitzRoy, who, according…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his ship . The Journal of Researches thus began life in 1839 as the third volume of the N …
  • … the time the Narrative was eventually published in May 1839, FitzRoy’s volume showed just how …
  • … with the title Journal of researches as early as August 1839. The speed with which this occurred …

York Minster (Elleparu)

Summary

York Minster was known as Elleparu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. He was captured by FitzRoy in 1830 after one the small boats used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del Fuego had been…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London  (1839) pt 1: 39-81. [ Shorter publications , pp.  50 …
  • … Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London  9 (1839): 528-9.  [ Shorter publications , …

Fuegia Basket (Yokcushlu)

Summary

Fuegia Basket was known as Yokcushlu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. She was one of the hostages seized by Robert FitzRoy, after the small boat used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Jemmy Button (Orundellico)

Summary

Jemmy Button was known as Orundellico among the Yahgan, or canoe people of the southern part of Tierra del Fuego.  He was the fourth hostage taken by FitzRoy in 1830 following the theft of the small surveying boat. This fourteen-year old boy was called…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Darwin in letters, 1821-1836: Childhood to the Beagle voyage

Summary

Darwin's first known letters were written when he was twelve. They continue through school-days at Shrewsbury, two years as a medical student at Edinburgh University, the undergraduate years at Cambridge, and the of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … until FitzRoy completed his volume of the Narrative  in 1839. London scientific society …

Darwin's works in letters

Summary

To celebrate Darwin's 210th birthday, we present a new section on Darwin's works in letters, featuring Journal of researches, Living and fossil cirripedia, Descent of man, and Expression of emotions. And here is a song with lyrics based on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the hidden life of: Journal of researches (1839; better known as The voyage of the …

Marriage

Summary

Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 November 1838, describing it as the 'day of days!'.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written …

Alexander Burns Usborne

Summary

Alexander Burns Usborne was born in Kendal, Westmorland, in 1808, the son of Alexander and Margaret Usborne; his father died in 1818 and in his will was described as the purser on HMS Hannibal. His son joined the navy in 1825 aged 16 as a second-class…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … coast of Australia is named after him. However in May 1839 he was so badly injured when a musket …

William Darwin born

Summary

The Darwins' first child, William Erasmus Darwin, is born.  His father immediately starts to record observations on his behaviour and development. Years later these are published in the journal Mind.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' first child, William Erasmus Darwin, is born.  His father immediately starts to …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle in 1831 Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington died in 1861 reportedly 47 years old, so he would have been 17; although if he was the Simon Covington born in Bedford on 30 January 1809,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … employ, paying him extra for secretarial duties. In January 1839 CD married his cousin, Emma …

Journal of Researches published

Summary

Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a great success. It appeared as the third volume of the Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, with the title Journal and remarks but…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a …
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