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From Robert Caspary   [after 9 June 1866]

Summary

Data on good and bad pollen-grain yields of different species. Sends sketches of two male Rhamnus catharticus flowers [see Forms of flowers, p. 294].

Author:  Johann Xaver Robert (Robert) Caspary
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 9 June 1866]
Classmark:  DAR 109: A81; DAR 111: B45, B48b, B48c
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10344

From W. E. Darwin   [23 June 1866]

Summary

Ovules of males of two forms [of Rhamnus catharticus?] are abortive and both females have incomplete stamens.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [23 June 1866]
Classmark:  DAR 109: A75
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4962

From W. E. Darwin   [18 June 1866]

Summary

Sends some specimens of three kinds of buckthorn.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [18 June 1866]
Classmark:  DAR 109: A70
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5109

From J. D. Hooker   [2 June 1866]

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Summary

He is not grieved at CD’s omissions of his [JDH’s] work [from Origin, 4th ed.]. It proves nothing – claims only to be illustration of using CD’s methods.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [2 June 1866]
Classmark:  DAR 102: 78
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5110

From Alphonse de Candolle   3 June 1866

Summary

In London for the Botanical Congress; regrets missing CD.

Lyell and CD have mistaken H. Lecoq’s position on glaciers. He has not denied the possibility of a glacial period, only that decreased temperature is needed for their extension.

Recommends F. J. Ruprecht on vegetable detritus in the black earth chernozem of Russia.

Author:  Alphonse de Candolle
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 June 1866
Classmark:  DAR 161: 12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5111

To J. D. Hooker   [4 June 1866]

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Summary

Thanks for Asa Gray’s letter, enclosed.

Knew JDH would not care about omissions but was vexed at his own forgetfulness.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [4 June 1866]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 291
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5112

To William Turner   5 June [1866]

Summary

Thanks for WT’s papers, especially ["The present aspect of the doctrine of cellular pathology", Edinburgh Med. J. 8 (1863): 873–97].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner
Date:  5 June [1866]
Classmark:  DAR 148: 150
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5113

From Thomas Rivers   6 June 1866

Summary

Sends blooms of Cytisus purpureus-elongatus.

Author:  Thomas Rivers
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 June 1866
Classmark:  DAR 176: 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5114

To Thomas Rivers   8 June [1866]

Summary

Examined the Cytisus and forwarded to Caspary. The C. adami case "gets more and more perplexing", asks for report if Cytisus purpureus-elongatus produces any pods.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Rivers
Date:  8 June [1866]
Classmark:  John Wilson (dealer) (Catalogue 63)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5115

From Daniel Oliver   9 June 1866

Summary

Identifies a plant.

CD will not find Hermann Schacht’s Lehrbuch [der Anatomie und Physiologie der Gewächse (1856–9)] at the Linnean Society Library.

Author:  Daniel Oliver
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 June 1866
Classmark:  DAR 173: 32
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5116

From George Henslow   11 June [1866]

Summary

Sends proofs [of "On hybridization among plants", Pop. Sci. Rev. 5 (1866): 304–13].

Regrets delay in returning CD’s books.

Encourages CD to make "disparaging remarks".

Author:  George Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 June [1866]
Classmark:  DAR 166: 161
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5117

To George Henslow   12 June [1866]

Summary

Returns proofs of GH’s paper ["On hybridization among plants", Pop. Sci. Rev. 5 (1866): 304–13] with his criticisms. Prefers that GH not state that CD has read the proofs.

Does C. V. Naudin really say that ovules (not seed) of hybrid Luffa and Cucumis are imperfect?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Henslow
Date:  12 June [1866]
Classmark:  Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5118

To Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli   12 June [1866]

Summary

Comments on CWvN’s Die Entstehung und Begriff [der Naturhistorischen Art (1864)].

Discussion of beauty of flowers in new edition of Origin not based on CWvN’s article.

Comments on CWvN’s argument that flower structures are not due to natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli
Date:  12 June [1866]
Classmark:  DAR 147: 181
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5119

From George Henslow   [13 or 14 June 1866]

Summary

Thanks for criticism of proofs of his paper [see 5117].

Not sure whether CD believes in reversion and would like a positive statement as this is the one point C. V. Naudin especially observed. Naudin offers his remarks on ovules as a matter to be proved ["Nouvelles recherches sur l’hybridité", Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 1 (1865): 25–176].

Author:  George Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [13 or 14] June 1866
Classmark:  DAR 166: 158
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5120

From J. T. Moggridge   14 June [1866]

Summary

Will take earlier train to Down.

Author:  John Traherne Moggridge
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 June [1866]
Classmark:  DAR 171: 208
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5121

To Andrew Crombie Ramsay   15 June [1866]

Summary

Thanks for Geological survey of North Wales [1866]. Longs to return to the mountains with which he was once familiar, but did not understand.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Andrew Crombie Ramsay
Date:  15 June [1866]
Classmark:  DAR 261.9: 8 (EH 88205981)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5123

To George Henslow   15 [June 1866]

Summary

CD believes most strongly in reversion. J. G. Kölreuter’s, K. F. v Gärtner’s, and some of Charles Naudin’s cases leave no doubt in his mind. Forgets whether Herbert gave cases but in conversation he certainly believed in it. Thinks Gärtner is right to say reversion occurs only rarely in plant hybrids which have not been cultivated. [See 5120.]

Variation

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Henslow
Date:  15 [June 1866]
Classmark:  DAR Library: tipped into George Henslow’s copy of Variation
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5123A

From George Maw   18 June 1866

Summary

In response to CD’s request for bud-sports, he sends a piece of a fern-leaved beech.

Author:  George Maw
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 June 1866
Classmark:  DAR 171: 101
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5124

To W. E. Darwin   19 [June 1866]

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Summary

Different forms of flowers of Rhamnus.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  19 [June 1866]
Classmark:  DAR 185: 14
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5125

From George Henslow   19 June 1866

Summary

Has altered paper according to CD’s comments.

Returns books.

Author:  George Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 June 1866
Classmark:  DAR 166: 162
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5126
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Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … animals made him ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later …
  • … old honoured guide & master’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwin …
  • … a fitting opportunity’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 5 [and 6] January [1863] ). …
  • … in the fossil record ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 5 [and 6] January [1863] ). Only until March did …
  • … Dana, 20 February [1863] , and letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). In March, after …
  • … 29 May [1863] , and letter to Hugh Falconer, [25–6 August 1863] ). Sterility and …
  • … [1863] that he had been ‘ordered to do nothing for 6 months’ by his doctors, mentioning that even …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned …
  • … on the outcome ( enclosure to letter from G. H. Darwin, 6 [August] 1874 ): I think you …
  • … & it had been refused’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, [6 or 7 August 1874] ). When the letter was …
  • … to the vomit and ate it ( letter from W. G. Walker, 6 December 1874 ). The Zoological …

Darwin's Fantastical Voyage

Summary

Learn about Darwin's adventures on his epic journey.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … These activities explore Darwin’s life changing voyage aboard HMS Beagle. Using letters home, …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 7 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, …
  • … Index-maker’, Darwin wrote to Joseph Dalton Hooker on 6 January . Darwin had sent the manuscript …
  • … but never fulfilled. He was sent a news clipping on 6 July from the  Maryport Weekly Advertiser …
  • … House of Commons than any assembly in the world’ (from ?, 6 April 1868). On 21 May , Darwin …
  • … The Swiss botanist Alphonse de Candolle described on 6 July the inheritance over eight …
  • … is too short for so long a discussion’, he wrote on 6 April . Yet Wallace continued to press him, …
  • … you as their leader’ ( letter from Gaston de Saporta, 6 September 1868 ). The support …

Natural Selection: the trouble with terminology Part I

Summary

Darwin encountered problems with the term ‘natural selection’ even before Origin appeared.  Everyone from the Harvard botanist Asa Gray to his own publisher came up with objections. Broadly these divided into concerns either that its meaning simply wasn’t…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … confounded ( Charles Darwin to Charles Lyell   6 June [1860 ]) Darwin …
  • … explainer. ( Charles Darwin to Charles Lyell, 6 June [1860]) To Lyell, Darwin …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … (2) Appleton, T. G. (6) Arnold, F. S. …
  • … (15) Bartlett, Edward (6) Bartlett, R. S. …
  • … (1) Boardman, A. F. (6) Boccardo, Gerolamo …
  • … (2) Bonham-Carter, E. M. (6) Bonham-Carter, …
  • … (1) Browne, Walter (6) Brownen, George …
  • … (17) Buckland, William (6) Buckler, William …
  • … (2) Child, G. W. (6) Children, J. G. …
  • … (1) Clarke, W. B. (b) (6) Claus, C. F. …
  • … P. (2) Coe, Henry (6) Coghlan, John …
  • … (2) Crüger, Hermann (6) Cuming, Hugh …
  • … (1) Darwin, Amy (6) Darwin, Anne Eliza …
  • … (47) Darwin, Sara (6) Darwin, V. H. …
  • … (2) Davidson, Thomas (6) Davis, J. E. …
  • … (1) Dear Friend (6) Delage, Yves (1) …
  • … (13) Denny, John (6) Desmarest, Eugène …
  • … (3) Elliot, Walter (6) Elliott & Fry …
  • … (39) Fabre, Jean-Henri (6) Fairfax, Mary …
  • … (9) Galton, E. S. (6) Galton, Erasmus …

Interview with Randal Keynes

Summary

Randal Keynes is a great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and the author of Annie’s Box (Fourth Estate, 2001), which discusses Darwin’s home life, his relationship with his wife and children, and the ways in which these influenced his feelings about…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and [of] all the scientist's colleagues. 6. Darwin's poetic sensibility …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … below, ‘Textual changes made to C. Lyell 1863c’). On 6 February 1863, Antiquity of man (C. Lyell …
  • … over the comparative anatomy of human and ape brains. 6 Many of Lyell’s supporters were …
  • … Lyell, see Bynum 1984 and L. G. Wilson 1996. 6. Owen’s complaints about C. Lyell 1863a …
  • … See Correspondence vol. 11, letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. …
  • … T. H. Huxley, 7 June 1865, Imperial College, Huxley papers 6: 110). For more on the X-club, see …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin’s best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 …
  • … intellectual errors’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 6 January 1872 ). Darwin likened the …
  • … effect on my mind’ ( letter to Chauncey Wright, 6 April 1872 ).  A competing theory on the …
  • … in his `Literary Banquet’ (letters from John Murray, 6 November [1872] and 9 November 1872 ). …

Darwin's life in letters

Summary

For all his working life, Darwin used letters as a way both of discussing ideas and gathering the ‘great quantities of facts’ that he used in developing and supporting his theories. They form a fascinating collection from many hundreds of correspondents,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … with letters. ( Darwin to John Jenner Weir, [6 March 1868] ) For all his working …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also greatly honoured …
  • … book had to go along on the excursion,’ he reported on 6 July , ‘and it did us excellent service. …
  • … laurel in the wreath of your fame ’, Haeckel wrote on 6 June , ‘to have a predecessor in the …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … which Darwin approved ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [5 or 6 August 1874] ), while reiterating his …
  • … and sent a fair copy of his letter with his letter of 6 [August] 1874 . George and Darwin were …
  • … Huxley’s reaction was savage ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [6 December 1874] ). Hooker and Huxley …

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … a paper for the Linnean Society ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 6 October [1862] ). However, it was not …
  • … different translator ( see letter from Edouard Claparède, 6 September 1862 ). In Germany, …
  • … of the human species ( see letter from John Lubbock, 6 January 1862 ). Ramsay’s was not the …
  • … of the pot of life’? ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 6 May 1862 ). In his address, Huxley also …

Darwin & Glen Roy

Summary

Although Darwin was best known for his geological work in South America and other remote Beagle destinations, he made one noteworthy attempt to explain a puzzling feature of British geology.  In 1838, two years after returning from the voyage, he travelled…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Jamieson, 3 September 1861 To Thomas Jamieson, 6 September [1861] To Charles …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … good by D r  L. Lindsay 5 [DAR *119: 1v.] 6 Books to be Read …
  • … [Le Couteur 1836] Bechstein on Caged Birds. 10 s  6 d . translated by Rennie [Bechstein …
  • … de la Geographie des trois Regnes de la nature. Paris. 6: folio par Céran de Lemonier. Bailliere …
  • … Organique dans l’echelle animale, par A. Dugés, 4to. avec 6 planches, ibid, 1832. 6 s . [Dugés …
  • … p. 195) “Boltons Harmonia Ruralis” [Bolton 1794–6]— Yarrell probably has it. account of …
  • … of Carnation. Auricula. Polyanth tulip. Rose. Hyacinth. 6 s . a catalogue of vars. [T. Hogg 1820] …
  • … Edition, with Plates and Woodcuts. Post 8vo., 9 s . 6 d . [Knapp] 1838] Read Gleanings in …
  • … Pœppig Travels in S. America. German [Pöppig 1835–6].— Zoologie Generale. Iside. St Hilaire …
  • … 1809]. Communicat to Board of Agriculture. vol 6 quoted by Youatt on migration of Sheep [Anon …
  • … [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6]// on Horses [C. H. Smith 1841]// Exotic …
  • … Nacht. von einigen Berlin 1763? [Kölreuter 1761–6] Godwins answer to Malthus [Godwin 1820] …
  • … [Etherington 1841–3]. Whittaker 1844. in Parts. cheap. 1.6 a part. 38 Schlegel Essay on …
  • … Darluc. Hist Nat. de la Provence [Darluc 1782–6] 8vo. 1782. Tom I p. 303 to 329 gives account of …
  • … of Nat: Hist: of Creation. Churchill: 1844. 7 s  ” 6 d . [Chambers] 1844] in which species are …
  • … Jussieus introduct to Bot. price 6 s  [Jussieu 1842] [DAR *119: 20v.] …
  • …  40 vols. 12mo. coloured plates, cloth lettered, (pub. at 6 s  per vol.) reduced to 5 s  1834–43 …
  • … 5. Peacocks, Pheasants, &c. [Jardine 1834a] 6. Birds of the Game kind [Jardine 1834b]. …
  • … Ruminating Animals (Deer, Antelopes, &c.) [Jardine 1835–6] 12. Ruminating Animals (Goats, …
  • … of  Vertebrate  animals 54 folio Plates. Maclise 2”12.6. [Maclise 1847] good for woodcuts. (Roy. …
  • … Analysis & theory of the Emotions by G. Ramsay B.M. 6. 6. Black Edin. Longman [Ramsay 1848] …
  • … (read) Knox. Ornithological Ramble in Sussex. 7. 6. [A. E. Knox 1849] J. Lubbock has & …
  • … when out Lisianky’s Voyage round world 1803–6 [Lisyansky 1814]— nothing Lyell’s …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … From the 3 rd edition on, each English edition up to the 6 th (the final one published in …
  • … 1866 5 th English edition published, 1869 6 th English edition published, 1872 …
  • … significant correspondents.   5 th to 6 th edition Proposed …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … I have not laboured in vain’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 6 January [1865] ). Sic transit …
  • … modification of structure’ (G. D. Campbell 1864, pp. 275–6). Campbell argued further that natural …
  • … observations to high scientific account’ (A. Gray 1865–6, pp. 273-4). Darwin had also written to …
  • … to the Anthropologicals?’ ( letter from F. H. Hooker, 6 September [1865] ). Before he returned …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ( Letter from A. A. van Bemmelen and H. J.  Veth, 6 February 1877 ) Dutch …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 2 hits

  • … for demonstration or illustration. “ 6. —Licensed persons to use anasthetics in all …
  • … in all painful experiments when possible. 6.—It shall not be lawful for any person …
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