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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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From J. D. Hooker and Charles Lyell to the Linnean Society   30 June 1858

Summary

Communicate papers by CD and A. R. Wallace on "The Laws which affect the Production of Varieties, Races, and Species". Explain that CD and Wallace have, independently and unknown to each other, arrived at the same theory to account for the appearance and perpetuation of specific forms, and that neither has yet published, although CD first sketched his theory in 1839. Give their reasons for arranging the joint presentation.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker; Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Linnean Society
Date:  30 June 1858
Classmark:  Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society (Zoology) 3 (1859): 45–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2299

Matches: 6 hits

  • … although CD first sketched his theory in 1839. Give their reasons for arranging the joint …
  • … manuscript: the "Outline and draft of 1839’. Journal of the History of Biology 8: 191–217. …
  • … Species, by Mr. Darwin, which was sketched in 1839, and copied in 1844, when the copy was …
  • … which shows that these remained unaltered from 1839 to 1857. 3. An Essay by Mr. Wallace, …
  • … that CD composed a sketch of his views in 1839: although some pages have been identified …
  • … as a possible ‘outline and draft of 1839’ ( Vorzimmer 1975 ), it was subsequently shown …

To William Hallowes Miller   [15 April 1858]

Summary

A set of questions CD prepared for his meeting with WHM to discuss the geometry of bees’ cells.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Hallowes Miller
Date:  [15 Apr 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 24a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2255A

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Bibliography Brougham, Henry Peter. 1839. Dissertations on subjects of science connected …
  • … 1835 , which was criticised by Henry Peter Brougham in Brougham 1839 . Brougham had …
  • … pointed out flaws in Waterhouse’s geometry ( Brougham 1839 ,1: 270, 279). …
  • … These pages of Brougham 1839  are among those marked in CD’s copy (Darwin Library–CUL), …

To Richard Kippist    10 March [1858]

Summary

In great want of two books, which he had borrowed previously: Boreau Flora du Centre de la France and A. E. Fürnrohr, Naturhistorische Topographie von Regensburg, Bd 2 Flora Ratisbonensis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Richard Kippist
Date:  10 Mar [1858]
Classmark:  James Cummins, Bookseller (dealer) (15 November 2012)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2238

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 10 [March 1858] ). Boreau 1840 . Fürnrohr 1839 . The Down carrier, George Snow, went to …
  • … von Regensburg) Dr.  A.  E.  Fürnrohr, 1839. I do hope you can oblige me in this: if sent …
  • … Press. 1985–. Fürnrohr, August Emanuel. 1839. Flora Ratisbonensis, oder Uebersicht der um …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   8 [June 1858]

Summary

Discusses bees’ cells. Wants hive and swarm; would be glad to have WBT’s box with commenced cells. "I am partly a disciple of Waterhouse, but not wholly."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  8 [June 1858]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Tegetmeier, W. B. ser.2: 50)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2281

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 28 December): 1198–9. Brougham, Henry Peter. 1839. Dissertations on subjects of science …
  • … of bees at great length in Brougham 1839 . CD owned a copy of the work (Darwin Library– …
  • … Appendix IV, 119: 7a). He discussed Brougham 1839  in Natural selection , pp.  468 n.  2  …

To W. E. Darwin   [20 June 1858]

Summary

Relates domestic affairs.

Thinks his bees’ cell theory will hold good.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [20 June 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 28
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2267

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Vols. 6,7] Westwood, John Obadiah. 1839–40. An introduction to the modern classification …
  • … being ill (see n.  5, below). Westwood 1839–40 , Stephens 1829 , and Samouelle 1819  are …

From J. D. Hooker   15 January 1858

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Summary

Has gone over to CD’s side on the fertilisation of clover in New Zealand by bees.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 Jan 1858
Classmark:  DAR 100: 120–1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2204

Matches: 2 hits

  • … on James Clark Ross’s Antarctic voyage (1839–43). Andrew Sinclair, colonial secretary in …
  • … extent of Clover-crops before 1842, say in 1839–40— I will show your letter to Sinclair, …

From J. D. Hooker   12 November 1858

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Summary

Busy with introductory essay to [The botany of the Antarctic voyage, pt III] Flora Tasmaniae [printed separately as On the flora of Australia (1859)].

Now explains greater abundance of European species in Tasmania than in Fuegia by CD’s "refrigeration" hypothesis.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Nov 1858
Classmark:  DAR 100: 123–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2358

Matches: 2 hits

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …
  • … Ships Erebus and Terror, in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To W. E. Darwin   6 October [1858]

Summary

Sends £20. Family news.

Answers WED’s questions about CD’s Journal of researches: Galapagos "productions" all came from America, but "they have since been modified by my principle of Natural Selection".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  6 Oct [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 92: A19–21
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2334

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Moore, James Richard. 1977. On the education …

From J. D. Hooker   13–15 July 1858

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Summary

Sends proofs [of "On the tendency of species to form varieties … ", read 1 July 1858, Collected papers 2: 3–19]. CD could publish his abstract [later the Origin] as a separate supplemental number of [Journal of the Linnean Society].

JDH has studied in detail CD’s manuscript on variable species in large and small genera and concurs with its consequences. Discusses methodological idiosyncrasies of systematists, e.g., Bentham, Robert Brown, and C. C. Babington, which complicate CD’s tabulations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [13 or 15] July 1858
Classmark:  DAR 100: 116–19, 168
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2307

Matches: 2 hits

  • … University Press. 1975. Royle, John Forbes. 1839. Illustrations of the botany and other …
  • … of these genera were included in Royle 1839  and Bentham 1835 . Hooker had earlier warned …

From T. H. Huxley   17 December 1858

Summary

K. E. von Baer’s view of the air bladder of fishes.

Author:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Dec 1858
Classmark:  DAR 166: 289
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2381

Matches: 1 hit

  • … forms the second part of Agassiz and Vogt 1839–42. CD used the example of the swim-bladder …

To J. D. Hooker   [29 June 1858]

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Summary

JDH wants papers at once. CD sends Wallace’s paper and CD’s abstract of his letter to Asa Gray. Sends [species] sketch of 1844 with JDH’s notes to assure JDH he had read it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [29 June 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 240
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2298

Matches: 1 hit

  • … he wrote in ink: ‘This was sketched in 1839 & copied out in full, as here written & read …

To A. A. Gould   6 April [1858]

Summary

Thanks AAG for procuring an authoritative answer from T. M. Brewer on the habits of the [American] cuckoo. Surprised William Yarrell erred so much.

Wishes AAG had time to give an account of Japanese shells, which would be interesting from the geographical point of view.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Augustus Addison Gould
Date:  6 Apr [1858]
Classmark:  Lehigh University Libraries Special Collections (Honeyman Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2448

Matches: 1 hit

  • … in other birds nests’, citing Yarrell 1839–43, 2: 190, as his source. In Origin , p.  217, …

To Herbert Spencer   25 November [1858]

Summary

Thanks for HS’s Essays: [scientific, political, and speculative, vol. 1 (1858)]. Admires his general argument for the development theory.

CD is preparing an abstract on change of species. He treats subject as a naturalist, not from a general point of view. Otherwise he might have quoted HS’s argument to great advantage.

CD particularly liked articles on music and style. Expression is a favourite topic with CD. Agrees all expression is biological.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Herbert Spencer
Date:  25 Nov [1858]
Classmark:  University of London, Senate House Library (MS.791/41)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2373

Matches: 1 hit

  • … the topic of animal and human expressions. In 1839 he began recording the expressions and …

From J. D. Hooker   [14 March 1858]

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Summary

Summary of JDH’s objections to CD’s survey of floras and conclusion that large genera vary more than small.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [14 Mar 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 182–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2240

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Ships Erebus and Terror, in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

From Leonard Jenyns   [before 18 April 1858]

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Summary

[Copy of some rough notes.] References about species. Variations within species.

Author:  Leonard Jenyns; Leonard Blomefield
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 18 Apr 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 45: 20–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2250

Matches: 1 hit

  • … refers to an earlier edition. Yarrell 1839–43. CD recorded reading this work in November …

To J. D. Hooker   15 January [1858]

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Summary

CD has never doubted probability of Bering Strait land connection.

Family illness.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  15 Jan [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 221
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2203

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To Leonard Jenyns   9 April [1858]

Summary

Asks LJ to lend him a copy of his paper ["Variation of species", Rep. BAAS 26 (1856): 101–5] and any notes or references he has. Although CD has a large accumulation of facts, it is impossible to see and consider too many.

His health is poor.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Leonard Jenyns; Leonard Blomefield
Date:  9 Apr [1858]
Classmark:  Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2253

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of Captain FitzRoy, RN, from 1832 to 1836. By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

To Joseph Dalton Hooker   12 January [1858]

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Summary

On papilionaceous flowers and CD’s theory that there are no eternal hermaphrodites. Connects this theory to absence of small-flowered legumes in New Zealand and the absence of small bees as pollinators.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  12 Jan [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 220
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2201

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …
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Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … to read in Notebook C ( Notebooks , pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in …
  • … in the Royal Society of London (Royal Society of London 1839) has been heavily marked, and quite a …
  • … Pierquin, published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. …
  • … 1814–29] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle 1839] (read) Smellie Philosophy of …
  • … 12  by Owen in Encyclop. of Anat. & Physiology [R. Owen 1839] Dampier probably worth …
  • … on subjects of science connected with Nat. Theol: [Brougham 1839] on instinct & animal …
  • … 1808] Brit. & Foreign Medical Rev. N o  14. Ap 1839 [Anon. 1839b] Rev. on Walker on …
  • … Smart 17  Beginning of a New School of metaphysic. [Smart 1839] about connection of language & …
  • … Babbington on Flora of Channel Isl d . [Babington 1839] says he has remarks on affinities of …
  • … 1816 [Gallesio 1816]— quoted by D r . Holland [Holland 1839] (p. 27) as good— Decandoelle …
  • … [Thacker 1834–5] p. 291 Athenæum 1839. p. 546— M r  Conrad has published …
  • … Arboretum [Loudon 1838] in Edinburgh Review July 1839 [Anon. 1839a]— there are pencil remarks on it. …
  • … would contain facts for me [DAR *119: 9v.] 1839. Decemb. Advertised . …
  • … Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 1839–40] 24 Flourens “Resume …
  • … publishing Travels into interior of N. America [Wied-Neuwied 1839–41]— in Geograph Soc …
  • … 1840. Octob & Jan. Papers on Instinct by Flourens [Flourens 1839] (read) Index of Clarkes …
  • … S. Bellamy on Nat. Hist. of S. Devonshire [Bellamy 1839] chiefly on distribution of forms said to be …
  • … at end of Catalogue of Royal Soc. [Royal Society of London 1839]— Meckel’s Anatomy. French …
  • … ed. 1834] read Vol. (2 d ) on Dogs [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6] …
  • … on the Obligations of man to the inferior animals’ [Youatt 1839] discusses their minds. …
  • … by  Hooker . [A. P. de Candolle 1839–40] Jussieus …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … they show for one another’s sensibilities. Early in 1839 the couple set up house in London and at …
  • … and set in type by November 1837, though not published until 1839, when it appeared as the third …
  • … of species” ( Letter to J. S. Henslow, [November 1839] ).   note book, after note …
  • … Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His hopes and fears about married life …
  • … to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). These are not matters that she would …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] Written shortly before their …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27 October 1839] Darwin details his typical …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … races, lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect …
  • … development from the day of his birth, 27 December 1839, until September 1844. Parallels in the …
  • … 1 [9] W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10] During first week. yawned, streatched …
  • …  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . [7]  Correspondence  vol. 2, …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb-building abilities was essential if his theory of natural selection was to be taken seriously, and in the 1850s he carried out his own experiments at his home at Down House in Kent,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … on subjects connected with natural theology  (1839), Brougham commented that bees acted with a …
  • … suppose when we recollect who is her teacher’ (Brougham 1839, 1: 35, 77). William Kirby wrote of the …
  • … no bee in the world ever made cylindrical cells (Brougham 1839, 1: 32). However, Darwin knew that …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious …

Journal of researches

Summary

The Journal of researches, Darwin’s account of his travels round the world in H.M.S. Beagle, was his first published book. The circumstances of its publication were not shaped by Darwin, however, but by the Beagle’s captain, Robert FitzRoy, who, according…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his ship . The Journal of Researches thus began life in 1839 as the third volume of the N …
  • … the time the Narrative was eventually published in May 1839, FitzRoy’s volume showed just how …
  • … with the title Journal of researches as early as August 1839. The speed with which this occurred …

York Minster (Elleparu)

Summary

York Minster was known as Elleparu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. He was captured by FitzRoy in 1830 after one the small boats used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del Fuego had been…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London  (1839) pt 1: 39-81. [ Shorter publications , pp.  50 …
  • … Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London  9 (1839): 528-9.  [ Shorter publications , …

Fuegia Basket (Yokcushlu)

Summary

Fuegia Basket was known as Yokcushlu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. She was one of the hostages seized by Robert FitzRoy, after the small boat used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Jemmy Button (Orundellico)

Summary

Jemmy Button was known as Orundellico among the Yahgan, or canoe people of the southern part of Tierra del Fuego.  He was the fourth hostage taken by FitzRoy in 1830 following the theft of the small surveying boat. This fourteen-year old boy was called…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Darwin in letters, 1821-1836: Childhood to the Beagle voyage

Summary

Darwin's first known letters were written when he was twelve. They continue through school-days at Shrewsbury, two years as a medical student at Edinburgh University, the undergraduate years at Cambridge, and the of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … until FitzRoy completed his volume of the Narrative  in 1839. London scientific society …

Darwin's works in letters

Summary

To celebrate Darwin's 210th birthday, we present a new section on Darwin's works in letters, featuring Journal of researches, Living and fossil cirripedia, Descent of man, and Expression of emotions. And here is a song with lyrics based on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the hidden life of: Journal of researches (1839; better known as The voyage of the …

Marriage

Summary

Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 November 1838, describing it as the 'day of days!'.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written …

Alexander Burns Usborne

Summary

Alexander Burns Usborne was born in Kendal, Westmorland, in 1808, the son of Alexander and Margaret Usborne; his father died in 1818 and in his will was described as the purser on HMS Hannibal. His son joined the navy in 1825 aged 16 as a second-class…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … coast of Australia is named after him. However in May 1839 he was so badly injured when a musket …

William Darwin born

Summary

The Darwins' first child, William Erasmus Darwin, is born.  His father immediately starts to record observations on his behaviour and development. Years later these are published in the journal Mind.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' first child, William Erasmus Darwin, is born.  His father immediately starts to …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle in 1831 Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington died in 1861 reportedly 47 years old, so he would have been 17; although if he was the Simon Covington born in Bedford on 30 January 1809,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … employ, paying him extra for secretarial duties. In January 1839 CD married his cousin, Emma …

Journal of Researches published

Summary

Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a great success. It appeared as the third volume of the Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, with the title Journal and remarks but…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a …
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