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Darwin Correspondence Project

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To A. C. Ramsay   7 April [1848]

Summary

Asks ACR to establish height of Moel Tryfan in Caernarvonshire; "in my notice on this hill [""Ancient glaciers of Caernarvonshire"" (1842), Collected papers 1: 163–71] I give a very much less height than others". [See also another mention of the elevation of Moel Tryfan in "On the transportal of erratic boulders" (1848), Collected papers 1: 218–27.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Andrew Crombie Ramsay
Date:  7 Apr [1848]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1168

Matches: 2 hits

  • … ft, but he cited as his source Murchison 1839 , 2: 528, where the height is given as 1692  …
  • … Press. 1977. Murchison, Roderick Impey. 1839. The Silurian system, founded on geological …

To J. D. Hooker   6 October [1848]

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Summary

CD makes progress with barnacles. Describes "supplemental" males in detail. In working out metamorphosis, their crustacean homologies followed automatically.

CD opposes appending first describer’s name to specific name.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  6 Oct [1848]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 112a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1202

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and Antarctic regions, during the years 1839–43. 2 vols. London: John Murray. Variation : …
  • … early months of his Antarctic voyage, 1839–43, working on marine organisms, particularly …

To Robert Chambers   [June 1848]

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Summary

Congratulates RC on his work on Scottish sea-margins [Ancient sea-margins (1848)].

Discusses Glen Roy; Milne staggered him in favour of the glacier view, but now his opinion has reverted.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Chambers
Date:  [June 1848]
Classmark:  DAR 50: C1–C2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1182

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society , pt 1 (1839): 39–81. Collected papers 1: 101–4. …
  • … By Charles Darwin. [Read 7 February 1839. ] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal …

To Edward Cresy   [before May 1848?]

Summary

Agrees that naval expeditions to the Arctic are a waste of money. Believes Sir J. Barrow responsible. "Dr [Richard?] King is quite right in the advantage of Land Expeditions".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Cresy, Jr
Date:  [before May 1848?]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 304
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-805

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of the Royal Society of which CD was a member, 1839–49. William Buckland, chairman of the …
  • … Royal Society Geology Committee Minutes, 1839–49). Arctic exploration began in earnest in …

To Samuel Pickworth Woodward   10 July 1848

Summary

Is pleased to support SPW’s application for a position in the fossil department at the British Museum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  10 July 1848
Classmark:  British Museum (Central Archive Staff Applications and Testimonials: S. P. Woodward CE33/710/45)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1189A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … the Geological Society of London from 1839 to 1845 and assisted CD by preparing specimens …

From J. D. Hooker   13 October 1848

Summary

Hugh Falconer’s misbehaviour.

Waiting out rains at Brian Hodgson’s.

Will make botanical transverse section of Himalayas from plains to snow.

Arrangements to pass Sikkim Rajah’s territory.

No evidence of glacial or diluvial action in sub-Himalayan mountains. No evidence of detrital coal formation.

Hodgson’s replies to CD on introduced species and hybrids.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 Oct 1848
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: India letters 1847–51: 112–14
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1203

Matches: 2 hits

  • … insects of the Himalayas published in Royle 1839 . Thomas Bell. Frances Henslow, Hooker’s …
  • … Clarendon Press. 1993–7. Royle, John Forbes. 1839. Illustrations of the botany and other …

To James Clark Ross    25 February [1848]

Summary

Thanks for sending cirripedes. Cannot make out the label, so can JCR tell him the bank and the depth. Hopes to keep the specimens for 6 or 8 weeks before returning them.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Clark Ross
Date:  25 Feb [1848]
Classmark:  Scott Polar Research Institute (MS 1226/10)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1158A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … during his Antarctic exploring expedition (1839–43) and seems to have sent these to CD in …

To John Phillips   14 February [1848]

Summary

Asks for the reference in which JP states that some erratic boulders came from a lower to a higher level. CD is writing a paper ["Transportal of erratic boulders", Collected papers 1: 218–26] in which he believes he has the true explanation. Would like as many instances, with details, as possible.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Phillips
Date:  14 Feb [1848]
Classmark:  Oxford University Museum of Natural History Archive Collections (John Phillips collection))
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1157

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. [Read 7 February 1839. ] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal …

To John Thomas Quekett   7 September [1848]

Summary

Asks about collection of mollusc specimens he had lent to Richard Owen.

Asks about seeing cirripede collection of the College.

Comments on larva of Scalpellum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Thomas Quekett; Royal College of Surgeons
Date:  7 Sept [1848]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.62)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1114

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2, letter to W.  J. Broderip, 19 January [1839] , for Richard Owen’s intention to look at …

To John Phillips   [12? March 1848]

Summary

Thanks JP for his note and reference. CD’s paper will not deal with the general question of erratics but only their transportal from a lower to a higher level ["The transportal of erratic boulders", Collected papers 1: 218–27]. His notion is that the boulders were transported by coast-ice, not drifting icebergs, and that during the period of transportal the land was subsiding. Can JP tell him whether the raised conglomerate boulders he observed were rounded or angular?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Phillips
Date:  [12? Mar 1848]
Classmark:  Oxford University Museum of Natural History Archive Collections (John Phillips collection))
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1163

Matches: 1 hit

  • … edited by Dionysius Lardner. On 25 February 1839, CD recorded reading ‘Phillips Geology …

To Robert Ball   25 March [1848]

Summary

Cannot give information about hook. Fuegian women fish without hooks.

Robert Mallet’s suggestion about space for specimens on board men-of-war forwarded to Sir J. Herschel.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Ball
Date:  25 Mar [1848?]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (Fellows' Papers 54.i)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1165

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of Captain FitzRoy, RN, from 1832 to 1836. By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

To Robert Chambers   [14 February – 20 March 1848]

Summary

Thanks RC for information on hand-level; he has recommended it in his "Instructions" ["Geology", Collected papers 1: 227–50].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Chambers
Date:  [14 Feb – 20 Mar 1848]
Classmark:  Watt Library, Greenock
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1160

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. [Read 7 February 1839. ] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal …

To J. D. Hooker   10 May 1848

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Summary

Confident of species theory as result of applying it to cirripede sexual systems.

CD’s opinion of E. Blyth. JDH should meet Blyth, inquire about domesticated varieties, study insular flora, solve coal-plant problem.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  10 May 1848
Classmark:  DAR 114: 112
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1174

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Ross, captain of the Antarctic expedition of 1839–43, on which Hooker served as assistant- …

From J. D. Hooker   20 February – 16 [March] 1848

Summary

Though correspondence has never ebbed so low, CD is constantly in his thoughts.

Observations on cheetahs used as domesticated hunting animals.

Finds geographical barriers sometimes separate species, but also finds species that remain separate where there are no barriers to migration.

Colour "individuates" isolated animal species.

Plains and alpine animal distribution show altitude not strictly analogous to latitude.

Impact of timber cutting on climate has led to extinction of crocodiles.

Will discuss coal formation in letter to Edward Forbes.

CD often asked whether isolated mountains in southern latitudes had closely allied representatives of Arctic and north temperate plants; JDH has found a representative barberry.

Making for Darjeeling via Calcutta.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Feb – 16 [Mar] 1848
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: India letters 1847–51: 52–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1158

Matches: 1 hit

  • … letter from J.  G. Malcolmson, 30 November 1839 ). Edward Forbes, a colleague of Hooker on …
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Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … to read in Notebook C ( Notebooks , pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in …
  • … in the Royal Society of London (Royal Society of London 1839) has been heavily marked, and quite a …
  • … Pierquin, published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. …
  • … 1814–29] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle 1839] (read) Smellie Philosophy of …
  • … 12  by Owen in Encyclop. of Anat. & Physiology [R. Owen 1839] Dampier probably worth …
  • … on subjects of science connected with Nat. Theol: [Brougham 1839] on instinct & animal …
  • … 1808] Brit. & Foreign Medical Rev. N o  14. Ap 1839 [Anon. 1839b] Rev. on Walker on …
  • … Smart 17  Beginning of a New School of metaphysic. [Smart 1839] about connection of language & …
  • … Babbington on Flora of Channel Isl d . [Babington 1839] says he has remarks on affinities of …
  • … 1816 [Gallesio 1816]— quoted by D r . Holland [Holland 1839] (p. 27) as good— Decandoelle …
  • … [Thacker 1834–5] p. 291 Athenæum 1839. p. 546— M r  Conrad has published …
  • … Arboretum [Loudon 1838] in Edinburgh Review July 1839 [Anon. 1839a]— there are pencil remarks on it. …
  • … would contain facts for me [DAR *119: 9v.] 1839. Decemb. Advertised . …
  • … Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 1839–40] 24 Flourens “Resume …
  • … publishing Travels into interior of N. America [Wied-Neuwied 1839–41]— in Geograph Soc …
  • … 1840. Octob & Jan. Papers on Instinct by Flourens [Flourens 1839] (read) Index of Clarkes …
  • … S. Bellamy on Nat. Hist. of S. Devonshire [Bellamy 1839] chiefly on distribution of forms said to be …
  • … at end of Catalogue of Royal Soc. [Royal Society of London 1839]— Meckel’s Anatomy. French …
  • … ed. 1834] read Vol. (2 d ) on Dogs [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6] …
  • … on the Obligations of man to the inferior animals’ [Youatt 1839] discusses their minds. …
  • … by  Hooker . [A. P. de Candolle 1839–40] Jussieus …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … they show for one another’s sensibilities. Early in 1839 the couple set up house in London and at …
  • … and set in type by November 1837, though not published until 1839, when it appeared as the third …
  • … of species” ( Letter to J. S. Henslow, [November 1839] ).   note book, after note …
  • … Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His hopes and fears about married life …
  • … to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). These are not matters that she would …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] Written shortly before their …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27 October 1839] Darwin details his typical …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … races, lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect …
  • … development from the day of his birth, 27 December 1839, until September 1844. Parallels in the …
  • … 1 [9] W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10] During first week. yawned, streatched …
  • …  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . [7]  Correspondence  vol. 2, …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb-building abilities was essential if his theory of natural selection was to be taken seriously, and in the 1850s he carried out his own experiments at his home at Down House in Kent,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … on subjects connected with natural theology  (1839), Brougham commented that bees acted with a …
  • … suppose when we recollect who is her teacher’ (Brougham 1839, 1: 35, 77). William Kirby wrote of the …
  • … no bee in the world ever made cylindrical cells (Brougham 1839, 1: 32). However, Darwin knew that …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious …

Journal of researches

Summary

The Journal of researches, Darwin’s account of his travels round the world in H.M.S. Beagle, was his first published book. The circumstances of its publication were not shaped by Darwin, however, but by the Beagle’s captain, Robert FitzRoy, who, according…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his ship . The Journal of Researches thus began life in 1839 as the third volume of the N …
  • … the time the Narrative was eventually published in May 1839, FitzRoy’s volume showed just how …
  • … with the title Journal of researches as early as August 1839. The speed with which this occurred …

York Minster (Elleparu)

Summary

York Minster was known as Elleparu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. He was captured by FitzRoy in 1830 after one the small boats used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del Fuego had been…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London  (1839) pt 1: 39-81. [ Shorter publications , pp.  50 …
  • … Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London  9 (1839): 528-9.  [ Shorter publications , …

Fuegia Basket (Yokcushlu)

Summary

Fuegia Basket was known as Yokcushlu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. She was one of the hostages seized by Robert FitzRoy, after the small boat used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Jemmy Button (Orundellico)

Summary

Jemmy Button was known as Orundellico among the Yahgan, or canoe people of the southern part of Tierra del Fuego.  He was the fourth hostage taken by FitzRoy in 1830 following the theft of the small surveying boat. This fourteen-year old boy was called…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Darwin in letters, 1821-1836: Childhood to the Beagle voyage

Summary

Darwin's first known letters were written when he was twelve. They continue through school-days at Shrewsbury, two years as a medical student at Edinburgh University, the undergraduate years at Cambridge, and the of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … until FitzRoy completed his volume of the Narrative  in 1839. London scientific society …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle in 1831 Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington died in 1861 reportedly 47 years old, so he would have been 17; although if he was the Simon Covington born in Bedford on 30 January 1809,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … employ, paying him extra for secretarial duties. In January 1839 CD married his cousin, Emma …

Journal of Researches published

Summary

Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a great success. It appeared as the third volume of the Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, with the title Journal and remarks but…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Darwin's works in letters

Summary

To celebrate Darwin's 210th birthday, we present a new section on Darwin's works in letters, featuring Journal of researches, Living and fossil cirripedia, Descent of man, and Expression of emotions. And here is a song with lyrics based on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the hidden life of: Journal of researches (1839; better known as The voyage of the …

Marriage

Summary

Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 November 1838, describing it as the 'day of days!'.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written …

Alexander Burns Usborne

Summary

Alexander Burns Usborne was born in Kendal, Westmorland, in 1808, the son of Alexander and Margaret Usborne; his father died in 1818 and in his will was described as the purser on HMS Hannibal. His son joined the navy in 1825 aged 16 as a second-class…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … coast of Australia is named after him. However in May 1839 he was so badly injured when a musket …
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