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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To W. D. Fox   2 July [1858]

Summary

Baby [Charles Waring Darwin] died of scarlet fever on 28 June. "Fear has almost driven away grief."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  2 July [1858]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 116)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2300

To W. B. Tegetmeier   4 [July 1858]

Summary

Death in family [Charles Waring Darwin]. Illness of children forces him to leave home and interrupt work on pigeons.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  4 [July 1858]
Classmark:  Yale University: Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (Yale Collection of American Literature: De Forest Family Papers (YCAL MSS 582) Box 2, folder 58, item 82)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2301

To Asa Gray   4 July 1858

Summary

Believes that, in Dicentra, Fumaria and Corydalis, flower structures are related directly to visits from bees. Flower stigmas generally are placed in the path of bees.

Has received paper from Wallace on natural selection; has sent abstract of his notions, with Wallace’s paper, to Linnean Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  4 July 1858
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (20)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2302

To J. D. Hooker   5 July [1858]

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Summary

Thanks JDH for his report on the reading of the Wallace and Darwin papers at the Linnean Society [read 1 July 1858; Collected papers 2: 3–19]. Considers how to publish his work. Offers to forward a note from JDH to Wallace.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 July [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 241
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2303

To W. D. Fox   6 July [1858]

Summary

The crisis is abating – no further scarlet fever in the family.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  6 July [1858]
Classmark:  University of British Columbia Library, Rare Books and Special Collections (Pearce/Darwin Fox collection RBSC-ARC-1721-1-73)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2304

To J. D. Hooker   13 [July 1858]

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Summary

JDH’s letter to Wallace perfect. CD’s feelings about priority. Without Lyell’s and JDH’s intervention CD would have given up all claims to Wallace. Now planning 30-page abstract for a journal.

Observations on floral structure

and slave-making ants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  13 [July 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 242
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2306

From J. D. Hooker   13–15 July 1858

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Summary

Sends proofs [of "On the tendency of species to form varieties … ", read 1 July 1858, Collected papers 2: 3–19]. CD could publish his abstract [later the Origin] as a separate supplemental number of [Journal of the Linnean Society].

JDH has studied in detail CD’s manuscript on variable species in large and small genera and concurs with its consequences. Discusses methodological idiosyncrasies of systematists, e.g., Bentham, Robert Brown, and C. C. Babington, which complicate CD’s tabulations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [13 or 15] July 1858
Classmark:  DAR 100: 116–19, 168
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2307

From William Swale   13 July 1858

Summary

Discusses the absence of a native bee in New Zealand and the insects which probably performed its fertilising function [see "Agency of bees in fertilization", Collected papers 2: 21]. Describes the success of the naturalised hive-bee and also the rapid spread of introduced members of the Fabaceae.

Author:  William Swale
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 July 1858
Classmark:  DAR 177: 323 (fragile), DAR 205.4: 79
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2308

To Charles Lyell   18 July [1858]

Summary

Thanks for abstract of Etna paper [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 148 (1858): 703–86]. Never expected to see Élie de Beaumont’s theory ["craters of elevation"] so completely upset. "He must have picked out favourable cases for measurement."

More than satisfied by what was done at Linnean Society [joint reading of CD’s and Wallace’s papers: "Tendency of species to form varieties", Collected papers 2: 3–19]. Intends to prepare longer abstract.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 July [1858]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.155)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2309

To J. D. Hooker   [18 July 1858]

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Summary

Regards from Isle of Wight.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [18 July 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 243
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2310

To J. D. Hooker   21 July [1858]

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Summary

Correcting proof for CD–Wallace paper. Has begun abstract.

Large and small genera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  21 July [1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 244
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2311

To W. D. Fox   21 [July 1858]

Summary

After all, CD is now beginning to prepare an abstract of his species theory. Recounts the events leading to joint paper with A. R. Wallace at Linnean Society. Lyell and Hooker urge strongly that he publish a fuller abstract. It is impossible to do justice to subject in an abstract.

His sister, Marianne Parker, has died.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  21 [July 1858]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 118)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2312

To J. D. Hooker   30 [July 1858]

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Summary

Six children have died of scarlet fever in Down village.

Writing abstract is amusing and improving work. Thanks JDH and Lyell for setting him to it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  30 [July 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 247
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2314

To William Jackson Hooker   [30 July 1858]

Summary

Thanks WJH for an extract on seed transport by sea. [Letter sent with 2314.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Jackson Hooker
Date:  [30 July 1858]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Directors’ Correspondence S. American letters 1852–8, 38: 148)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2315

From J. D. Hooker   31 July 1858

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Summary

The CD–Wallace paper has gone to press.

JDH’s tabulation of variable species from Bentham was done in haste.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 July 1858
Classmark:  DAR 100: 122
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2316
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7 Suffolk St, London

Summary

Recommending Darwin

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Henslow is asked to recommend a naturalist to accompany Fitzroy, and Darwin is invited on the …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin, W.E. [7? April 1868] Southampton, England …
  • … Gaika, Christian 7 July 1867 Bedford [Cape of Good …
  • … Galton, Francis 7 Nov 1872 Rutland Gate, London, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 7 Sept 1872 11 St Mary Abbot' …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … in the shape of an arch ( Movement in plants , pp. 96–7). As usual, staff at the Royal Botanical …
  • … my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later he wrote: …
  • … Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats have only just …
  • … the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s confidence was …
  • … are here & all adoring Bernard’, he wrote to Francis on 7 July . ‘Bernard is very sweet & …
  • … to refuse,’ he wrote to William Spottiswoode on 7 July . Pinker later made a statue of Darwin for …
  • … generations’ ( enclosure to letter to T. H. Farrer, 7 March 1878 ). In the end, the attempt to …
  • … from a person unknown to him. The benefactor wrote on 7 December : ‘I consider that you, more …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin was ready to …
  • … folly & nonsense to try anyone’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). He particularly …
  • … to his publisher, John Murray, ‘Of present book I have 7 chapters ready for press & all others …
  • … bear the expense of the woodcuts ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). After sending the …
  • … and Darwin summarised them in  Variation  2: 106–7, concluding, ‘it follows from Mr. Scott’s …
  • … of real improvement in health’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). All the children …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin and his correspondents. First note [after 7 April 1838][1] Work finished …
  • … near Regents Park—keep horse—take Summer tours Collect[7] specimens some line of Zoolog: …
  • … on the three blank pages of the letter from Leonard Horner, 7 April [1838]. [2] Presumably CD …

British Association meeting 1860

Summary

Several letters refer to events at the British Association for the Advancement of Science held in Oxford, 26 June – 3 July 1860. Darwin had planned to attend the meeting but in the end was unable to. The most famous incident of the meeting was the verbal…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and Thomas Henry Huxley that occurred during the Saturday, 7 July, meeting of Section D (zoology and …
  • … preceded by their precise attribution. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, p. 19: Introduction to the …
  • … uncommonly lively during the week. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, pp. 25–6: Thursday session of …

Frank Chance

Summary

The Darwin archive not only contains letters, manuscript material, photographs, books and articles but also all sorts of small, dry specimens, mostly enclosed with letters. Many of these enclosures have become separated from the letters or lost altogether,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in 1873, a discovery was made.  This letter 31 July–7 August 1873 also tackled the issue of hair …
  • … \quite white\ (Letter from Frank Chance, 31 July–7 August 1873 ) The pony hair …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, & if he …
  • … can make several parts clearer,’ Darwin reiterated on 7 November , ‘I believe (though I hope I am …
  • … ancestry. ‘You know better than anybody’, he wrote on 7 January , ‘how infinitely great is the …
  • … the Duke of Wellington on art (Max Müller 1875, pp. 305–7). The debate between Max Müller and …
  • … Down with Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It was Thiselton-Dyer …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … the public in this way ( see letter from J. D. Hooker, [7 May 1863] , and Appendix VII). He also …
  • … [1863] , and letter from Julius von Haast, 21 July [–7? August] 1863 ). Darwin was subsequently …
  • … paper with satisfaction ( see letter to John Scott, 7 November [1863] ). Scott had referred …
  • … he could send him to the war ( see letter from Asa Gray, 7 July 1863 ). Darwin shared this letter …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … (1) Asher, G. M. (7) Ashley, Miss (1 …
  • … (4) Aubertin, J. J. (7) Aussant-Carà, Paul …
  • … (1) Aveling, E. B. (7) Axon, W. E. A. …
  • … (16) Balfour, J. H. (7) Ball, John …
  • … (36) Baxter, William (7) Baynes, H. M. …
  • … (1) Blair, R. A. (7) Blair, R. H. (4 …
  • … (3) Boott, Francis (7) Boott, Mary …
  • … (1) Chambers, Robert (7) Chance, Frank …
  • … (3) Clarke, R. T. (7) Clarke, T. W. …
  • … (6) Darwin, V. H. (7) Darwin, Violetta …
  • … (1) Dowie, Annie (7) Down Friendly Society …
  • … (2) Farr, William (7) Farrar, F. W. …
  • … (28) Fitzgerald, R. D. (7) Fitzmaurice, Edmond …
  • … (2) Forel, Auguste (7) Forster, L. M. …
  • … (3) Gordon, George (b) (7) Goschen, G. J. …

Interview with Randal Keynes

Summary

Randal Keynes is a great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and the author of Annie’s Box (Fourth Estate, 2001), which discusses Darwin’s home life, his relationship with his wife and children, and the ways in which these influenced his feelings about…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … nature and religion. Date of interview: 7 August 2008 Transcription …
  • … Randal Keynes: Yes. 7. How, and what, do we know of Darwin's opinions …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read Decandolle Philosophie …
  • … 1835] read Marcel de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] …
  • … de S t  Hilaire 1832 [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1832–7] contains all his fathers views Quoted by …
  • … 3 vols. 8vo. et atlas de 20 planches. ibid, 1832–36. £1 7 s . 25  [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire …
  • … of Agriculture by Loudon [Loudon 1831]. Book I. ch. 7 & Book II. Ch. 8. Book. VII. ch 8, 11. …
  • … Vestiges of Nat: Hist: of Creation. Churchill: 1844. 7 s  ” 6 d . [Chambers] 1844] in which …
  • … Birds of Himalaya [Gould 1834] (& of Europe?) [Gould 1832–7] & of Australia [Gould 1848]; …
  • … Campbells Lives of Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] last vol. Ludlows Memoirs …
  • … 1849] (read) Knox. Ornithological Ramble in Sussex. 7. 6. [A. E. Knox 1849] J. Lubbock has …
  • … Gresly Mem. of Helvetic Soc. of Neuchatel on Jura. 1846, or 7, or 8 [?Marcou 1845]. 46   Morris …
  • … Vol. V of Campbells Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] Lives of the Lindsays [Lindsay 1849] …
  • … Scott’s life [Lockhart 1837–8] 1 st  2 nd  & 7 th  vols. Abercrombie on the …
  • … ] Oct 3 Lavater’s Phisiognomy [Lavater 1806–7] Malthus on Population [Malthus 1826] …
  • … added notes from 2 d  Edit [Holland 1840].— Feb 7 th . Lord Brougham Dissertation …
  • … 1687 to 1766 inclusive, and from beginning to 1674 7 th  Skimmed Burn’s Poems [Burns 1786]. …
  • … Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar ]. Vol 1— to 7. M.S. Translat.— from 1740. 2 d . vol …
  • … S. Romilly’s Memoirs [Romilly 1840]. moderate Feb. 7 th  Sartor Resartus [Carlyle 1834] …
  • … marriage [S. E. Ferrier] 1824 and 1818].— 18 th . 7 th  & 8 th . Vol of Hume’s …
  • … Essays [Bacon 1825–36]— dull, & crabbid style May 7 th  Skimmed a little of Tucker’s …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ‘almost indispensable’ ( letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 ). Darwin welcomed Krause’s …
  • … meet the local celebrity, John Ruskin. Marshall wrote on 7 September that Ruskin, the day after …
  • … dogma’, Mary Jung, a young Austrian woman, wrote on 7 January . ‘When my reason agrees with your …
  • … be an atheist, Darwin told the clergyman John Fordyce on 7 May , ‘It seems to me absurd to doubt …
  • … work in such an outstanding way’, Würtenberger wrote on 7 February , after receiving £100 from …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … as if confessing a murder. DARWIN:   7   January 1844. My dear Hooker. I have been …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … father when he was working (Darwin to his wife Emma,  [7-8 February 1845] ). Although Darwin did …
  • … to break through the trammels.’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox,  7 March [1852] ). A more modern and …
  • … for a game of Billiards’. (Darwin to his son William,  7 July [1859] ). Whole family outings were …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin was clearly impressed by Lewes’s reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote him a lengthy letter …
  • … undergoing vaccination ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 April 1868] ). Francis was also drafted into …
  • … desire to penetrate Truth’ ( letter from Ernest Faivre, 7 April 1868 ). Armand de Quatrefages, who …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … taking a clear position on the transmutation of species. 7 Later, he wrote to Lyell himself, …
  • … 1863a are discussed in Bynum 1984, pp. 154–9. 7. See Correspondence vol. 11, letter …
  • … vol. 11, letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. See Correspondence …
  • … 14, doc. 183–4). 15. Letter from T. H. Huxley, 7 March 1865, in BL MSS ADD 49641. …

Charles Harrison Blackley

Summary

You may not have heard of Charles Harrison Blackley (1820–1900), but if you are one of the 15 million people in the UK who suffer from hay fever, you are indebted to him. For it was he who identified pollen as the cause of the allergy. Darwin was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the upper regions of the atmosphere.  Blackley wrote on 7 July 1873 that his high altitude …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … privilege to offer” ( letter from E. F. Lubbock, [before 7 April 1873] ). Hooker added: “I have …
  • … but he is a deal too sharp” ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [7 April 1873] ). A group of Huxley …
  • … than species are permanent” ( letter from John Farr, 7 July 1873 ). Further thoughts on the …
  • … past memories” ( letter to A. A. L. P. Cochrane, [after 7 June 1873] ). Darwin did accept …

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Darwin's daughter Henrietta kept a diary for a few momentous weeks in 1871. This was the year in which Descent of Man, the most controversial of her father's books after Origin itself, appeared, a book which she had helped him write. The small…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Fordingbridge ( Hampshire Advertiser , 21 January 1871, p. 7). The missions were organised by …
  • … priests ending with a mission meeting in the schoolroom at 7.30 where there was most of the …
  • … the question was the  certainty  of results. 7 Then I emboldened myself to discover m. of …
  • … in the  Hampshire Advertiser , 21 January 1871, p. 7. 4 Probably John Bourdieu …
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