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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To Alphonse de Candolle   11 November [1859]

Summary

Sends Origin as testimony to great benefit CD derived from AdeC’s works on distribution.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alphonse de Candolle
Date:  11 Nov [1859]
Classmark:  Archives de la famille de Candolle
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2523

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Library–CUL. The dinner took place in 1839 in CD’s home in Gower Street, London (see …
  • … letter to Alphonse de Candolle, 25 May [1839] ). The guests included Jean Charles Léonard …

To W. B. Carpenter   18 November [1859]

Summary

Comments on WBC’s response to the Origin. Hopes he will review it. Acceptance will depend more on men like WBC, with well-established reputations, than on his own writings.

"Lyell thinks the chapter on the Imperfection of the Geological Record not exaggerated."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Benjamin Carpenter
Date:  18 Nov [1859]
Classmark:  DAR 261.6: 1 (EH 88205918)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2535

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Bibliography Carpenter, William Benjamin. 1839. Principles of general and comparative …
  • … s letter has not been found. Carpenter 1839 . CD’s annotated copy of the fourth edition ( …

To John Lubbock   21 [March 1859]

Summary

Development of aphids; apparent absence of vermiform stage.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  21 [Mar 1859]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 30 (EH 88206479)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2419

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Sir John has the Report Brit. Assoc. for 1839 (Birmingham Meeting) & would lend it me for …
  • … Association for the Advancement of Science in 1839 (see Correspondence vol.  2). T.  H. …

To Charles Lyell   27 [December 1859]

Summary

Mentions William Clift ["Report in regard to the fossil bones found in New Holland", Edinburgh New Philos. J. 10 (1830–1): 394–6].

Discusses relations between fossil and living types.

Discusses Hooker’s introductory essay [in Flora Tasmaniae]. Criticises Hooker’s views on flora of rising and sinking islands.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  27 [Dec 1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.187)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2608

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Owen directly. CD cited both the first (1839) and second (1845) editions of Journal of …
  • … own references, are diag Large 8 vo Edit 1839 Murrays Edit. 1845. — p.  210 … … . p 173 On …

To T. H. Huxley   15 October [1859]

Summary

Origin is finished.

Asks for names of foreign speculative naturalists.

Hopes THH will think he is on right road despite errors.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  15 Oct [1859]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 70)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2505

Matches: 1 hit

  • … on in various scientific journals in 1839 and 1840. CD read all the papers involved ( …

From William Jardine   20 December 1859

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Summary

Cannot agree with all of CD’s views [in Origin].

Thinks too much is made of the Galapagos. The peculiarity of their ornithology will break down.

Offers to answer any questions on ornithology.

Author:  William Jardine
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Dec 1859
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 278
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2590

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Smith, Elder and Co. 1839–41. Bonaparte, Charles Lucien. 1850–7. …

To John Murray   14 November [1859]

Summary

Mme Belloc wishes to translate CD’s book on species into French. Asks JM to communicate with her. CD anxious to have his views known and discussed. Wishes there could be a German translation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  14 Nov [1859]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.54–56)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2531

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

To Syms Covington   16 January 1859

Summary

Regrets SC’s increasing deafness, but advises that aurists are humbugs.

Tells of illnesses in family and his own poor health. "I never know 24 hours comfort."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Syms Covington
Date:  16 Jan 1859
Classmark:  Brian Sirl (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2400

Matches: 1 hit

  • … vol.  2, letters to W.  S. MacLeay, 29 May 1839, and to Syms Covington, 7 October 1843). …

To Armand de Quatrefages   5 December [1859]

Summary

Mentions English scientists who support mutability of species.

Asks QdeB whether he could help locate a French translator and publisher.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Jean Louis Armand (Armand de Quatrefages) Quatrefages de Bréau
Date:  5 Dec [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.183)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2571

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin : On the origin of species by means …

To Charles Lyell   [3 December 1859]

Summary

Encloses a letter from FitzRoy to the Times.

Mentions letter from W. B. Carpenter accepting single progenitor for major animal classes.

Speculates about Richard Owen’s opinion.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [3 Dec 1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.182)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2567

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin : On the origin of species by …

To J. D. Hooker   25 [December 1859]

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Summary

CD will not write to L. Descaisne to defend his priority over C. V. Naudin.

Feels success of theory depends on acceptance and application by good and well-known workers, like JDH, Huxley, and Lyell.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  25 [Dec 1859]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 31
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2602

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To A. C. Ramsay   24 June [1859]

Summary

Comments on ACR’s "The old glaciers [of Switzerland and N. Wales", in Peaks, passes, and glaciers: a series of excursions by members of the Alpine Club, ed. J. Ball (1859)]. Discusses erratic blocks in the Jura. Notes views of Lyell.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Andrew Crombie Ramsay
Date:  24 June [1859]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Ramsay 306: 4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2291

Matches: 1 hit

  • … reference in Appendix to my Journal (1 st Edit 1839) p.  618, where I advance same view as …

From J. D. Hooker   [8–11 April 1859]

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Summary

Lyell has been strongly urging John Murray to publish CD’s book [Origin]. JDH feels Lyell overestimates the public interest in such works.

Gives examples of plants showing most marked varieties on the edge of their range.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [8–11 Apr 1859]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 127
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2444

Matches: 1 hit

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …

From Whitwell Elwin to John Murray   3 May 1859

Summary

Charles Lyell has asked WE to pass his opinions on the MS of Origin to CD via Murray. WE is convinced of the value of CD’s researches but "to put forth the theory without the evidence", as in the MS, "would do grievous injustice to his views". The omission of these facts reduces both the philosophical and popular value of the work, by virtue of its dryness.

Supports Charles Lyell’s suggestion that CD should first publish his observations on pigeons with a theoretical outline, for "[e]very body is interested in pigeons". Such a work would generate wider interest and be better understood. A subsequent, larger book would then be approached with impartiality "not to say favour" by a wider public.

Author:  Whitwell Elwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  3 May 1859
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms. 42197)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2457A

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of the globe. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. [Separately published as Journal of …
  • … of Captain FitzRoy, RN, from 1832 to 1836. By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

To A. R. Wallace   25 January [1859]

Summary

Expresses pleasure and relief at ARW’s response to joint publication of their pieces about natural selection.

Plans for the "abstract" [Origin].

Birds’ nests as evidence of variation of instincts.

Their collection of bees’ combs.

Praises ARW’s article.

Lyell’s and Hooker’s views [of species issue].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  25 Jan [1859]
Classmark:  British Library (Add 46434)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2405

Matches: 1 hit

  • … interesting. It puts my extracts, (written in 1839 now just 20 years ago! ) which I must …

To Charles Lyell   11 October [1859]

Summary

CL’s comments on Origin. Mentions corrections to last chapter suggested by CL.

Comments on lack of peculiar bird species on Madeira and Bermuda. Emphasises importance of American types in Galapagos.

Denies necessity of continued creation of primitive "Monads".

Denies need for new powers and any principle of improvement.

Discusses gradations of intellectual powers.

Adaptive inferiority and extinction of groups of species and genera.

Asserts that climate is less important than the struggle with other organisms.

Suggests an experiment involving primroses and cowslips.

The chapter on hybridisation.

Rudimentary organs.

Gives opinion of Lamarck’s work.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  11 Oct [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.172)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2503

Matches: 1 hit

  • … recorded having read these works in 1842 and 1839, respectively ( Correspondence vol.  4, …

From Charles Lyell   28 October 1859

Summary

Since dogs have same gestation period as the wolf it is likely that the wolf is the ancestral wild species, if it is just one species.

CD’s belief that domestic dogs are descended from several distinct aboriginal species seems to contradict views on sterility of hybrids and variation in Origin. If domestic varieties came from hybrids of wild species it will be impossible to trace ancestry. Opponents will exploit these problems.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 Oct 1859
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal IV, pp170–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2512A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …
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Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … to read in Notebook C ( Notebooks , pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in …
  • … in the Royal Society of London (Royal Society of London 1839) has been heavily marked, and quite a …
  • … Pierquin, published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. …
  • … 1814–29] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle 1839] (read) Smellie Philosophy of …
  • … 12  by Owen in Encyclop. of Anat. & Physiology [R. Owen 1839] Dampier probably worth …
  • … on subjects of science connected with Nat. Theol: [Brougham 1839] on instinct & animal …
  • … 1808] Brit. & Foreign Medical Rev. N o  14. Ap 1839 [Anon. 1839b] Rev. on Walker on …
  • … Smart 17  Beginning of a New School of metaphysic. [Smart 1839] about connection of language & …
  • … Babbington on Flora of Channel Isl d . [Babington 1839] says he has remarks on affinities of …
  • … 1816 [Gallesio 1816]— quoted by D r . Holland [Holland 1839] (p. 27) as good— Decandoelle …
  • … [Thacker 1834–5] p. 291 Athenæum 1839. p. 546— M r  Conrad has published …
  • … Arboretum [Loudon 1838] in Edinburgh Review July 1839 [Anon. 1839a]— there are pencil remarks on it. …
  • … would contain facts for me [DAR *119: 9v.] 1839. Decemb. Advertised . …
  • … Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 1839–40] 24 Flourens “Resume …
  • … publishing Travels into interior of N. America [Wied-Neuwied 1839–41]— in Geograph Soc …
  • … 1840. Octob & Jan. Papers on Instinct by Flourens [Flourens 1839] (read) Index of Clarkes …
  • … S. Bellamy on Nat. Hist. of S. Devonshire [Bellamy 1839] chiefly on distribution of forms said to be …
  • … at end of Catalogue of Royal Soc. [Royal Society of London 1839]— Meckel’s Anatomy. French …
  • … ed. 1834] read Vol. (2 d ) on Dogs [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6] …
  • … on the Obligations of man to the inferior animals’ [Youatt 1839] discusses their minds. …
  • … by  Hooker . [A. P. de Candolle 1839–40] Jussieus …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … they show for one another’s sensibilities. Early in 1839 the couple set up house in London and at …
  • … and set in type by November 1837, though not published until 1839, when it appeared as the third …
  • … of species” ( Letter to J. S. Henslow, [November 1839] ).   note book, after note …
  • … Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His hopes and fears about married life …
  • … to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). These are not matters that she would …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] Written shortly before their …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27 October 1839] Darwin details his typical …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … races, lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect …
  • … development from the day of his birth, 27 December 1839, until September 1844. Parallels in the …
  • … 1 [9] W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10] During first week. yawned, streatched …
  • …  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . [7]  Correspondence  vol. 2, …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb-building abilities was essential if his theory of natural selection was to be taken seriously, and in the 1850s he carried out his own experiments at his home at Down House in Kent,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … on subjects connected with natural theology  (1839), Brougham commented that bees acted with a …
  • … suppose when we recollect who is her teacher’ (Brougham 1839, 1: 35, 77). William Kirby wrote of the …
  • … no bee in the world ever made cylindrical cells (Brougham 1839, 1: 32). However, Darwin knew that …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious …

Journal of researches

Summary

The Journal of researches, Darwin’s account of his travels round the world in H.M.S. Beagle, was his first published book. The circumstances of its publication were not shaped by Darwin, however, but by the Beagle’s captain, Robert FitzRoy, who, according…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his ship . The Journal of Researches thus began life in 1839 as the third volume of the N …
  • … the time the Narrative was eventually published in May 1839, FitzRoy’s volume showed just how …
  • … with the title Journal of researches as early as August 1839. The speed with which this occurred …

York Minster (Elleparu)

Summary

York Minster was known as Elleparu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. He was captured by FitzRoy in 1830 after one the small boats used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del Fuego had been…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London  (1839) pt 1: 39-81. [ Shorter publications , pp.  50 …
  • … Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London  9 (1839): 528-9.  [ Shorter publications , …

Fuegia Basket (Yokcushlu)

Summary

Fuegia Basket was known as Yokcushlu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. She was one of the hostages seized by Robert FitzRoy, after the small boat used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Jemmy Button (Orundellico)

Summary

Jemmy Button was known as Orundellico among the Yahgan, or canoe people of the southern part of Tierra del Fuego.  He was the fourth hostage taken by FitzRoy in 1830 following the theft of the small surveying boat. This fourteen-year old boy was called…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Darwin in letters, 1821-1836: Childhood to the Beagle voyage

Summary

Darwin's first known letters were written when he was twelve. They continue through school-days at Shrewsbury, two years as a medical student at Edinburgh University, the undergraduate years at Cambridge, and the of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … until FitzRoy completed his volume of the Narrative  in 1839. London scientific society …

William Darwin born

Summary

The Darwins' first child, William Erasmus Darwin, is born.  His father immediately starts to record observations on his behaviour and development. Years later these are published in the journal Mind.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' first child, William Erasmus Darwin, is born.  His father immediately starts to …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle in 1831 Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington died in 1861 reportedly 47 years old, so he would have been 17; although if he was the Simon Covington born in Bedford on 30 January 1809,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … employ, paying him extra for secretarial duties. In January 1839 CD married his cousin, Emma …

Journal of Researches published

Summary

Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a great success. It appeared as the third volume of the Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, with the title Journal and remarks but…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Darwin's works in letters

Summary

To celebrate Darwin's 210th birthday, we present a new section on Darwin's works in letters, featuring Journal of researches, Living and fossil cirripedia, Descent of man, and Expression of emotions. And here is a song with lyrics based on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the hidden life of: Journal of researches (1839; better known as The voyage of the …

Marriage

Summary

Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 November 1838, describing it as the 'day of days!'.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written …
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