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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To Asa Gray   2 January [1863]

Summary

Thanks AG for Cypripedium and Mitchella.

Plans to investigate pollination of Cypripedium.

Has finished Linum paper [Collected papers 2: 93–105].

Would welcome facts on "bud-variations".

Hears that Cinchona is dimorphic.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  2 Jan [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (56)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3897

Matches: 23 hits

  • … 1862 and 9 December 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10). CD reported feeling unwell in …
  • … late December 1862 (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, [21 December …
  • … him very uncomf—’. See Correspondence vol.  10, letters from Asa Gray, 24 November 1862  …
  • … steamer Africa (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 9 December 1862 , and …
  • … of 15 July [1862] ( Correspondence vol.  10). CD’s experimental notes on M.  repens , made …
  • … the previous year (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter to Asa Gray, 6 November [1862] ). …
  • … pp.  274–5. See Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 17 November 1862 , letter …
  • … December 1861] , and Correspondence vol.  10, letter to Asa Gray, 15 March [1862] ). His …
  • … of the Rubiaceae (see Correspondence vol.  10, letters to G.  H.  K.  Thwaites, 15 June [ …
  • … Dana, 4 December 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10). In 1859, James Dwight Dana had suffered …
  • … stamps for Leonard’s collection (see, for example, Correspondence vol.  10, letter to …
  • … Asa Gray, 10–20 June [1862] , and letter from Asa Gray, 2–3 July 1862 ). …
  • … of 24 November 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10) had been sent using a ‘peculiar stamp … for …
  • … in October 1862 (see Correspondence vol.  10, Appendix II), he had twice asked Gray about …
  • … been cultivated (see Correspondence vol.  10, letters to Asa Gray, 23 November [1862] and …
  • … of 29 December 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10), which CD received later in January. CD …
  • … 25 November 1862] ( Correspondence vol.  10), and the annotated articles on strawberries …
  • … December 1862 (see Correspondence vol.  10, Appendix II), soliciting examples from several …
  • … Falconer (see Correspondence vols.  9 and 10). Joseph Dalton Hooker had been working on …
  • … 1861] and n.  4, and Correspondence vol.  10, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 20 August  …
  • … D.  Hooker 1863a). See Correspondence vol.  10, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, [21 December …
  • … Francis Boott (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 24 November 1862 ). …
  • … at Down House (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter to J.  D. Hooker, 24 December [1862] ). …

To Asa Gray   19 January [1863]

Summary

Comments on his own review of Bates’s butterfly paper [Collected papers 2: 87–92].

Thanks AG for information on Platanthera.

Has been wasting more time with Melastomataceae; can find no nectar in Monochaetum; is there any in Rhexia?

Hopes Lincoln’s "fiat against Slavery" will have some effect.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  19 Jan [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (57)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3927

Matches: 10 hits

  • … letter from Asa Gray, 29 December 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10). Letter from Asa Gray, …
  • … 29 December 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10). See …
  • … Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 29 December 1862 , and letter to Asa Gray, …
  • … of Learned Societies. 20 vols. , index, and 10 supplements. New York: Charles Scribner’s …
  • … 100). A.  Gray 1862b. A.  Gray 1862a and 1862b. See Correspondence vol.  10, letter from …
  • … Asa Gray, 10 November 1862 , and letter to Asa Gray, 26[–7] November [1862] . Sprengel  …
  • … 29 December 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10). CD completed his paper, ‘Two forms in species …
  • … to Asa Gray, 2 January [1863] and nn.  9 and 10. CD was interested in what he considered …
  • … 1863] and n.  22). See Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 4 August 1862  and …
  • … Infantry ( DAB ; see Correspondence vol.  10, letters from Asa Gray, 5 September 1862 and …

From Asa Gray   [10–16] June [1863]

Summary

Possible dimorphism in Phlox.

Knows of no U. S. law prohibiting marriage of cousins.

Gives references to papers on phyllotaxy.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [10–16] June [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 136
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4198

Matches: 4 hits

  • … From Asa Gray   [10–16] June [1863] …
  • … DAR 165: 136 Asa Gray Cambridge Mass. [10–16] June [1863] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … of Learned Societies. 20 vols. , index, and 10 supplements. New York: Charles Scribner’s …
  • … it was therefore probably written between 10 and 16 June 1863. See letter to Asa Gray, 20  …

To Asa Gray   20 March [1863]

Summary

Discusses the meaning of C. K. Sprengel’s term "dichogamy". Dichogamous plants are functionally monoecious; Primula is functionally dioecious.

Reports Hermann Crüger’s observations of Cattleya and of bees pollinating Catasetum. Crüger will observe Melastomataceae.

Has built a hothouse.

Fears Amsinckia cannot be dimorphic.

Ill health slows his work on Variation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  20 Mar [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (58)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4053

Matches: 9 hits

  • … he never read them (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 29 [December  …
  • … summer of 1862 (see Correspondence vol.  10). The reference is to a stamp issued by the …
  • … vol.  9, letter from Asa Gray, 11 October 1861 , and Correspondence vol.  10, letters to …
  • … Asa Gray, 10–20 June [1862] and 26[–7] November [1862], and letters from Asa Gray, 18–19  …
  • … A.  Gray 1861a. See Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 29 December 1862 . The …
  • … 26[–7] November [1862] ( Correspondence vol.  10), CD objected to Gray’s use of the term ‘ …
  • … 29 December 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10), Gray drew on CD’s account of the functional …
  • … on the species (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter to Asa Gray, 15 March [1862] , and …
  • … crossing experiments (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 9 December 1862 , …

To Asa Gray   26 June [1863]

Summary

Thanks AG for references about phyllotaxy

and information on marriage laws.

Has been looking for dimorphism in Phlox and Euonymus.

Has observed the irritability of tendrils of Echinocystis with great interest. Was also struck by the rotating movements of the leading shoots, which he proposes to investigate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  26 June [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (82)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4222

Matches: 5 hits

  • … 26 May 1863 . Letters from Asa Gray, 26 May 1863 and [10–16] June [1863]. Joseph Dalton …
  • … Hooker. See letter from Asa Gray, [10–16] June [1863] and n.  2. CD refers to his work on …
  • … of correspondents and published sources. See letter from Asa Gray, [10–16] June [1863] . …
  • … See letter from Asa Gray, [10–16] June [1863] and n.  13. CD refers to his letter to Gray …
  • … 19 June [1863] . See letter from Asa Gray, [10–16] June [1863] and n.  4. There are …

To Asa Gray   11 May [1863]

Summary

CD despairs when men like AG and Lyell consider themselves incapable of judging on change of species by descent.

Is confused over phyllotaxy.

Has been looking at Plantago lanceolata.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  11 May [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (59)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4153

Matches: 6 hits

  • … 1863] . In DAR 51: A30 there is a note, dated 10 May 1863, in which CD declared himself ‘ …
  • … to J.  D.  Hooker, [ 9 May 1863] and n.  10, and memorandum from G.  H.  Darwin, [before …
  • … Peirce 1849 ). See letter from Asa Gray, [10–16] June [1863] . According to Emma Darwin’s …
  • … since January 1862 (see Correspondence vol.  10). Horace is referred to as the ‘Natural …
  • … of natural selection (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter to Asa Gray, [3–]4 September [ …
  • … still closed (see Correspondence vol.   10, letter to Asa Gray, 26[–7] November [1862] , …

From Asa Gray   7 July 1863

Summary

Has extracted CD’s Linum paper [Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 36 (1863): 279–84].

Elaborate co-adaptations of orchids and insects demonstrate against "chance blows", whether few, as Oswald Heer would have, or many and slight as CD proposes.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 July 1863
Classmark:  DAR 165: 127, 137
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4234

Matches: 4 hits

  • … pp.  293–4. See also Correspondence vol.  10, letter to Asa Gray, 26[–7] November [1862] …
  • … of Learned Societies. 20 vols. , index, and 10 supplements. New York: Charles Scribner’s …
  • … design in nature, see Correspondence vols.  8–10. See also Dupree 1959 . The relative was …
  • … years (see Correspondence vols.  9 and 10). The reference is to small, unopening flowers …

From Asa Gray   27 January 1863

Summary

Discusses the ill-will between England and U. S.

Considers the bases for deciding which plant species are "high" and which "low".

Comments on Alphonse de Candolle’s paper on oaks ["Étude sur l’espèce", Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.) 4th ser. 18 (1862): 59–110].

Encloses S. H. Scudder’s letter on Lepidoptera and fertilisation of orchids which identifies a butterfly with Platanthera pollinia adhering to it. Jokingly applies natural selection to butterflies acted on by orchid pollinia.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 Jan 1863
Classmark:  DAR 165: 129, 130
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3950

Matches: 4 hits

  • … to CD of 29 December 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10). Gray enclosed an additional note. …
  • … See n.  10, above. …
  • … 29 December 1862 (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 29 December 1862 ). …
  • … owing to its size (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 29 December 1862 ). …

From Asa Gray   21 July 1863

Summary

Gives some observations on Drosera.

Comments on Richard Owen’s "transmutation theory" in his aye-aye paper [Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 5 (1866): 33–101].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 July 1863
Classmark:  DAR 165: 128, 138
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4248

Matches: 4 hits

  • … the majority of the rioters were immigrants from Ireland ( McPherson 1988 , pp.  609–10). …
  • … to J.  D.  Hooker, 6 July 1863  and n.  10. The reference is to Wyman 1862 (see Bentham  …
  • … caerulea in 1862 (see Correspondence vol.  10). The reference is to Jonathan Swift’s …
  • … Drosera rotundifolia (see Correspondence vols.  8–10). CD had also corresponded with Gray …

To Asa Gray   4 August [1863]

Summary

Anticipated AG’s attitude on design in orchids. Does he not think that the variations that gave rise to fancy pigeon varieties were accidental?

Has been working hard at Lythrum

and spontaneous movements of tendrils.

Defends Drosera as a "sagacious animal" but does not know whether he will ever publish on it.

Comments on political situation in U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  4 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (83)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4262

Matches: 5 hits

  • … the riots resulted in the deaths of at least 105 people ( McPherson 1988 , pp.  609–10). …
  • … of the Linnean Society of London ( Botany ) 10 (1869): 393–437. Insectivorous plants. By …
  • … 1: 3– 14; see also Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Edouard Claparède, 6 September  …
  • … 27 October 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10). Like Lythrum salicaria , Nesaea verticillata , …
  • … rotundifolia (see Correspondence vols.  8–10). Insectivorous plants , in which CD reported …

To Asa Gray   23 February [1863]

Summary

Recommends Lyell’s book [Antiquity of man (1863)].

Quotes praise of AG’s pamphlet [see 2938].

Comments on U. S. politics.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  23 Feb [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (55)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4006

Matches: 5 hits

  • … 29 December 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10). CD refers to John Scott at the Royal Botanic …
  • … Appendix III). See also Correspondence vol.  10, letter to Asa Gray, 15 March [1862] . In …
  • … 1863a, pp.  454–70). See Correspondence vol.  10, letters from Asa Gray, 4 and 13 October  …
  • … 1977 ; see also Correspondence vols.  9 and 10. CD refers to John Elliot Cairnes’s book, …
  • … against slavery’ (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter to Asa Gray, 16 October [1862] ). …

To Asa Gray   20 April [1863]

Summary

Fears England and U. S. will drift into war; he and AG must "keep to Science".

Thanks for facts on Incas; regrets he has always avoided the case of man.

Has sent his Linum paper [Collected papers 2: 93–105].

Is it true that Ohio has legislated against marriage of cousins?

Can AG explain the invariable angles in phyllotaxy; are they the consequence of packing in the early bud?

Owen’s comments on heterogeny in the Athenæum [28 Mar 1863] have vexed W. B. Carpenter; CD has replied [Collected papers 2: 78–80].

Hopes AG will observe Gymnadenia; John Scott has been experimenting on its fertilisation.

Gives his observation on pollination of Cypripedium.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  20 Apr [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (51)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4110

Matches: 4 hits

  • … had not thought of ‘insects crawling into flower’ (see Correspondence vol.  10, letters to …
  • … Asa Gray, 10–20 June [1862] and this volume, letter to Asa Gray, 2 January [1863] and n.   …
  • … a mere fable’. See letter from Asa Gray, [10–16] June [1863] . A.  Gray 1857, pp.  72–5. …
  • … in Gymnadenia (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 22  September 1862  and …

From Asa Gray   11 April 1863

Summary

The war is nearly finished, "rebeldom is ""gone up"" ".

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Apr 1863
Classmark:  DAR 165: 132
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4081

Matches: 2 hits

  • … topic to Hooker (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, [14 December  …
  • … 31 December 1861 , and Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, [late June 1862] . …

To Asa Gray   31 May [1863]

Summary

AG’s review of Alphonse de Candolle’s paper [Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 35 (1863): 430–44] is excellent.

Does not AG consider that orchids oppose Oswald Heer’s view that species arise suddenly by monstrosities?

Infers that AG cannot explain the angles of phyllotaxy; has been looking at Carl Nägeli on the subject.

Reports Gaston de Saporta’s belief that natural selection will ultimately triumph in France.

Is working slowly at Variation.

Reports his observations on the imperfect flowers of Viola and Oxalis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  31 May [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (84)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4196

Matches: 4 hits

  • … of December 1862 (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 9 December 1862 , and …
  • … 11 October 1861 , and Correspondence vol.  10, letters to Asa Gray, 9 August [1862] and 6  …
  • … to J.  D.  Hooker, [9 May 1863] and n.  10, and 29 May [1863] and n.  12, and letter from …
  • … 26[–7] November [1862] ( Correspondence vol.  10). There is a series of experimental notes …

From Asa Gray   22–30 March 1863

Summary

Discusses the Duke of Argyll’s article on the supernatural [Edinburgh Rev. 116 (1862): 378–97].

Has heard that the Incas married their sisters; this may be worth investigating as a case of inbreeding.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22–30 Mar 1863
Classmark:  DAR 165: 131
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4056

Matches: 3 hits

  • … almost all about mimetic analogy,—8 or 10 pages. My only fear is Silliman will demur to …
  • … 23 November [1862] ( Correspondence vol.  10), saying that while it was ‘clever’, it did …
  • … p.  97). See also Correspondence vol.  10, letter to Asa Gray, 26[–7] November [1862] . CD …

From Asa Gray   20 April 1863

Summary

AG’s opinion of Lyell’s Antiquity of man.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Apr 1863
Classmark:  DAR 165: 134
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4112

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 24 November 1862 ( Correspondence vol.  10). Gray and CD had long debated the existence of …
  • … nature (see Correspondence vols.  8, 9, and 10; see also A.  Gray 1861). Gray had already …
  • … to special design ’ (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 4 and 13 October …

From Asa Gray   26 May 1863

Summary

Discusses recent correspondence in the Athenæum: the disagreement between Lyell and Hugh Falconer and Owen’s remarks on heterogeny [see 4110].

Briefly discusses orchids and some problems in phyllotaxy.

Mentions the political situation and the quarrelsome behaviour of the English.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 May 1863
Classmark:  DAR 165: 135
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4186

Matches: 4 hits

  • … in December 1862 (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Asa Gray, 9 December 1862 ). …
  • … s head or back (A.  Gray 1862a, p.  428). See also Correspondence vol.  10, letters to …
  • … Asa Gray, 10–20 June [1862] and n.  16, and 26[–7] November [1862]. In the letter to Asa …
  • … occasions in 1862 (see Correspondence vol.  10), and Gray published his observations in …

From Asa Gray   1 September 1863

Summary

Sees difficulties in adhering to the concept of design in nature.

Is surprised at Hooker’s and Daniel Oliver’s ignorance regarding spontaneous movements of tendrils.

CD should continue his work on climbing plants, "it will be fruitful in your hands".

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Sept 1863
Classmark:  DAR 157.2: 108; DAR 165: 139, 140
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4288

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of Learned Societies. 20 vols. , index, and 10 supplements. New York: Charles Scribner’s …
  • … letter to Asa Gray, 4 August [1863] and nn.  10 and 11. See letter to Asa Gray, 4 August [ …

From Asa Gray   23 November 1863

Summary

CD’s poor health.

Agassiz’s attempt to do away with Darwinism.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Nov 1863
Classmark:  DAR 165: 141
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4346

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Daily Advertiser (see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from Francis Boott, 26 December …
  • … Lord Brougham on America’, Spectator , 10 October 1863, pp.  2596–7. The article examined …

From Asa Gray to J. D. Hooker   6 July 1863

Summary

Includes comments about George Bentham’s anniversary address to the Linnean Society with particular notice of the favourable attention to Darwin, except for Natural Selection, and to AG’s essay in the Atlantic Monthly.

He defends [W. B.] Carpenter and [Jeffries] Wyman against [Richard] Owen.

Gossip about scientific honours and other matters.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  6 July 1863
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Asa Gray correspondence: 328–9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4232F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … I think; but few do. The caution, in p.  10, is well enough. But few, I imagine, fit to …
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Darwin, C. R. (19)
Hooker, J. D. (1)
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Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … given it up by early July ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, [10 July 1865] ). In July, he …
  • … finished hearing it read aloud ( letter to Fritz Müller, 10 August [1865] ). Over the next few …
  • … ( see letter from Fritz Müller, [12 and 31 August, and 10 October 1865] ; since it is impossible …
  • … similarly coloured varieties (see  Correspondence  vol. 10, letter to John Scott, 19 November …
  • … ‘industry & ability’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [10 March 1865] ). Scott took these …
  • … of transmutation to humans (see  Correspondence  vol. 10, letter from J. H. Balfour, 14 January …
  • … ( Correspondence vol. 11, letter from J. D. Hooker, 10 June 1863 ). However, probably …
  • … Cresy, 7 September [1865] , and letter from Edward Cresy, 10 September 1865 ). Francis and …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Bowker, J.H. [10 Dec 1867] [Cape of Good Hope (South …
  • … Gray, Asa 10 & 14 March [1871] Cambridge, …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. [10 Dec 1867] Bedford, Cape of Good …

Schools Gallery: Using Darwin’s letters in the classroom

Summary

English| History| Science  English Pupils in Cumbria lead the way Year 9 English pupils at Ulverston Victoria High School spent several weeks studying Darwin’s letters, including comparing sections from Darwin’s ‘Voyage of the Beagle’ to letters…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1174 - Charles Darwin to Joseph Dalton Hooker, 10 May 1848 …
  • … ideas Using a ‘pass the bomb’ technique, Year 10 History pupils at Bideford College in …
  • … Science Roast beef and urine Year 10 pupils at Hitchin Girls School were …

Was Darwin an ecologist?

Summary

One of the most fascinating aspects of Charles Darwin’s correspondence is the extent to which the experiments he performed at his home in Down, in the English county of Kent, seem to prefigure modern scientific work in ecology.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … to me.— Charles Darwin to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1866] .  The ‘hard …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … however, continued to be raised in various ways. On 10 January, Charles O’Shaughnessy , an Irish …
  • … them to such extent?’ enthused Hermann Hoffmann on 10 January , while on 23 June, Auguste Forel …
  • … of plant digestion further, had already reported on 10 January that he had confirmed the ‘more …
  • … Caroline home, they had experienced a further calamity. On 10 May, William suffered serious …
  • … mentioned his oldest daughter Annie, who died at the age of 10 in 1851, but William, who was 11 …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of coffee to two cups a day, since coffee, with the ‘10 drops of Muriatic acid twice a day (with …
  • … the chemistry go on better’ ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). Darwin began …
  • … you are in for it’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [  c . 10 May 1866] ). Henrietta’s letter …
  • … know how to begin’ ( letter to Fritz Müller, [before 10 December 1866] ). The intrusion of …
  • … other German states and Austria in June and July. Writing on 10 May from Württemberg, one of the …

Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no naturalist …
  • … eaten have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … (see  Correspondence  vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] ). In the same letter …
  • … had been published in 1862 (see  Correspondence  vol. 10). He sent a copy to Asa Gray to review in …
  • … of species, when crossed’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 10 [January 1863] ). He reminded Huxley again …
  • … Verbascum  and  Zea  (see  Correspondence vol. 10, Appendix VI). However, when  Evidence as …
  • … other acquired differences’ (see  Correspondence  vol. 10, Appendix VI). In addition to crossing …
  • … orchid genus  Acropera  (see  Correspondence  vol. 10). Their 1863 letters reveal Darwin’s …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … vol. 22, letters from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 and 10 July 1874 ). ‘I am astounded & …
  • … the process of writing and revising at all satisfying. On 10 February he complained to Hooker : …
  • … objectless & all being vanity of vanities,’ he wrote on 10 February . ‘But this will wear …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 12 hits

  • … you sent me as well as I could. DARWIN:  10   My dear Dr Gray. I really hardly know …
  • … Hooker is younger than Darwin and Gray by about 10 years. Like Gray, he is a professional botanist …
  • … right when he said the whole subject would be forgotten in 10 years. But now that I hear you will …
  • … a lesser degree ‘Blood’s One Penny Envelope, 1, 3, and 10 cents’. If you will make him this present, …
  • … HOOKER:   208   We had a horrid scare 10 days ago, in the form of a Telegram from ‘Nature’ to …
  • … XVII, 1882 4  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 10 MAY 1848 5  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER …
  • … 9  A GRAY TO C DARWIN, 22 MAY 1855 10  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 24 AUGUST 1855 …
  • … JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 72  A GRAY TO C DARWIN, 10 JANUARY 1860 73  C DARWIN TO …
  • … A GRAY, 21 JULY 1861 120 A GRAY TO JD HOOKER, 10 JUNE 1861 121  A GRAY TO C …
  • … 18 FEBRUARY 1862 129  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 10 MARCH 1862 130  C DARWIN …
  • … 23 NOVEMBER 1862 136  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 10–20 JUNE 1862 137  A GRAY TO …
  • … AND 26 JANUARY 1862 142  A GRAY TO C DARWIN, 10 NOVEMBER 1862 143  A …

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … form’, namely those of embryology ( letter to Asa Gray, 10 September [1860] ). Only his theory, he …
  • … with other animals’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] )— he and others were well aware …
  • … views.—’ ( letter from J. S. Henslow to J. D. Hooker, 10 May 1860 ). What worried Darwin most …
  • … serve a purpose in Britain. He immediately wrote to Gray on 10 September after studying the first …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 31 hits

  • … Marcel de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] good to trace Europ. …
  • … on wheat [Le Couteur 1836] Bechstein on Caged Birds. 10 s  6 d . translated by Rennie …
  • … Soc read Prichards. Nat: History of Man. Bailliere. 1.10 [Prichard 1843]  must be studied . …
  • … Des ). De leur Anatomie, Reproduction et Culture. 4to. Avec 10 planches. Amsterdam, 1768. 12 s . …
  • … G. Browne 1799]— well skimmed 1839 Jan 10 All life of W. Scott [Lockhart 1837–8] …
  • … Voyage of Kolff to the Molucca Sea [Kolff 1840] 10 th  Surville-Marion [Crozet 1783]. …
  • … 1839]. References at end. chiefly on instincts 10 th . Blackwalls Researches in Zoology …
  • … 1839–40]. references at end.— Maer  (June 10 to Nov. 14. 1840) Smellies Buffon 3 d …
  • … Hilaire: [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1841] d[itt]o: 10 th  Journal de Phys. [ Observations …
  • … [Lyman 1781] [DAR 119: 10b] Dec. 10 th  The Hour & Man. H. Martineau [H. …
  • … Dog [C. H. Smith 1839–40] 2 d . vol. d[itt]o Nov. 10 th  Sprengel. Endeckte Geheimniss. …
  • … Nat. Lib. vol 14 [Waterhouse 1841] Marked—— 10 th  Veterinary [ Veterinarian ] 1828 Vol 1 …
  • … & Mary. & Anne [Smollett 1805].— 1842 Jan 10 M rs  Hamilton Grays Etruria [E …
  • … Royle Prod. Resources of India [Royle 1840] abst June 10 th  Miller’s old Red Sandstone [H. …
  • … Clarendons History [Hyde 1704]. 1843 Jan 10. Last Vol of Clarendons History [Hyde …
  • … 26 Hinds Regions of Vegetation [Hinds 1843]. June 10 th . Linnæan Trans. [ Transactions of …
  • … 3. vols. [Bradley 1724] (nothing) scarcely —— 10 Johnson’s Field Sports of India [D. Johnson …
  • … or Geograph. Distrib:” [Gérard 1844–5] Dec. 10 Ray. Society. Vol I. Reports [Ray Society 1845 …
  • … French in Algiers [Lamping 1845] 1846 Jan 10 th  Mackintosh life of More …
  • … St. Lecons de Morph. Bot. [Saint-Hilaire 1841] April 10 Wagners Anatomy by Tulk [Wagner 1845] …
  • … of Ægyptians [J. G. Wilkinson 1837–41].— April 10 3 d  vol of d[itt]o W. Scotts Life …
  • … May 5. Ray’s Memorials of [Ray 1846] —— 10 th  The Falcon Family [Savage] 1845] 27 …
  • … Misc. Works. 3 vols: [Mackintosh 1846] Aug 10. Appendix to Carlyle’s Cromwell [Carlyle 1845]. …
  • … Travels in Brazil [Gardner 1846]. —— 10 th  D r . Joseph Adams. Philosoph. Treatise on …
  • … Miller First Impressions of England [H. Miller 1847]. Nov. 10 Prichard Physical Researches. Hist. of …
  • … et d'Histoire   Naturelle de Genève ]. Tom I to 10. —— Annales du Museum [ Annales …
  • … W. Tone Autobiography [Tone 1826] very amusing March 10 John Galt Autobiography [Galt 1833] …
  • … Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] —— 10 Neander’s Life of St Bernard [Neander 1843] …
  • … Miller Footsteps of the Creator [H. Miller 1849] Dec. 10. Dana’s Geology. U.S. Expedition [J. …
  • … to 1837. & thence I have read in Journals June 10 th  Goulds Birds of Australia [Gould …
  • … . Feb. 1. Emigrants Manual [Burton 1851] March 10 th  Hind’s Solar System [Hind 1852 …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb-building abilities was essential if his theory of natural selection was to be taken seriously, and in the 1850s he carried out his own experiments at his home at Down House in Kent,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … her power of reaching.’ (Letter from G. R. Waterhouse, 10 February 1858 .) By now not only …
  • … a letter from Edward Cresy (letter from Edward Cresy, 10 September 1865 ), in which Cresy sent as …

Darwin in letters, 1867: A civilised dispute

Summary

Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (Variation). The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … into a scientific book’ ( letter to Charles Kingsley, 10 June [1867] ). With respect to …
  • … of the hostile kind’ ( letter to Charles Kingsley, 10 June [1867] ). Kingsley himself had remarked …
  • … beaks shorter than average’ ( letter to Charles Kingsley, 10 June [1867] ). Typically, …
  • … letters about  Variation . Darwin wrote to Carus on 10 December , informing him of errors …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … had tried, indirectly, to influence him. He told Hooker: 10 Do see Falconer & …
  • … , and letter to Charles Lyell, 18 April [1863 ]. 10. Correspondence vol. 11, …
  • … 19. See letter from J. D. Hooker, 2 May 1865 and n. 10. 20. See the second enclosure …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 3 hits

  • … for penalties of Cruelty to Animals Act. “ 10. —Penalty on licensed persons …
  • … otherwise than according to this Act. 10.—Any person holding a licence under this Act …
  • … and restrictions contained in sections numbered 8, 9, 10, 11, of the said act. (Signed) …

Frank Chance

Summary

The Darwin archive not only contains letters, manuscript material, photographs, books and articles but also all sorts of small, dry specimens, mostly enclosed with letters. Many of these enclosures have become separated from the letters or lost altogether,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … from his eldest son William’s house near Southampton on 10 August [1873] . William had followed …

Expression

Summary

Darwin's interest in emotional expression can be traced as far back as the Beagle voyage. He was fascinated by the different sounds and gestures among the peoples of Tierra del Fuego, and on his return from the voyage he started recording observations…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of observations on their behaviour: one ' about the age of 10 months when put upon a soft …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … `in another world’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart,  10 January 1872 ).  Darwin, determined to have …
  • … doubted he would ever use it ( letter to C. L. Dodgson, 10 December 1872 ). Darwin …

Darwin's notes for his physician, 1865

Summary

On 20 May 1865, Emma Darwin recorded in her diary that John Chapman, a prominent London publisher who had studied medicine in London and Paris in the early 1840s, visited Down to consult with Darwin about his ill health. In 1863 Chapman started to treat…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … (see letter from Charles and Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, [10 July 1865]). Darwin’s condition …
  • … D. Fox, 8 December [1863]). In his letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 [November 1863] ( Correspondence …
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